Founded by the Phoenicians as Ziz, Palermo was named Panormus, meaning "always fit for landing in," by the Greeks. It was ruled by Rome and Constantinople for over 1000 years. From 827 to 1071 it was under the Arab Emirate of Sicily when it first became a capital. After the Norman conquest, Palermo became capital of Kingdom of Sicily from 1130 to 1816. It was united with the Kingdom of Naples until the Italian unification of 1860.
SH55998. Bronze AE 15, Calciati I p. 272, 12; Lindgren II 503, EF, weight 1.537 g, maximum diameter 13.7 mm, die axis 315o, Ziz mint, c. 336 - 330 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo left; reverse forepart of a horse prancing right, dolphin leaping right below; dark glossy sea-green patina, sharp detail, finest style; $270.00 (€207.90)
Sicily or Sardinia, Carthaginian Rule, c. 300 - 264 B.C.
Calciati notes that although this type is often attributed to Sardina, the frequency of finds in Sicily demonstrates that it was also minted there.
GB63621. Bronze AE 19, Calciati p. 395, 21; SNG Cop 173, VF, weight 5.270 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 90o, Sicily or Sardinia mint, c. 300 - 290(?) B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, hair wreathed with grain, wearing earring and necklace; reverse head and neck of horse right, palm tree right; $160.00 (€123.20)
Entella, Sicily, c. 420 - 404 B.C.
The hair on the obverse is possibly tooled. We also think almost all of the coins of this type sold in recent auctions may have been tooled. All the Calciati coins are too worn to compare the hair. We suspect tooling because a single coin on the Coin Archives database, which is clearly not tooled, is very different and far more beautiful, with curls in the hair rather than straight lines. It is possible, however, that some or even most of this type was engraved with straighter hair.
GB56001. Bronze AE 18, Calciati I p. 317, 1; SNG Morcom 580; SNG Cop -; SNG München -, gVF (possibly tooled), weight 3.290 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Entella mint, Sicily; obverse female head left, wearing sphendone, earring, and necklace; reverse ENTEL, bearded head (Zeus?) right, wearing fillet; $140.00 (€107.80)
Carthage, Zeugitania, NorthAfrica, c. 350 B.C.
By the 4th Century B.C., Sicily had become an obsession for Carthage. For sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 B.C., Carthage had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.
GB49127. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 121, F, weight 3.177 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 45o, Sicilian? mint, c. 350 B.C.; obverse youthful male head left between two stalks of grain; reverse horse galloping to right; overstruck on a Carthaginian bronze with head of Tanit / horse with palm behind; $125.00 (€96.25)
Carthage, Zeugitana, N. Africa, c. 350 - 320 B.C.
GB59455. Bronze AE 18, Calciati III p. 381, 9 ff.; Alexandropoulos 20; SNG Cop 102 ff., F, flaked patina (stable), weight 6.288 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 135o, Sicilian(?) mint, c. 350 - 320 B.C.; obversepalm tree; reverse head of horse right; scarce; $80.00 (€61.60)
Sardinia, Punic Rule, 241 - 238 B.C.
After the Roman fleet decisively defeated the Carthaginian fleet in 241 B.C., ending the First Punic War, Carthage was forced to agree to abandon all claims on Sicily, to refrain from sailing warships in Italian waters, and to pay an indemnity of 3,200 talents. In 238 B.C., Rome declared war on Carthage demanding control of Sardinia. To avoid war, Carthage abandoned Sardinia.
GB63422. Bronze AE 19, SNG Cop Vol. 1, 1106; SNG Cop Vol. 7, 252;, F, green patina, weight 7.660 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Sardinian mint, c. 264 - 241 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit wreathed in barely left; reverse three barley stalks, pellet in crescent with horns downward above; $75.00 (€57.75)