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According to Head this type commemorated the cure of a plague at Selinus by the philosopher and physician Empedokles of Akragas. Empedokles stopped the plaque, perhaps malaria, by joining the channels of two streams and clearing the stagnant waters of the surrounding marsh. Apollo, the bringer of plaque, but also a healing god and the father of Asklepios, is battling the plaque with his arrows. The river-god Selinos offers a libation to the healing god for cleansing the waters. The cock is sacred to Asklepios.
Hill notes the engraver's signature is clear on the SNG Lloyd coin from the same dies and on another example in the Bibliothèque National. Unfortunately it is not clear on this coin, thought there are perhaps some traces visible. This engraver also worked at Syracuse and was among the earliest to sign his dies there.SH75667. Silver tetradrachm, SNG Lloyd 1237 (same dies), SNG ANS 699 (same dies), SNG Cop -, EF, nicely centered and struck, uneven toning of obverse at 4:00, weight 17.060 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, Selinunte mint, c. 455 - 409 B.C.; obverse Artemis driving a quadriga right, Apollo standing beside her drawing his bow, a barley ear in exergue; reverse ΣEΛ−INONTI−ON, river-god Selinos standing slightly left, nude, sacrificing from phiale in right hand over a low flaming altar at feet, palm-fronds in left hand, rooster left in front of the altar, selinon leaf in right field above a bull left on a base, tiny signature of the engraver, ΣΩΣIΩN below ground line; rare; SOLD
Leontinoi, Sicily, 430 - 422 B.C.
SH11472. Silver tetradrachm, SNG ANS 257, SNG Munchen 559, aEF, weight 15.659 g, maximum diameter 24.6 mm, die axis 90o, Leontinoi mint, 430 - 422 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo left; reverse LEONTINOY, lion head left with jaw open and tongue protruding, encircled by three barley corns and one laurel leaf; excellent style and strike; SOLD
Galaria, Sicily, c. 460 B.C.
SH21137. Silver litra, Jameson 574, SNG ANS 1, gVF, nice metal, weight 0.734 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Galaria mint, c. 460 B.C.; obverse Σ−OTE−P (P shaped like a K), Zeus Soter (the Savior) seated on throne left, holding eagle-tipped scepter; reverse CAΛ-A, Dionysus standing left, holding kantharos and grape; rare; SOLD
Naxos, Sicily, c. 415 - 403 B.C.
The late fifth century saw an explosion in the quantity and quality of dies engraved for the great cities of Sicily. Among the engravers who signed their works is Prokles, who created dies for both Naxos and Katane, on whose tetradrachms we find his full signature. Though the quality of his work for Katane is equally excellent as it is for Naxos, the quantity of his work at Naxos suggests that this was his home city.SH86583. Silver litra, Cahn Naxos 134 - 137 (also Π on neck, diff. dies); SNG Cop 496 var. (unsigned); BMC Sicily p. 121, 26 var. (same); HGC 2 975 (R2) var. (same), Choice aEF, superb style, well struck, light toning, lightly etched porous surfaces, weight 0.718 g, maximum diameter 11.4 mm, die axis 0o, Naxos mint, c. 415 - 403 B.C.; obverse NAEΞIΩN, head of young Dionysos left, wreathed in ivy, Π (monogram of master engraver Prokles) on right side of neck; reverse grape bunch on vine, with three leaves and tendrils; extremely rare; SOLD
Selinous, Sicily, c. 466 - 415 B.C.
