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Before the Roman invasion, Britain was populated by Celtic tribes with well-established cultural and economic links with continental Europe. Although Julius Caesar conducted the first Roman campaign in Britain in 55 B.C., the conquest did not begin until A.D. 43, during the reign of Claudius. The British tribes initially opposed the Roman legions, but by 84 the Romans had decisively conquered southern Britain and had pushed into what is now southern Scotland. In 122 they fortified the northern border with Hadrian's Wall, which spanned what is now Northern England. In 142 Roman forces pushed north again and began construction of the Antonine Wall, but they retreated back to Hadrian's Wall after only twenty years. Following the conquest, native Britons were subject to the Roman governors but mostly kept their land, and a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged. The Roman Empire retained control until its departure about A.D. 430.
Anglo-Gallic, Henry V de Lancastre, King of England, 1413 - 1422
NEW Henry V was the second English monarch from the House of Lancaster. After fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndwr, and against the powerful aristocratic Percys of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Henry came into political conflict with his father, whose health was increasingly precarious after 1405. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 and he came close to conquering France. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes (1420) recognized Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne, and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following Henry V's sudden and unexpected death in France two years later, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI.ME96060. Silver Gros Florette, Elias 249a (R), Duplessy 435C, Ciani 591, Lafaurie 439c; leopard mintmark, VF, light toning, porous, edge cracks, weight 2.152 g, maximum diameter 24.7 mm, die axis 0o, Normandy, Rouen mint, 4th issue, authorized 16 Jun 1420; obverse (leopard) h:REX:ANGLIE:Z:hERES:FRANCIE:(Henry King of the Franks), triple pellet stops, annulet under 1st letter, crown above three fleurs-de-lis, leopard rampant on left and right; reverse (leopard) SIT: nOmE: DnI: BENEDICTV (the name of our Lord be blessed), triple pellet stops, S reversed(?), annulet under 1st letter, cross fleury, h within an annulet at center, crown in first quarter, lion in fourth quarter; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; rare; $370.00 (€340.40)
Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI de Lancastre, King of France and England, 1422 - 1453
NEW In 1422, the year old king of England inherited the French throne from his mad grandfather Charles VI of France; the iconography of this type represents the unification of the two nations. Ten years later Joan of Arc would make an appearance which would eventually loosen the English grip on France until by 1436 only Normandy and part of Maine remained in Henry's control.ME96059. Silver grand blanc aux écus, Elias 290a (RR), Duplessy 445, Ciani 602, Lafaurie 449, SCBC-SII 8166; rose mint mark (type II), F, dark patina, weight 2.709 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 180o, Troyes mint, 23 Nov 1422 - 1429; obverse (rose mm) FRANCORVm: ET: ANGLIE: REX (King of France and England), shields of France (on left) and England (on right), side by side, hERICVS above; reverse (rose mm) SIT: nOmEN: DnI: BENEDICTV (Blessed be the name of the Lord), Latin cross, fleur-de-lis to left, leopard left on right, hERICVS on a line below; ex Gordon Andreas Singer (17 Aug 1990), ex Peter Woodhead; very rare; $360.00 (€331.20)
Anglo-Gallic, Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Aquitaine, 1355 - 1375
NEW Edward the Black Prince was the eldest son of King Edward III and the father of King Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall (from 1337), the Prince of Wales (from 1343) and the Prince of Aquitaine (1362-72). He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular in England during his lifetime. In 1348 he was made a Founding Knight of the Garter. Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.ME96061. Silver Hardi d'Argent, cf. Elias 201-208, Duplessy Féodales 1126, Poey d'Avant 2975 - 2982, SCBC-SII 8134; mintmark obscure, gVF, toned, light deposits, tight flan, weight 1.425 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, 1362 - 1372; obverse ED: PO: GnS: - REG: AGL:[...] (double pellet stops, Edwardvus, Primo Genitvs Regis Anglie - Edward, first born of the King of England), half-length figure of Edward facing beneath Gothic canopy, sword in right hand, raising left hand, inner dot border broken by canopy above, body of prince divides border and legend below; reverse *PRI-CPS* - AQT-AnIE (rosette stops, Princeps Aqvitanie - Prince of Aquitaine), long cross pattée, lis in first and fourth quarters, leopard in second and third quarters; $220.00 (€202.40) ON RESERVE
Lot of 2 Coins, England, Edward I Longshanks, 1272 - 1307
NEW Elias identifies this type as probably the "moneta nova" of the currency reform of 1291, and perhaps struck until 1294. The Bordeaux mint closed in 1294 due to war activity and did not reopen until 1305.
