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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Gods, Non-Olympian ▸ SolView Options:  |  |  |     

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.


Florianus, June or July - August or September 276 A.D.

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Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.
RA73897. Bronze antoninianus, MER-RIC 4511 (6 spec.), BnF XII - (not in the collection but noted p. 408), RIC V -, Hunter IV -, SRCV III -, Venèra II -, VF, well centered and struck, green patina, scratches, weight 3.027 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, issue 2, Aug 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AN FLORIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PROVIDEN DEOR (foresight of the gods), Fides Militum on left, standing right, holding two flanking standards, one in each hand; Sol on right, standing left, raising right hand commanding sunrise, globe behind in left, star low between the figures, Γ in exergue; very rare; $175.00 (€155.75)
 


Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.

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Sear identifies this denomination for Aurelian as either an as or a reduced sestertius. The as (or reduced sestertius) is a very scarce denomination this late in the empire.
RA76203. Bronze as, MER-RIC 1871, Göbl MIR 145d0(1), BnF XII 297, Hunter IV 33, SRCV III 11646, RIC V 80 var. (officina number), Hunter IV 27 var. (4th officina), VF, well centered, nice green patina, flan crack, weight 6.041 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina(?), Rome mint, issue 11, early - September 275; obverse IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA AVG, Emperor and empress clasping hands, above and between them a radiate and draped bust of Sol right; $175.00 (€155.75)
 


Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.

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Crispus' earliest issue. On 1 March 317, Constantine the Great and co-emperor Licinius elevated their sons Crispus, Constantine II (still an baby) and Licinius II to Caesars. After this arrangement Constantine ruled the dioceses Pannonia and Macedonia, and established his residence at Sirmium, from where he prepared a campaign against the Goths and Sarmatians.
RL76319. Billon reduced follis, RIC VII London 115 (R2), SRCV IV 16718, Cohen VII 136, Choice EF, excellent centering and strike, some die wear, weight 3.243 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Londinium (London, England) mint, 1st issue, 1 Mar - end 317 A.D.; obverse CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, S - P across fields, PLN in exergue; scarce; $175.00 (€155.75)
 


Tacitus, 25 September 275 - June 276 A.D.

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The reverse legend dedicates this coin to the foresight of the gods.
RB71572. Silvered antoninianus, MER-RIC 3967 (2 spec), Venèra 2404, RIC V -, BnF XII -, Bastien IX -, EF, well centered, near full silvering, weight 4.564 g, maximum diameter 23.6 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, issue 3, early - Jun 276; obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from front; reverse PROVIDEN DEOR, Providentia standing right holding two standards, facing Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, KA·∆ in exergue; very rare variant; $160.00 (€142.40)
 


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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Coins of this issue normally weight 4 - 5 grams. This type with the same mintmark and controls was also struck 313 - 315 A.D. but on a lighter standard. This coin is a little light for the early issue but the style is correct for 310 - 313 A.D.
RL77134. Billon follis, RIC VI Treveri 872, SRCV IV 16060, Cohen VII 525, Choice EF, well centered, excellent portrait, some areas with porosity, weight 4.086 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 310 - 313 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing slightly left left, radiate, nude but for cloak over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, T - F divided across field, PTR in exergue; $150.00 (€133.50)
 


Florianus, June or July - August or September 276 A.D.

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PACATOR is Latin for peacemaker or pacifier; from paco ("I make peaceful, pacify"), from pax ("peace"). To the Romans a maker of world peace would necessarily also be a subjugator, a subduer, and a conqueror.
RA83489. Billon antoninianus, RIC V 7, BnF XII 1860, Bastien 137, Cohen VI 46, Venèra 2640 - 2644, Gloucester 784, Appleshaw 352, Blackmoor 3947, Maravielle 841, VF, silvering, well centered, nice portrait, edge cracks, weight 4.414 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, issue 2, July 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AN FLORIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PACATOR ORBIS (pacifier of the world), Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, left arm, and flying behind, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, III in exergue; scarce; $150.00 (€133.50)
 


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
RB73721. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 538d, BMCRE VI 593, Hunter III 154, SRCV II 8004, Cohen IV 449 var. (bust), Choice aVF, nice portrait, well centered, nice green patina with some smoothed red areas on the reverse, light corrosion, weight 21.746 g, maximum diameter 31.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 234 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse P M TR P XIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left hand, S - C across field below center; $145.00 (€129.05)
 


Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.

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The star in the field, a symbol of the sun-god, stands for the mint of Rome.
RS77436. Silver denarius, RIC IV 40b, RSC III 184, Hunter III 49, BMCRE V p. 567, 244; cf. SRCV II 7533 (TR P III), VF, well centered, nice portrait, toned, some die wear, porous, weight 3.150 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, Rome mint, 221 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P IIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for cloak over shoulders and left arm and flying behind, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip vertical in left hand, star in left field; $145.00 (€129.05)
 


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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In 318, Constantine was given the title Britannicus Maximus for victories in Britain. The details of the battles are unknown.
RL71415. Billon follis, Depeyrot EMA15/4, RIC VII 164, SRCV IV 16083, Cohen VII 536, Nice VF, attractive green patina with red earthen highlighting, weight 3.616 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 315o, 1st officina, Arelatum (Arles, France) mint, 318 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for cloak over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, P star in crescent in exergue; scarce; $140.00 (€124.60)
 


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
SH71416. Billon follis, RIC VII Lyons 35 (R4), SRCV IV 16069, Cohen VII -, VF, nice armored bust left, sea green patina, light scratches, weight 3.142 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 314 - 316 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust left; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, TF left, star right, PLG in exergue; very rare; $140.00 (€124.60)
 




    



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Catalog current as of Wednesday, August 31, 2016.
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