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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |Baal||View Options:  |  |  | 

Baal

Ba'al simply means 'Lord' in Phoenician and was used to describe many local gods. At first the name Ba'al was used by the Jews for their God, but as the struggle between religions developed, the name Ba'al was given up in Judaism. Over time Ba'al became synonymous with Beelzebub.


Macedonian Kingdom, Seleucus I Nikator as Satrap, 311 - 305 B.C., Babylon, Babylonia

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Seleukos (Seleucus) founded the Seleukid Empire and the Seleukid dynasty which ruled Syria until Pompey made it a Roman province in 63 B.C. Seleukos was never one of Alexander the Great's principal generals but he commanded the royal bodyguard during the Indian campaign. In the division of the empire after Alexander's death Seleukos did not receive a satrapy. Instead, he served under the regent Perdikkas until the latter's murder in 321 or 320. Seleukos was then appointed satrap of Babylonia. Five years later Antigonus Monophthalmus (the One-eyed) forced him to flee, but he returned with support from Ptolemy. He later added Persia and Media to his territory and defeated both Antigonus and Lysimachus. He was succeeded by his son Antiochus I.
GS91518. Silver stater, Houghton-Lorber 88.2a; Newell ESM 263; BMC Arabia p. 188, 43; Traite II, p. 487, 774; Weber 8202; HGC 9 67a , Choice F, well centered, old cabinet toning, light marks areas of light etching, tiny edge split, weight 13.518 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 90o, Mesopotamia, Babylon II (Hillah, Iraq) mint, c. 311 - 303 B.C.; obverse Baaltarz enthroned left on seat without back, himation over left shoulder and around hips and legs, lotus tipped scepter vertical before him in right hand, left hand rests on seat; reverse lion standing left, anchor (control symbol) above, nothing in exergue; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection, ex Hesperia Art; scarce; $780.00 SALE |PRICE| $700.00 ON RESERVE


Persian Empire, Mazaeus, Satrap of Cilicia , c. 361 - 334 B.C., Tarsus, Cilicia

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Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire ruling from 358 to 338 B.C. and, after defeating Nectanebo II in 343 B.C., ruled as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt. His reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Macedonia. Artaxerxes III was poisoned by the ambitious eunuch and chiliarch Bagoas. Bagoas also murdered most of Artaxerxes III's sons but put his youngest son, Arses, on the throne as a puppet emperor. This type was probably struck for Arses succession as Artaxerxes IV. Two years later Arses unsuccessfully attempted to poison Bagoas. Bagoas then poisoned Arses along with most of his family, and put Arses' cousin Darius III on the throne. To legitimize the conquests of Alexander the Great, Macedonian propaganda would accuse Darius III of playing a key role in the murder of Arses, who was thus identified as the last legitimate king of the Achaemenid royal house.
SH89697. Silver obol, Göktürk 35 (Myriandros), SNG BnF 429 (Myriandros), Newell Myriandros 16 4, Traité II 740, SNG Levante -, gVF, darker spots, some porosity, tight flan, weight 0.672 g, maximum diameter 10.4 mm, die axis 180o, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, c. 338 - 336 B.C.; obverse Persian king (Artaxerxes III?) in the guise of Baaltars, seated right on throne with back terminating in a griffin's head, with long beard, wearing tall pointed Pharaonic crown, lotus flower in right hand, lotus-tipped sceptre in left hand; reverse youthful male head (Artaxerxes IV?) left, beardless, with curly hair, wearing earring and a tall pointed Pharaonic crown; ex Beast Coins; rare; $280.00 (€246.40) ON RESERVE