Known as Edward Longshanks for his height of 6 ft. 2 in., and sometimes as the "Hammer of the Scots." Edward was ruthless in pursuing his aims and crushing those who opposed him. He conquered large parts of Wales and almost succeeding in doing the same to Scotland.ME95904. Silver denier au leopard, Elias 18, Duplessy Féodales 1042, Poey d'Avant 2775, SCBC-SII 8018; 0.793 and 0.931g, 18.7mm, F-gF, both coins, Burdigala (Bordeaux, France) mint, c. 1291 - 1294; obverse + EDVARDVS REX (King Edward), leopard passant left above upper horizontal line, AGL (England) between two horizontal lines, E below lower horizontal line, all within inner circle; reverse + DVX AQIT BVRD (Duke of Aquitaine, Burdigala), cross pattée, within inner circle, E in the upper left (1st) quarter; $190.00 (€174.80)
Anglo-Gallic, Henry VI de Lancastre, King of France and England, 1422 - 1453
NEW Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his grandfather, Charles VI, shortly afterwards. He is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France, as Henry II, in 1431.ME95906. Silver petit blanc, Elias 297a (R), SCBC-SII 8167, Duplessy I 446, Ciani 603, Lafaurie 450, leopard mintmark, aVF, dark toning, ink catalog marking on reverse, weight 1.260 g, maximum diameter 22.4270 mm, die axis 270o, Rouen mint, 1423 - 1449; obverse (leopard) HEN-RICVS: - REX (King Henry, triple pellet stop), shields of France (on left) and England (on right), side by side; reverse (leopard) SIT: nOmE: DnI: BEHEDICV' (Blessed be the name of the Lord, triple pellet stops), Latin cross, h left, R right; rare; $190.00 (€174.80)
England, Edward III, 1327 - 1377
NEW Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most efficient military powers in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in the evolution of the English parliament, the ravages of the Black Death and the beginning of the Hundred Years' War. He remained on the throne for 50 years.ME96058. Silver groat, North 1194, Spink 1570, gF, toned, edge split, weight 4.309 g, maximum diameter 28.1 mm, die axis 225o, fourth coinage, London mint, pre-treaty period, 1356 - 1361; obverse + EDWARD D G REX AnGL Z FRANC D hYB (Edward by the Grace of God King of England and France, Lord of Ireland), crowned facing bust, within tressure of arches, with trefoils in spandrels except at top; reverse + POSVI DEVm A DIVTOR Em mEV (I have made God my helper), CIVITAS LONDON (City of London), long cross with trefoil of pellets in each angle; $160.00 (€147.20) ON RESERVE
Great Britain, Victoria, 20 June 1837 - 22 January 1901
Queen Victoria inherited the throne at 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no legitimate surviving children. The UK was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon and was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era.UK94024. Copper half farthing, SCBC 3951, EF, stains, light marks and rim bumps, weight 2.386 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 0o, London mint, 1852; obverse VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D: (Victoria, by the Grace of God, Queen of Britain, Defender of the Faith), first uncrowned portrait ('Young Head') of Queen Victoria left, ribbons in her hair; reverse HALF / FARTHING / 1842 in three lines, crown above, rose, shamrock, and thistle below; ex CNG e-sale 453 (2 Oct 2019), lot 893 (part of); ex Brondesbury Park Collection; $55.00 (€50.60)
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