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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Roman armies invaded the Iberian peninsula in 218 B.C. and used it as a training ground for officers and as a proving ground for tactics during campaigns against the Carthaginians, the Iberians, the Lusitanians, the Gallaecians and other Celts. It was not until 19 B.C. that Augustus was able to complete the conquest. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed "Callaecia" (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia). From Diocletian's Tetrarchy (A.D. 284) onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae (that is, the Celtic provinces).
Carthago Nova, Iberia, c. 237 - 206 B.C.
In order to force Hannibal to retreat from Italy, Scipio Africanus attacked Carthaginian Spain and took Carthago Nova in 209 B.C. References most often identify this type as Punic, struck before 209 B.C., but they also note that the head is "Roman style." Some authorities believe, as we do, that this type may have been struck after 209, under Roman rule. Carthaginian coins sometimes depicted Barcid generals. This coin possibly depicts the Roman general Scipio Africanus.GB50947. Bronze AE 24, Villaronga-Benages 609 (R2), Villaronga MCH 282, Villaronga CNH 69, Burgos 552, SNG BM Spain 127 - 128, VF, green patina, earthen deposits, weight 11.793 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 0o, Carthago Nova mint, perhaps Roman Occupation, 209 - 206 B.C.; obverse bare male head (Scipio Africanus?) left; reverse horse standing right, palm tree in background center on far side of horse; SOLD
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
"The Julian Star" appeared in the sky during the funeral games for Julius Caesar in July 44 B.C. It was a comet and the Romans believed it was a divine manifestation of the apotheosis of Julius Caesar.SH48877. Silver denarius, RIC I 37b, RSC I 97, BMCRE I 326, SRCV I 1607, aVF, banker's marks, toned, weight 3.562 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza, Spain) mint, 19 - 18 B.C.; obverse CAESAR AVGVSTVS, head of Augustus right, wearing oak wreath (Corona Civitas); reverse comet of eight rays, a central dot and flaming tail upwards, DIVVS - IVLIVS horizontal divided flanking across the field at center; SOLD
Barcids in Iberia, c. 237 - 209 B.C.
GB30355. Bronze AE 20, SNG Cop 292, SGCV II 6560 var. (helmet ornamented), gVF, weight 5.489 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Carthago Nova mint, obverse beardless male head right wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse palm tree with two bunches of dates; SOLD
Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.
On the death of Caligula, Galba refused the invitation of his friends to make a bid for the empire, and loyally served Claudius. For the first half of Nero's reign he lived in retirement, until 61, when the emperor bestowed on him the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. In the spring of 68, at the time of Julius Vindex' insurrection in Gaul, Galba was informed of Nero's intention to put him to death. Learning of Vindex's defeat and suicide Galba hesitated to claim the throne. He took the title caesar only after Nero's suicide and after he was told that Nymphidius Sabinus, the Praetorian Prefect, had given him his favor. This type was struck to for Hispania to thank the province for supporting his bid for the purple.SH73001. Silver denarius, RIC I 21 (R2), RSC II 80, BMCRE I 174, BnF III 10, Hunter I -, SRCV I -, F, centered, dark toning, porous, weight 3.335 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Tarraco mint, c. Apr - late 68 A.D.; obverse GALBA IMP (clockwise from upper right), laureate head right, globe at tip of neck; reverse HISPANIA (clockwise on left), Hispania standing left, draped, poppy and two stalks of grain in extended right hand, two vertical spears and round shield behind in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, this is the first specimen of this type handled by Forum; very rare; SOLD
Carthago Nova, Iberia, c. 237 - 206 B.C.
In order to force Hannibal to retreat from Italy, Scipio Africanus attacked Carthaginian Spain and took Carthago Nova in 209 B.C. References most often identify this type as Punic, struck before 209 B.C., but they also note that the head is "Roman style." Some authorities believe, as we do, that this type may have been struck after 209, under Roman rule. Carthaginian coins sometimes depicted Barcid generals. This coin possibly depicts the Roman general Scipio Africanus.GB60656. Bronze AE 26, Villaronga-Benages 609 (R2), Villaronga MCH 282, Villaronga CNH 69, Burgos 552, SNG BM Spain 127 - 128, VF, Green patina, edge splits, weight 9.765 g, maximum diameter 25.7 mm, die axis 0o, Carthago Nova mint, perhaps Roman Occupation, 209 - 206 B.C.; obverse bare male head (Scipio Africanus?) left; reverse horse standing right, palm tree in background center on far side of horse; SOLD
Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.
