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Home>Catalog>CollectingThemes>Gods,Non-Olympian>Sol PAGE 1/3123

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.


Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.

Click for a larger photo The star in the field, a symbol of the sun-god, stands for the mint of Rome.RS68509. Silver denarius, RSC III 154, RIC IV 28, SRCV II 7533, gVF, toned, weight 2.681 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 220 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P III COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, star in left field; ex Antioch Associates (San Francisco); $165.00 (143.55)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

Click for a larger photo In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to observe his "victory" the previous year over the Persians. He was forced to leave for the Rhine frontier, where the Alamanni had invaded Swabia. German tribes destroyed Roman forts and plundered the countryside at the Limes Germanicus.
RB71744. Bronze as, SRCV II 8091, RIC IV 543, BMCRE VI 966, Cohen IV 455, Choice aVF, excellent portrait and centering, Sol's head flatly struck, weight 10.435 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 235 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S - C across fields; $160.00 (139.20)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

Click for a larger photo In 231, Severus Alexander accompanied his mother Julia Mamaea to Syria and campaigned against the Persians. Military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. The Romans were defeated and withdrew to Syria. After heavy losses on both sides, a truce was signed accepting the status quo. In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to commemorate his "victory."RB63745. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 511, BMCRE VI 742, Cohen IV 413, gVF, nice patina, weight 19.982 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 231 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder and back; reverse P M TR P X COS III P P, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left; $150.00 (130.50)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Click for a larger photo In 315, immense baths were constructed in Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier).RB71555. Bronze follis, RIC VII Trier 105, Choice EF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand, globe in left, T- F across fields, BTR in ex; $150.00 (130.50)


Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.

Click for a larger photo Ticinum was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. In 476, Odoacer defeated Flavius Orestes at Ticinum after a long siege. To punish the city for helping his rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. After the Lombard's conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom, 568 - 774.RA70549. Silvered antoninianus, BnF XII.1 p. 186, 632; Gbl MIR 78Ab3; RIC V 152; Cohen VI 183; SRCV III 11587, Choice gVF, weight 4.655 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4th emission, late 274 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PROVIDEN DEOR (foresight of the gods), Fides on left holding standard in each hand, facing Sol, standing left, raising his right hand commanding the sun to rise and holding globe in left; TXXT in ex; $140.00 (121.80)


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

Click for a larger photo During Gordian's reign, the Roman Empire was threatened on multiple fronts. In 238, Goths from Ukraine crossed the Danube and devastated the Roman Empire up to the border with Anatolia. In 240, Africa revolted. Also in 240, Franks from northwest Germania raided the Rhine frontier. In 242, the cities of the Cimmerian Bosporus were evacuated because Goths controlled the territory.RB65147. Bronze as, RIC IV 297a, Cohen V 44, SRCV III 8773, VF, well centered, weight 10.483 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 4th issue, 241 - 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse AETERNITATI AVG S C, Sol standing slightly right, head left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left; $125.00 (108.75)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

Click for a larger photo In 234, the year this coin was struck, Alexander and his mother Julia Mamaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Germania Superior. His generals planned a military offensive and built a bridge across the Rhine. Alexander, however, preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the Alemanni. This outraged legionaries who, on 18 March 235 murdered Alexander and his mother, ending the Severan Dynasty.RB68910. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 538d, BMCRE VI 593, Cohen IV 449, SRCV II 8004, gF, well centered on a tight flan, weight 15.532 g, maximum diameter 30.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 234 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P XIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S - C across fields; $110.00 (95.70)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Click for a larger photo In early in December 316, to ensure his loyalty, Licinius elevated Aurelius Valerius Valens, the dux limitis (duke of the frontier) in Dacia, to the rank of Augustus. According to Petrus Patricius, when Constantine learned of this, "The emperor made clear the extent of his rage by his facial expression and by the contortion of his body. Almost unable to speak, he said, 'We have not come to this present state of affairs, nor have we fought and triumphed from the ocean till where we have now arrived, just so that we should refuse to have our own brother-in-law as joint ruler because of his abominable behavior, and so that we should deny his close kinship, but accept that vile slave [Valens] with him into imperial college.'" The treaty between Constantine and Licinius was concluded at Serdica on 1 March, 317. Whether it was part of that agreement is unknown, but Licinius had Valens executed.
SH73468. Bronze follis, RIC VII Trier 102, SRCV IV 16063, Choice EF, sharp detail, well centered, attractive bust, mintmark weak, weight 3.636 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 225o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, T - F flanking at sides, BTR in exergue; $100.00 (87.00)


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

Click for a larger photo In 198 A.D. Septimius Severus' oldest son Caracalla was made Augustus and his youngest son Geta received the title of Caesar.RS73367. Silver denarius, RIC IV 117, RSC III 449, BMCRE W263, cf. SRCV II 6331 (IMP VIIII), VF, some luster and rose toning, tight flan typical for the issue, weight 2.710 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, early 198 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P VI COS II P P, Sol standing facing, head radiate and left, naked except for cloak over left shoulder, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left; $90.00 (78.30)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

Click for a larger photo In 277, Probus entered Rome to have his position as Emperor ratified by the Senate.RB29519. Bronze antoninianus, RIC V 351 var (bust type), aVF, weight 3.197 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 0o, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 277 A.D.; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG, radiate nude heroic bust left, aegis across shoulder and spear in right hand; reverse CONSERVAT AVG, Sol standing slightly right, radiate, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, TXXT in exergue; very rare; $80.00 (69.60)




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Catalog current as of Sunday, April 19, 2015.
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