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Dates of operation: c. 289 - 40 B.C. and 20 B.C. - 476 A.D. Mintmarks: R, RM, ROM, ROMA, ROMOB, VRB ROM, SMR.
Otho, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.
This is the rarest Othodenariustype and one of the rarest 1st century Roman denarii. Only two museums, Paris and ANS, hold examples. A further specimen was found in archeological context in Denmark in 1990s. Besides these, four additional specimens are known. This coin has the best portrait and is clearly the most attractive of the seven known. Jyrki Muona obtained it in 2002 at the NYINC from Glenn Woods.
Otho minted three separate issues. The first and second issues followed Galba's standard of 90% silver. Otho's third issue was debased to 80% silver. All coins of the third issue share the reverselegendPONT MAX, perhaps to make it easy to distinguish the debased coins. One might think our rare coin is a reverselegend error for Otho's third issue, PONT MAXCerestype. However, as Butcheret al. have shown, this is not the case. If CERES AVG was a simple reverselegend error, the flan would be 80% silver. This CERES AVGtype was struck in a second issue of 90% silver flans, probably during planning for the third issue, and perhaps only for testing. The type was apparently not distributed, and was withdrawn, and melted when it was decided to debase the coinage and use the PONT MAXlegend. It appears a small number were released, most likely by mistake. RS85563. Silver denarius, Muona Otho 10b; Butcher-Ponting-Muona 6; ANSCD 1958.217.1; BnF III 1; RIC I 1 (R3, 7 spec. known, all minted with the same die-pair), Nice VF, the best portrait and most attractive of the seven known specimens, light rose toning, a few light marks and spots of porosity, weight 3.272 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 9 Mar - 17 Apr 69 A.D.; obverse IMP OTHOCAESAR AVG TRP, bare head right; reverseCERES AVG, Ceres standing left, grain-ears raised in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; rarest Othodenariustype; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex Glenn Woods (NYINC, 2002); $5000.00 (€4450.00)
Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.
The first Rome mint portrait sestertiustype, and a highly sought after reversetype. SH84794. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC I 33; BMCRE p. 152, 36; BnF II 47; Cohen I 4; SRCV I 1800, gF, excellent centering and strike, attractive portrait, patina worn and scraped on high points, bumps and scratches, weight 27.881 g, maximum diameter 35.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left; reverseAGRIPPINADRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; rare; $2000.00 (€1780.00)
Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.
The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars. SH85460. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC I 37, BMCRE I 38, Cohen I 24, BnF II 50, SRCV I -, VF, well centered and struck, weight 25.486 g, maximum diameter 35.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left; reverseS P Q R / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS in four lines within Corona Civica oak wreath; ex Stack's, Bowers, and Ponterio, 30 Oct 2014, Baltimore Auction, lot 242; rare; $1620.00 (€1441.80)
Otho, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.
With this coin Otho claimed there was peace all over the world. It was true that at the time it was struck there was peace along all the borders of the empire, which was a rare event because Rome was almost always engaged in some war with the nations and tribes that surrounded it. It was, however, an absurdity, in the midst of a civil war within the borders, to acclaim peace on the borders as peace all over the world.RS85543. Silver denarius, RIC I 4 (R), RSC II 3, BMCRE I 3, BnF III 3, Hunter I 2, SRCV I 2156, F, excellent portrait, rose toning, marks and scratches, tiny edge crack, weight 3.268 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Feb 69 A.D.; obverse IMP M OTHOCAESARAVG TR P, bare head right; reverse PAX ORBIS TERRARVM (All the World at Peace), Pax standing left, olive branch in right hand, caduceus in left; from the Lucas Harsh collection, ex Warren Esty Collection; rare; $800.00 (€712.00)
Antonia, Daughter of Mark Antony, Wife of NeroDrusus, Mother of Claudius, Grandmother of Caligula
Antonia was the daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, the wife of NeroDrusus, the mother of Claudius, and a grandmother of Caligula. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia was revered by the Roman people. She was probably poisoned by Caligula or committed suicide. She never loved her son Claudius, calling him a monster and a fool, but he posthumously made her Augusta in 41 A.D. and issued all her coinage. SH68887. Silver denarius, RIC IClaudius 66, BMCRE IClaudius 111, Cohen 2, SRCV I 1900, F, toned, weight 3.717 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, struck under Claudius, c. 41 - 42 A.D.; obverseANTONIAAVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing barley wreath; reverseCONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI (consistency of the emperor), Antonia standing facing, draped as Constantia, long torch in right, cornucopia in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; rare (R2); $790.00 (€703.10)
Roman Republic, M. Plaetorius Cestianus, 69 B.C.
