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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Gods, Non-Olympian ▸ Hygieia or SalusView Options:  |  |  |   

Hygieia or Salus

Hygieia is usually said to be a daughter of Asklepios, along with her sisters, Panacea and Iaso. Hygieia, though, was the most important of the attendants of Asklepios and was thought by some in antiquity to be not his daughter but his wife. She was more important than other members of the family and more on par with Asklepios himself. Hygieia is remembered today in the word, "hygiene." She appears on numerous coins, usually depicted feeding the sacred snake from a patera. Salus was the Roman goddess of health, identified by the Romans with the Greek Hygiea.


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Odessos, Moesia Inferior

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As first noticed by von Sallet in the Berlin Catalogue, the obverse die of this coin was also used to strike medallions for Marcianopolis and Tomis (see AMNG Marcianopolis 1098 note).
SH85459. Bronze medallion, hexassarion; Varbanov 4434 (R8, same dies), AMNG I/II 2315 (4 specimens), EF, nice dark green patina, well centered on a broad flan, marks and scratches, weight 25.655 g, maximum diameter 36.8 mm, die axis 180o, Odessos (Varna, Bulgaria) mint, 29 Jul 238 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse AVT K M ANT ΓOP∆-IANOC AVΓ, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust left, almost half-length, seen from front, raising right hand in greeting, globe in left hand; reverse O∆HC-C-EITON, On the left, Hygeia standing right, holding phiale in her left hand from which she feeds snake held in her right; to right, Asklepios standing left, holding serpent-entwined staff in his right hand; ex Stack's NYINC auction (9 Jan 2015), lot 261; ex Heritage Long Beach Signature Sale (25 Sep 2013), lot 23297; ex Heritage-Gemini VIII (14 Apr 2011), lot 406; $810.00 SALE PRICE $729.00


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

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References list numerous Carausius varieties with Pax reverse legends but depicting Salus and also types with Salus reverse legends but depicting Pax. The references provided for comparison list a PAX AVG, with Salus type, without controls or a mintmark; David Sear attributes to London, 286 - 287 A.D. References do not list our variety but other types with F - O across the field and ML in the exergue are attributed to London, c. 289 - 290 A.D. This is the only example of this variant known to Forum.
RA73904. Billon antoninianus, Apparently unpublished; cf. RIC V, part 2, 930 ff. (no mintmarks); Webb Carausius 1031 ff. (same); SRCV IV 13661 (same, London, 286 - 287), aVF, nice green patina, overstruck or double-struck, tight flan cutting off parts of legends and mintmark, weight 2.615 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 315o, Londinium(?) or unofficial(?) mint, 289 - 290 A.D.; obverse IMP CARAVS[IVS P AVG] (or similar), radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG[GG?], Salus standing half left, head left, feeding snake rising from altar at left from patera in her right hand, vertical scepter in left hand, [F?] - O flanking across the field, M[L?] in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; possibly unique!; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00


Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I

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Aelia Flaccilla, like her husband Theodosius, was of Hispanian-Roman descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when Theodosius' father fell into disfavor and he withdrew to Cauca in Gallaecia.
RL84859. Bronze maiorina, RIC IX Antioch 62 (S), LRBC II 2760, SRCV V 20621 corr. (mislabeled Cyzicus), Cohen VIII 6, VF, nice portrait, attractive patina, light porosity, weight 4.522 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 135o, 5th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 386 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, draped bust right with an elaborate head dress, necklace and mantle; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE (health of the Republic), Aelia Flaccilla standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast, ANTE exergue; ex Colosseum Coin Exchange; scarce; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00


Nemausus, Gaul, c. 40 B.C.

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Colonia Nemausus was founded as a colony by Tiberius Claudius Nero in 45 or 44 B.C. for veterans that had served Julius Caesar under his command in Gaul and the invasion of Egypt. He was the first husband of Livia and was persuaded or forced by Octavian to divorce her. At the wedding he gave her in marriage to Octavian "just as a father would."
RP85841. Bronze semis, RPC I 520, SNG Cop 692, SNG Munchen 431, CCCBM III 231, De la Tour 2735, VF, green patina, scratches, tight flan, earthen encrustation, weight 1.760 g, maximum diameter 15.3 mm, die axis 0o, Nemausus (Nimes, France) mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse helmeted and draped bust right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse Salus standing half left, patera in right hand, over two snakes, left elbow on column behind, NEM COL (downward on right); ex Moneta Numismatic Services; $125.00 SALE PRICE $113.00


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

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Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.
RA71411. Billon antoninianus, GŲbl MIR 1354i, RIC V S512, Cohen V 932, SRCV III -, EF, no wear but small areas of light corrosion, well centered on tight flan, weight 3.373 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing right, feeding snake in right from patera in left, MS in exergue; $105.00 SALE PRICE $95.00