Persian Empire, Mazaeus, Satrap of Cilicia, c. 361 - 334 B.C., Tarsos, Cilicia

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Mazaeus was a Persian noble and satrap of Cilicia and later satrap of Babylon for the Achaemenid Empire, a satrapy which he retained under Alexander the Great. The daughter of the Persian king Darius III, Stateira II, was originally betrothed to him, but he died before they could be married. She was eventually married to Alexander.
GS89703. Silver obol, Casabonne series 5, group C; SNG Levante 191 (Myriandros); SNG BnF 435 (Myriandros); Göktürk -, VF, light toning, light marks and some porosity, tight flan, weight 0.896 g, maximum diameter 11.5 mm, die axis 180o, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, 361 - 334 B.C.; obverse Baaltars seated left on throne without back, lotus-tipped scepter in right hand, shoulders and chest bare, chlamys around hips and legs and over left arm, right leg forward; reverse lion advancing right, star above, large crescent below; ex Beast Coins; rare; $280.00 (€246.40) ON RESERVE


Ziz (Panormos), Punic Sicily, c. 405 - 380 B.C.

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Some authorities have identified the male head on the obverse as Apollo. Indeed, on some examples the head does resemble other depictions of the youthful sun god, but on other examples the god is horned. On this coin the head seems to better resemble traditional depictions of Herakles or Baal. The type usually has the Punic ethnic above the bull. Sometimes it is below. Most likely it should be above on this coin but is merely unstruck.
GS79961. Silver obol, cf. Jenkins Punic (SNR 50) 14; BMC Sicily p. 249, 27; SNG ANS 551; SGCV I 889 (all w/ Punic ethnic "sys" above bull), aVF, toned, reverse slightly off center, weight 0.547 g, maximum diameter 9.1 mm, die axis 45o, Ziz (Palermo, Sicily, Italy) mint, c. 405 - 380 B.C.; obverse male head left; reverse man-faced bull advancing left, head turned facing; $115.00 SALE |PRICE| $104.00
 


Laranda, Lycaonia, c. 324 - 323 B.C.

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Göktürk identifies this type as issued by Laranda, Lycaonia, which issued coins with the same types. Most references attribute the type to an uncertain city in Cilicia and some to Tarsos. Laranda was destroyed by Perdiccas in about 322 B.C. and later became a seat of Isaurian pirates. This type was minted with a progression of reverses, first with an incuse square, then a square border of dots, and finally with a circle of dots. The original archaic punch reverse gradually evolved into a regular die, nearly identical to an obverse die. This variant was struck near the end of that evolution, perhaps for the defense against Perdiccas.
GS89559. Silver obol, cf. Göktürk 59 (rev border single and square), SNG BnF 448 (same, uncertain Cilicia), SNG Levante 223 (single borders, rev square, uncertain Cilicia), VF, well centered, toned, light marks, some die wear, tiny edge cracks, weight 0.459 g, maximum diameter 11.3 mm, die axis 30o, Laranda (Karaman, Turkey) mint, c. 324 - 323 B.C.; obverse Baal seated left on backless throne, holding grain ear in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; within a double circular border of dots; reverse forepart of wolf right, crescent horns downward above, all within a double circular border of dots; $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 


Laranda, Lycaonia, 4th Century B.C.

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Göktürk identifies this type as issued by Laranda, Lycaonia, which issued coins with the same types. Most references attribute the type to an uncertain city in Cilicia and some to Tarsos. Laranda was destroyed by Perdiccas in about 322 B.C. and later became a seat of Isaurian pirates. This type was minted with a progression of reverses, first with an incuse square, then a square border of dots, and finally with a circle of dots. The original archaic punch reverse gradually evolved into a regular die, nearly identical to an obverse die. This variant was struck near the end of that evolution, perhaps for the defense against Perdiccas.
GA92015. Silver obol, cf. Göktürk 82-5, pl XXV, 6-9; SNG BnF 450 (uncertain Cilicia); SNG Levante 225 (uncertain Cilicia), VF, well centered on a tight flan, struck with worn dies, corrosion, weight 0.584 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 125o, Laranda (Karaman, Turkey) mint, 4th century B.C.; obverse Baal seated left, stalk of grain and bunch of grapes in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; reverse wolf forepart right, crescent above with horns upward, circle border of dots; ex Moneta (St. Cloud, MN); $70.00 SALE |PRICE| $63.00
 







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Baal