The moneyer, M. Plaetorius Cestianus, was from Praeneste, in Latium, 23 miles east-southeast of Rome, home of the great temple to FortunaPrimigenia. Her sanctuary was an immense complex of buildings rising up the hillside on five vast terraces, connected with each other by grand staircases, visible even from the sea. The reverse likely depicts a pediment in the sanctuary. The epithet of Primigenia means "Original." She was represented suckling two babes, said to be Jupiter and Juno, and she was especially worshiped by matrons. The oracle continued to be consulted down to Christian times, until Constantine the Great, and again later Theodosius I, forbade the practice and closed the temple. SH76980. Silver denarius, BMCRRRome 3524 (same wheel control); Crawford 405/1b; Sydenham 800a; SRCV I 340, F, banker's mark, weight 3.563 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 69 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped bust of FortunaPrimigenia right, hair in net, wheel (control symbol) behind; reverse temple pediment, ornamented with sculpture of an anguipede (snake legged) giant holding a club(?) in his left hand, M PLAETORI (AE ligate) on the architrave, CEST S C in exergue; very rare; $640.00 (€569.60)
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
In 146, Marcus Aurelius received the imperium proconsular and Faustina the Younger was given the title Augusta.SH73156. Orichalcumsestertius, BMCRE IV 1669, RIC III 767a, Strack III 974, Cohen II 320, Hill UCR 709, SRCV II 4168, VF, nice green patina, nice portrait, light scratches, tight flan, weight 22.051 g, maximum diameter 31.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 146 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG - PIVS P P TR P, laureate head right; reverse Antoninus in slow quadriga left, eagle-tipped scepter in left, reins in right, COS IIII / S C in two lines in exergue; $540.00 (€480.60)
Sabina, Augusta 128 - c. 136 A.D., Wife of Hadrian
Pudicitia, modesty and chastity, was for Romans the highest regarded female virtue. For an unmarried girl, pudicitia meant virginity. For a wife, it meant faithfulness and devotion to her husband. Romans loved the story of Arria, an ultimate example of Roman pudicitia. When the emperor Claudius ordered her husband Paetus to end his own life, he hesitated. Arria took his dagger and stabbed herself to set an example, saying, "Paetus, it doesn't hurt." SH73695. Bronze sestertius, RIC IIHadrian 1032(c) (S), Hunter II 32, Cohen II 61, BMCRE IIIHadrian 1877 var. (diadem vice wreath), SRCV II 3937, aVF, excellent portrait, well centered, green patina, marks and scratches, some corrosion, weight 23.691 g, maximum diameter 33.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 135 A.D.; obverseSABINAAVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P, draped bust right, wearing wreath of grain, hair in long plait falling down back of neck and roll above wreath in front; reversePVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left on high-backed throne, veiled and draped, feet on footstool, right hand on breast (raising to lips), left hand in lap, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; old anonymous dealer or collector tag in Italian; scarce; $540.00 (€480.60)
Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - April or August 253 A.D.
This scarcetype commemorates Trebonianus Gallus' decennalian vows, prayers and sacrifices he made to the gods that they might help him successfully achieve his tenth anniversary of rule. In a religious context, votum, plural vota, is a vow or promise made to a deity. The word comes from the past participle of voveo, vovere; as the result of the verbal action, a vow, or promise. It may refer also to the fulfillment of this vow, that is, the thing promised. The votum is thus an aspect of the contractual nature of Roman religion and sacrifice, a bargaining expressed by "do ut des" (I give that you might give).RB76162. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC 127a (R), Cohen V 137 (10 fr.), Hunter III 29, Banti 38, SRCV III 9683, VF, nice portrait, nice patina, well centered on a crowded flan, weight 17.910 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, special emission, August - October 251 A.D.; obverseIMP CAES C VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseVOTIS / DECENNA / LIBVS / S C in four lines within laurel wreath tied at the bottom and closed with a jewel at the top; rarities; $540.00 (€480.60)
Macrinus, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D.
Securitas stands perfectly at her ease, with legs crossed and leaning on a column, clearly relaxed, having nothing to fear. Macrinus was praised for restoring security by eliminating the fratricidal son of Severus, long feared as the most cruel tyrant of Rome, beloved only by a venal soldiery, whom his largesses had enriched.SH77277. Silver denarius, RIC IV 92b, BMCRE V 80, RSC III 122c corr. (Antioch), Hunter III 32 var. (draped, no cuirass), SRCV II 7365, Choice EF, nearly as struck, light tone on luster, superb portrait, well centered, small edge cracks, weight 3.140 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, obverse IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassedbust right; reverseSECVRITAS TEMPORVM (time of security), Securitas standing facing, head left, scepter in right hand, left leg crossed in front of right, leaning with left forearm on column; $450.00 (€400.50)