, , Italy, 320 - 300 B.C.
Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Bronze Age Greek settlements were established in the second millennium B.C. The city was refounded as in the sixth century B.C. and became an important hub of Magna , playing a key role in the merging of Greek culture into Roman society. Naples remained influential under Rome and more so after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, serving as the capital city of the Kingdom of Naples between 1282 and 1816. Thereafter, it became the capital of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.SH79834. Silver nomos, 325; 450; p. 99, 53; 571; -; -, VF, finest , and struck on a , , scratches and bumps, small edge splits, 7.252 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 180o, (Naples, Italy) mint, magistrate Olympios, 320 - 300 B.C.; diademed of nymph right, wearing pendant earring and pearl necklace, no legends or ; standing right, turned facing, above flying right and placing on bull's , OΛ−YM−ΠI below, NEOΠOΛITHΣ ; ex Fritz Rudolf GmbH & Co. KG, auction 216 (8 Oct 2012), lot 48; ; $750.00 (€667.50)
The Sileraioi, , c. 357 - 330 B.C.
Sileraioi was not a city. The Sileraians were Campanian mercenaries who took their name from their proximity to the river Silaros. These coins have been found at the site of their settlement, Cozzo Mususino, a natural strong-hold in central . The coins are often on coins from minted c. 375 - 345 B.C.SH68704. Bronze p. 301, 2; 1243 (R1); -; -; -; -, VF/F, rough, 7.521 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 90o, Sileraian mint, c. 340 - 330 B.C.; ΣI−ΛEPAIΩ−N (retrograde counterclockwise from 3:00), forepart charging right; SIL (retrograde, upward behind), warrior advancing right, spear in right hand, in left; ; $330.00 (€293.70)
Ziz (Panormos), Punic , c. 336 - 330 B.C.
Panormos was the ancient Greek name (meaning, 'All-haven') for present day Palermo. Palermo was, however, originally a Phoenician colony and numismatists identify the city before Greek rule with the Punic name Ziz. It seems the only evidence for this ancient name is the coinage and some scholars believe that Ziz may have been another city.GI76350. Bronze AE 12, I, p. 272, 10; 1061 (R1); 5, III, pl. 44, 1362; -; -; -, gVF, dark green , light , light marks and corrosion, small edge split, 1/5 off-center, 1.975 g, maximum 12.2 mm, 0o, Ziz (Palermo, , Italy) mint, c. 336 - 330 B.C.; horse galloping right, barley-kernel above, linear ; forepart of a right, Punic above: ZIZ; all within a deep round ; ; $250.00 (€222.50)
Cales, , Italy, c. 265 - 240 B.C.
The Romans captured Cales in 335 B.C. and established a colony in 334 with Latin rights of 2,500 citizens. It was an important base in the war against Hannibal. Before 184 B.C. more settlers were sent there. After the it became a municipium. Its fertile territory and manufacture of black glazed , which was even exported to , made it prosperous. Inscriptions name six gates of the town: and there are considerable remains of antiquity, especially of an amphitheater and theater, of a supposed temple, a Roman necropolis, and other .GB73620. Bronze AE 20, 309; 436, 183, cf. p. 79, 23 ( of eight rays vice O below), F, green , , 6.161 g, maximum 19.6 mm, 225o, Cales (Calvi Risorta, Italy) mint, c. 265 - 240 B.C.; CALENO, laureate of left, behind; right, of sixteen rays above, Θ (or O?) below, CALENO in ; $140.00 (€124.60)
Agyrion, , c. 344 - 336 B.C.
Agyrion (modern Agira) was a Sicel city ruled by tyrants, one of whom, Agyris, was the most powerful ruler in the center of . In 392 B.C., he and Dionysius the Elder, together successfully resisted the Carthaginians under Magno. Agira was not colonized by the Greeks until the Corinthian general Timoleon drove out the last Sicel tyrant in 339 B.C. and settled 10,000 Greeks.GB63889. Bronze AE 14, III p. 125, 10; -; -, VF, nice , 4.086 g, maximum 14.3 mm, 180o, Agyrion (Agira, , Italy) mint, c. 344 - 336 B.C.; AΓYPINAI, young Herakles' left, clad in scalp headdress; AΓYPINAI, forepart of a left, horizontal above; ; $130.00 (€115.70)
Iaetia, , 4th Century B.C.
Iaitas was located on Mount Jato, near modern San Giuseppe Jato, a village in a hilly region of Palermo's hinterland, 31 km from the Sicilian capital. The settlement dated back to prehistoric times, with influence of Greek culture from the 6th century B.C.GB65643. Bronze AE 13, I p.383, 1; 1343; -; -, aF, rough, 1.332 g, maximum 13.0 mm, 180o, Iaetia mint, 4th century B.C.; IATINΩN, right; of grain on left, grain kernel (or a second of grain) on right; very ; $100.00 (€89.00)
Ziz (Panormos), Punic , c. 405 - 380 B.C.
Some authorities have identified the male on the as . Indeed, on some examples the does resemble other depictions of the youthful sun god, but on other examples the god is horned. On this coin the seems to better resemble traditional depictions of Herakles or . The usually has the Punic above the bull. Sometimes it is below. Most likely it should be above on this coin but is merely unstruck.GS66771. Silver , cf. (SNR 50) 14; p. 249, 27; 551; 889 (all w/ Punic "sys" above bull), aVF, 0.547 g, maximum 9.14 mm, 45o, Ziz (Palermo, , Italy) mint, c. 405 - 380 B.C.; male left; advancing left, turned facing; $85.00 (€75.65)
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