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Barbaric Imitative

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Tribal peoples outside the Empire struck coinage imitative of Roman types beginning in the second century B.C. and continued to strike imitative types even after the Western Empire ceased to exist. Several official issues used this reverse type, but the style is exotic and crude. These legends were never used on any official issues.
RS90412. Silver denarius, for possible prototype: cf. RIC IV 497a, RSC III 642 (Roman official, Laodicea ad Mare mint, 198 A.D.), VF, double struck, reverse off-center, edge cracks, weight 2.603 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 180o, unofficial mint, obverse [...] CAE L SEP SEV PERP IWC (or similar, blundered), laureate head right; reverse [...]TAS AVG P P (blundered, S reversed), Salus seated left, with patera in her right hand feeding snake rising from altar at her feet, cornucopia in left; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

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Salus was the Roman goddess of health. According to Strack III, p. 129, the idea behind the type is that the safety of the state is dependent on the health of the emperor. "For that reason Salus holds the rudder of Fortuna in some of these types, as an indication that the fate of the empire rests in her hands."
RB73723. Orichalcum sestertius, SRCV III 9016, Hunter III 76, Cohen V 206, RIC IV 187(a) var. (scepter vice rudder), VF/F, excellent portrait, grainy surfaces, light corrosion, weight 18.695 g, maximum diameter 30.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus standing facing, head left, feeding snake coiled around altar, rudder vertical vertical behind in left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low across field; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.

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Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.
RS71509. Silver denarius, RIC III 305, RSC II 741, BMCRE IV 988, SRCV II 4106, VF, nice portrait, toned, edge cracks, weight 3.372 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 159 - 160 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII, laureate head right; reverse SALVTI AVG COS IIII, Salus standing left, from patera in right hand, feeding snake coiled around altar at feet on left, long scepter vertical behind in left; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Hierapolis, Phrygia, c. 218 - 268 A.D.

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Telesphorus was a son of Asclepius. He frequently accompanied his sister, Hygieia. He was a dwarf whose head was always covered with a cowl hood or cap. He symbolized recovery from illness, as his name means "the accomplisher" or "bringer of completion" in Greek. Representations of him are found mainly in Anatolia and along the Danube. Telesphorus is assumed to have been a Celtic god in origin, who was taken to Anatolia by the Galatians in the 3rd century B.C., where he would have become associated with the Greek god of medicine, Asclepius, perhaps in Pergamon (an Asclepian cult center) and spread again to the West due to the rise of the Roman Empire, in particular during the 2nd century A.D., from the reign of Hadrian.
RP77250. Bronze AE 23, Johnson Hierapolis 70 (3 spec.); BMC Phrygia p. 242, 86; SNG Cop 445; SNGvA -; SNG Tub -; SNG Mun -; SNG Hunt -; et al. -; c/m Howegego 278, aF, attractive for grade, weight 6.085 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 180o, Phrygia, Hierapolis (near Pamukkale, Turkey) mint, pseudo-autonomous, c. 218 - 268 A.D.; obverse IEPA CY-NKΛHTO-C, draped bust of the senate right; countermark: male figure standing, an uncertain object in right hand, scepter or spear in left hand, letter(s) in field, irregularly shaped punch; reverse IEPAΠOΛEITΩN NEΩKOP,ΩN (last two letters in left field), Hygieia seated left, kalathos on head, from phiale in her right hand, feeding snake rising before her, resting left elbow on cushion(?), small Telesphoros behind; very rare; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Hierapolis, Phrygia, c. 218 - 268 A.D.

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Telesphorus was a son of Asclepius. He frequently accompanied his sister, Hygieia. He was a dwarf whose head was always covered with a cowl hood or cap. He symbolized recovery from illness, as his name means "the accomplisher" or "bringer of completion" in Greek. Representations of him are found mainly in Anatolia and along the Danube. Telesphorus is assumed to have been a Celtic god in origin, who was taken to Anatolia by the Galatians in the 3rd century B.C., where he would have become associated with the Greek god of medicine, Asclepius, perhaps in Pergamon (an Asclepian cult center) and spread again to the West due to the rise of the Roman Empire, in particular during the 2nd century A.D., from the reign of Hadrian.
RP77260. Bronze AE 25, Johnson Hierapolis 70 (3 spec.); BMC Phrygia p. 242, 86; SNG Cop 445; SNGvA -; SNG Tub -; SNG Mun -; SNG Hunt -; et al. -; c/m Howegego 278, aF, area of reverse flattened by countermarking, weight 6.382 g, maximum diameter 24.7 mm, die axis 180o, Phrygia, Hierapolis (near Pamukkale, Turkey) mint, pseudo-autonomous, c. 218 - 268 A.D.; obverse IEPA - CVNKΛHTO-C, draped bust of the senate right; countermark: Male figure standing, uncertain object in right hand, scepter or spear in left hand, letter(s) in field, irregularly shaped punch; reverse IEPAΠOΛEITΩN NEΩKOP,ΩN (last two letters in left field), Hygieia seated left, kalathos on head, from phiale in her right hand, feeding snake rising before her, resting left elbow on cushion(?), small Telesphoros behind; very rare; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00




  



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Hygieia or Salus