Selinus was once one of the most important Greek colonies in Sicily. In 409 B.C., the Carthaginians attacked with a vast army believed to include at least 100,000 men. Selinus, with a population of about 30,000 excluding slaves, was unprepared and an auxiliary force promised by Syracuse, Agrigentum and Gela did not arrive. The Selinuntines defended themselves with courage, and after the walls were breached, continued to fight from house to house. After tens days the city fell. Of the citizens, 16,000 were slain and 5,000 made prisoners, but more than 2,600 escaped to Agrigento.SL90860. Silver didrachm, SNG ANS 702 - 705 (same obverse die); BMC Sicily, p. 141, 34; SNG Lloyd 1243; SNG Munchen 889 ff.; SNG Cop -, NGC XF, Strike 4/5, Surface 3/5 (4165998-006), weight 7.64 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 90o, Selinus (Selinunte, Sicily) mint, c. 466 - 415 B.C.; obverse ΣEΛINOTION, nude Herakles advancing right, subduing the Cretan bull; reverse HVYAΣ, river-god nude standing left, holding phiale over canopied altar in right hand and branch in left; snake coiled around altar, heron under selinon leaf to right; ex Forum (2007); NGC| Lookup; SOLD
Herbessos, Sicily, c. 344 - 335 B.C.
The site of the native Sikel Herbessos is uncertain but it was probably located near Leontinoi. Like other Sikel towns, it supported Carthage against Syracuse, however, in 396 B.C. Herbessos formed an alliance with Dionysos I. In 310 B.C., Agathokles installed a garrison to hold it against Carthage. In 309 B.C., with the aid of Akragas, the city expelled the garrison and claimed its freedom. In the Punic Wars, Herbessos was repeatedly held by Carthage until taken by Rome. About 213 B.C., Herbesso became a civitas decumana, paying 1/10th of its annual harvest to Rome. Although it probably continued to exist for centuries, it then disappears from history.GI72187. Bronze drachm, Castrizio series II, 1 (354- 344 B.C); Calciati III, p. 252, 4; SNG Morcom 593; SNG Lloyd 1002; Rizzo pl. LIX, 17; HGC 2 411 (R2), VF, overstruck on Syracuse drachm, weight 32.639 g, maximum diameter 33.1 mm, die axis 270o, Herbessos mint, c. 344 - 335 B.C.; obverse EPBEΣΣINΩN, head of Sikelia right, hair adorned with myrtle olive wreath; reverse forepart of man-faced bull right; big bronze!; rare; SOLD
Leontini, Sicily, c. 455 - 422 B.C.
From early in the 5th century B.C. Leontini was most often subject to Syracuse. This coin was struck during a period of independence during which Leontini sought the support of Athens. In part, these requests lead to Athens' failed Sicilian Expeditions (after which Athens declined). Leontini was again made subject to Syracuse in 415 B.C.SH67285. Silver tetradrachm, SNG ANS 242 (same dies); cf. Boehringer Leontini pl. 13, 56 var. (same obv die); Rizzo pl. XXIV, 5 (same); SNG Munchen -; SNG Cop -, aVF, weight 16.988 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 90o, Leontinoi mint, c. 430 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo left; reverse LEONTINON, lion head left with jaw open and tongue protruding, four barley kernels around; ex Künker elive auction 19, lot 45 (26 Jun 2013), ex Gilles Blancon of Hannover Germany (Sep 1998) ; SOLD
Eryx, Sicily, c. 400 - 390 B.C.
Calciati 13 and SNG 1328 are similar to this coin but with a female head on the obverse and the pellet above the dog on the reverse. Calciati 13A has a male head, but the dog faces left. The only reference that records this specific type is the Handbook of Greek Coins. The photographed HGC coin shares the same reverse die with our coin, but is incorrectly described as a hexantes or dionkia with an additional (second) pellet above. Despite the lack of examples in the primary references (and we checked more than listed here), there are several examples online.SH90697. Bronze onkia, HGC 2 315 (R1) corr. (same rev. die); Calciati I p. 283, 13A var. (hound left, etc.); SNG III additions pl. 42, 1328 var. (pellet above, etc.), Choice VF, superb style, weak reverse legend, weight 3.094 g, maximum diameter 14.4 mm, die axis 90o, Eryx (Erice, Sicily) mint, c. 400 - 390 B.C.; obverse beardless, young male head right; reverse EP-YKIN-O-N, dog standing right, head turned back, right foreleg on hare on its back below, pellet right; very rare; SOLD
Lipara, Islands off Sicily, c. 412 - 408 B.C.
