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Euboia, separated from the mainland of Greece by the narrow Euripus channel, is the second largest Greek island, after Crete. It was an important source of grain and cattle. Euboia's two principal cities, Chalcis and Eretria, both were Ionian settlements from Attica. Their early importance is shown by their numerous colonies in Magna Graecia, Sicily, and Macedonia. In 490 B.C., Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants transported to Persia. It was restored after the Battle of Marathon, but it never regained its former eminence. In 506 B.C., Athens defeated Chalcis, established 4,000 Attic settlers, and reduced the island to dependence. In 446 B.C., when Euboia endeavored to throw off the yoke, it was reduced by Pericles. In the north, the inhabitants of Histiaea were expelled and replaced by settlers. The Athenians recognized its importance, for supplying them with grain and cattle and, because of its proximity to the coast of Attica, for securing their commerce against piracy. In 410 B.C. the island regained its independence. After this Euboia took sides with other leading states, until, after the Battle of Chaeronea, it passed to Philip II of Macedon, and finally to Rome.
Histiaia, NorthEuboea, Greece, c. 267 - 168 B.C.
Histiaia, named after its patron nymph, commanded a strategic position overlooking the narrows leading to the North Euboian Gulf. In the Iliad, Homer describes the surrounding plain as "rich in vines." It was pro-Macedonian during the 3rd century, for which it was attacked in 208 and captured in 199 by a Roman-Pergamene force. The Roman garrison was removed in 194. It appears Histiaia continued to prosper but little is known of its later history. Finds at the site indicate it continued to be inhabited in Roman, Byzantine, and later times.GS85144. Silver tetrobol, BCD Euboia 412 - 413; HGC 4 1524; BMC Central p. 134, 123 var. (trident head below galley); SNG Cop 530 var. (same), Choice gVF, well centered and struck, attractive toning, reverse die wear, light marks, edge bump, weight 2.160 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 180o, Histiaia (near Oreoi, Greece) mint, c. 267 - 168 B.C.; obversehead of nymph Histiaia right, wearing earring and necklace, hair rolled and wreathed in vine; reverse IΣTI−AIEΩN (starting below, ending downward upper left), nymph Histiaia seated right on stern of a galley holding naval standard, ornate apluster, star ornament on hull; ex Art of Money (Portland, OR); $200.00 (€170.00)
Chalkis, Euboia, Greece, c. 290 - 271 B.C.
Khalkís, also Chalkis or Chalcis, is a city in eastern Greece, capital of the Aegean island department of Euboea (Évvoia), on the strait of Evripos near Athens. The ancient city, inhabited by Ionians, was an important commercial and industrial center. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, Khalkís was a base for the establishment of colonies in Macedonia (there giving its name to the peninsula of Chalcidice) and in Sicily. It was successively thereafter an Athenian, a Macedonian, and a Roman possession.GB67799. Bronze AE 14, BCD Euboia 183, Picard Emission 31, SNG Cop 443, SGCV I 2488, VF, some corrosion, weight 1.877 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 270o, Chalkis mint, c. 290 - 271 B.C.; obversehead of Hera facing slightly to right, wearing necklace and diadem decorated with discs and dangling ribbons; reverseeagle flying right, carrying snake in its talons and beak, star above, X−AΛ counterclockwise from lower left; $70.00 (€59.50)
Histiaia, Euboia, Greece, c. 4th - 3rd Century B.C.
Histiaia, named after its patron nymph, commanded a strategic position overlooking the narrows leading to the North Euboian Gulf. In the Iliad, Homer describes the surrounding plain as "rich in vines." In the early 4th century B.C., Histiaia seems to have been largely under the control of Sparta until they joined the Second Athenian Confederacy in 376 - 375. The city appears to have become a member (for the first time) of the reconstituted league of Euboian cities in 340, but its allegiance during most of the 4th century seems to have vacillated between Athens and Macedonia.GB79919. Bronze AE 12, BCD Euboia 455; BMC Central p. 125, 9; SNG Cop 537 var. (control), F, corrosion, pitting, weight 2.325 g, maximum diameter 12.2 mm, die axis 90o, Histiaia (near Oreoi, Greece) mint, c. 4th - 3rd century B.C.; obversehead of nymph Histiaia right, rolled hair, wearing wreath of ivy, pendant earring and necklace; reverse bull standing right, bunch of grapes (control symbol) above, IΣTI below; rare; $50.00 (€42.50)
The Euboian League and Its Coinage (NNM 134)
The Euboian League was in existence for nearly five hundred years (from the fifth century B.C. to the time of the emperor Claudius or later) is referred to definitely only in one passage of Aischines, and in a few inscriptions. The League issued coins enabling us to date its foundation.BK10896. The Euboian League And Its Coinage by W.P. Wallace, The American Numismatic Society, Numismatic Notes and Monographs No. 134, 1956, 180 pages, 16 plates, one copy available; $20.00 (€17.00)
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