Livia was the wife of Augustus, mother of Tiberius, paternal grandmother of Claudius, paternal great-grandmother of Caligula, and maternal great-great-grandmother of Nero. "Suetonius records that in his youth Galba was a favourite of Livia through whose patronage he moved in the most elevated social circles of the Julio-Claudian era." - David Sear in Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol I.RB86688. Copper as, RIC I 67 (S), BMCRE I 201, Cohen I 50, Hunter I 73, BnF III 36, SRCV I 2132 var. (no P P), gF, scratches, some pitting, holed, weight 11.739 g, maximum diameter 28.3 mm, die axis 180o, Hispania (probably Tarraco?) mint, Sep/Oct - Dec 68 A.D.; obverse SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P P P, laureate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse DIVA AVGVSTA, Livia standing half left, patera in extended right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking at thighs; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, more attractive in hand than the photographs, Coin Archives lists only two specimens of this very rare type and the last sale was in 2009; SOLD
Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Carthago Nova, Hispania Tarraconensis; Caligula Reverse
Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful general and one of Rome's most beloved public figures. The young Gaius was nicknamed Caligula, meaning "little soldier's boot," by his father's soldiers while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. When Germanicus died, his wife Agrippina the Elder became entangled in a bitter feud with Tiberius, which led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. In 31 A.D., unscathed by the deadly intrigues, Caligula accepted Tiberius' invitation to join him on the island of Capri. In 33 A.D., Tiberius gave Caligula an honorary quaestorship. Caligula succeeded his great-uncle and adoptive grandfather in 37 A.D.SH55436. Bronze provincial as, Villaronga-Benages 3152, RPC I 182, SNG Cop 502, Burgos 601, VF, excellent portraits, attractive green patina, light marks, tight flan, nice for the issue, weight 9.013 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 225o, Carthago Nova mint, 33 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIV AVGV F AVG P M, bare head left; reverse C CAESAR TI N QVINQ IN V I N K, bare head of Caligula left; SOLD
Roman Republic, C. Coelius Caldus, 51 B.C.
The obverse depicts the moneyer's grandfather, also Caius Coelius Caldus, consul in 94 B.C., and the first in his family to obtain high office. Prior to his term as consul, in 107 B.C., he was a tribune of the plebs and passed a lex tabellaria, requiring a secret ballot to determine the verdict in cases of high treason. He was a praetor in 100 or 99 B.C., and proconsul of Hispania Citerior the following year. Later, during Sulla's second civil war, he tried to help Gaius Marius the Younger by preventing Pompey from joining his forces to Sulla, but failed.
The reverse honors the moneyer's father and uncle. His father was a Epulo Jovis, one of the septemviri Epulones, the college of seven priests responsible for banquets and sacrifices given in honor of Jove and the other gods. His uncle was an imperator, augur and decemvir, Imperator, Augur, Decemvir (sacris faciundis), commander for military forces, a priest-soothsayer, and one of a body of ten Roman magistrates responsible for management of the Games of Apollo, and the Secular Games. The moneyer's name and title are in the exergue.SH71922. Silver denarius, Crawford 437/2a, Sydenham 894, RSC I Coelia 7, BMCRR II 3837, SRCV I 404, VF, toned, banker's mark, some light corrosion, weight 3.825 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 51 B.C.; obverse C COEL CALDVS downwards on right, COS below, head of Coelius Caldus right, standard inscribed HIS (Hispania) behind, standard in the form of a boar (emblem of of Clunia, Hispania) before; reverse C CALDVS downward on left, IMP A X (Imperator, Augur, Decemvir) in four lines on right, CALDVS III VIR (ALD ligate, triumvir) below, statue of god seated left between two trophies of arms, all on a high lectisternium with front inscribed L CALDVS VI VIR EPVL (VIR and VL ligate, Lucius Caldus Septemvir Epulo); from the Andrew McCabe Collection, ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 11, lot 171; scarce; SOLD
Hispania, Roman Bronze Swollen Foot Votive, c. 150 B.C. - 300 A.D.
Bronze and terracotta votive feet were deposited by the afflicted in sacred springs, running waters, and shrines thought to help bring healing to injury or illnesses related to the feet. Tyriasia is an obsolete medical term for Elephantiasis (swelling), often caused by round worms. This piece was reputedly found in a stream bed in southern Spain.AS74032. Bronze Swollen Foot Votive, 32.871 g, 36.0 mm long, VF, obverse right foot, perhaps swollen; reverse TYRIASIA CARTIA (or similar), SOLD
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Hadrian was born in Hispania. The origin of the name Hispania is much disputed and the evidence for the various speculations is very weak. Two theories hold it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. In Hebrew, "i-shfania" means "island of the rabbit." Punic-Phoenician and Hebrew are both Canaanite languages and therefore closely related to each other. The name Hispania may be derived from an ancient Punic name identifying the place as a land of rabbits. Another theory holds the name is derived the word from the Phoenician word "span," meaning hidden, indicating a hidden, that is, a remote, or far-distant land. The rabbit on this coin type has been used as evidence to support the first theory.RS87611. Silver denarius, RSC II 834, RIC II 306, Strack II 304, BMCRE III 849 note, Hunter II 287 var. (head left), SRCV II -, Choice VF, centered, uneven toning, light marks, tiny edge cracks, weight 2.824 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 134 - 138 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right; reverse HISPANIA, Hispania reclining left on rock, olive branch in right hand, rabbit behind below left arm; SOLD
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