This very rare type should not be confused with the later, lighter, issue with the pellets arranged in two rows of three.SH73170. Bronze hemilitron, Calciati I p. 14, 16; BMC Sicily p. 259, 33; SNG Cop -; SNG Munchen -; HGC 2 -, VF, green patina, irregular flan, light corrosion, weight 12.076 g, maximum diameter 24.9 mm, die axis 0o, Lipara mint, c. 412 - 408 B.C.; obverse young Hephaistos seated right on draped chair, nude, hammer in right hand, kantharos in left; reverse ΛIΠAPAIΩN, ethnic around a circle of six pellets; very rare; SOLD
Selinous, Sicily, c. 520 - 480 B.C.
The leaf/incuse didrachms of Selinus vary in the shape and features of the leaf, and the number of divisions and arrangement of the incuse. We have been unable to find an exact match to this coin.SH15088. Silver didrachm, SNG Delepierre 601 var. (leaf shape), SNG ANS 681 var. (leaf shape, incuse arrangement), Pozzi -, SNG Cop -, SNG Ashmolean -, VF, weight 8.836 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, Selinus mint, 520 - 490 B.C.; obverse Selinon leaf; reverse incuse square divided into eight sections, alternate sections deeper forming a Maltese cross; obverse and reverse slightly off-center; scarce variety; SOLD
Bloesch, H. Griechische Münzen In Winterthur, Vol. 1. Spain, Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Moesia, Dacia, Sarmatia, Thrace, and Macedonia. (Winterthur, 1987).
Boehringer, C. "Die Münzgeschichte von Leontini in klassischer Zeit" in Studies Price.
Boehringer, C. "Kataneische Probleme: Silberne Kleinstmünzen" in Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics. (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1982).
Buttrey, T., et al. "Catalogue of Coins Found during the Years 1955-1981" in Morgantina Studies II: The Coins. (Princeton, 1989).
Calciati, R. Corpus Nummorum Siculorum. The Bronze Coinage, Vol. I. (Milan, 1983).
Calciati, R. Corpus Nummorum Siculorum. The Bronze Coinage, Vol. III. (Milan, 1987).
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Gabrici, E. La monetazione del bronzo nella Sicila antica. (Palermo, 1927).
Gabrici, E. "Notes on Sicilian Numismatics" in NC 42 (1931), pp. 73 - 90, pl. V - VI.
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of Sicily (including Lipara), Civic, Royal, Siculo-Punic, and Romano-Sicilian Issues, Sixth to First Centuries BC. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Mirone, S. "Le monete dell' antica Catana" in RIN 1917-1918.
Perassi, C. "Numismatica insulare, Le monete delle zecche di Melita e di Gaulos della Collezione Nazionale Maltese" in RIN CXIV (2013).
Poole, R. ed. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Sicily. (London, 1876).
Rizzo, G. Monete greche della Sicilia. (Rome, 1946).
Salinas, A. Le monete delle antiche città di Sicilia descritte e illustrate da Antonino Salinas. (Palermo, 1871).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1: Europe. (London, 1978). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 1: Italy - Sicily. (West Milford, NJ, 1981). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 5: Sikelia. (Berlin, 1977). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 6: Sikelia. Punier in Sizilien. Lipara. Sardinia. Punier in Sardinien. Nachträge. (Berlin, 1980). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 2: Sicily - Thrace. (London, 1947). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain X, John Morcom Collection. (Oxford, 1995). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 3: Bruttium - Sicily 1 (Abacaenum-Eryx). (New York, 1975). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 4: Sicily 2 (Galaria - Styella). (New York, 1977). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 5: Sicily 3 (Syracuse - Siceliotes). (New York, 1988).
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