(?), Imitative of Zangids of , c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of , Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, ), 1146 - 1173 ( 73, 1850). That was itself also imitative, copying a of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 ( 8, 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the , this is one.BZ77974. Bronze , -; cf. 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the ), F, desert , , 2.798 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; two imperial figures (Constantine X and ) standing facing, supporting between them resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of inner left; Christ standing facing, , book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, flanking , blundered imitation of around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $160.00 (Ä142.40)
, Palaestina or , c. 450 - 500 A.D.
This object, from the Alex Malloy Collection, was held by him for decades, only speculatively attributed as probably Islamic. The referenced recent article by Farhi indicates another possible . As discussed by Farhi, in the second half of the 5th century, besides nummi, low-value currency in Palaestina appears to have included similar sized centuries old Jewish , cast Axumite imitations, and even bronze and lead blank flans. Many fragments of lead mirror frames, found over many years, appear to have been cut around decorative star-like or floral patterns to look like coins. They were almost certainly used as coins. The lead mirror frame fragment "coins" in Farhi have different patterns and are blank on one side, but this object is very similar.BZ53343. Lead , fragment of ornamented lead object coinage(?); See Farhi, H. "Note on Two Types of Lead Currency" in INR 8 (2013) for similar examples, 2.836 g, maximum 23.1 mm, ex Collection; $70.00 (Ä62.30)
Islamic, Umayyad Caliphate, , c. 680s A.D., Coinage
While the Muslims administered the city, the population of remained mostly ChristianóEastern Orthodox and Monophysiteówith a growing community of Muslims from Mecca, Medina, and the Syrian Desert. The governor assigned to the city which had been chosen as the capital of Islamic was Mu'awiya I. After the death of Caliph Ali in 661, Mu'awiya was chosen as the caliph of the expanding Islamic empire. Because of the vast amounts of assets his clan, the Umayyads, owned in the city and because of its traditional economic and social links with the Hijaz as well as the Christian Arab tribes of the region, Mu'awiya established as the capital of the entire Caliphate. With the ascension of Caliph Abd al-Malik in 685, an Islamic coinage system was introduced and all of the surplus revenue of the Caliphate's provinces were forwarded to the treasury of . Arabic was also established as the official language, giving the Muslim minority of the city an advantage over the Aramaic-speaking Christians in administrative affairs. It is critical to note that, at the time was conquered by the Muslims, the majority of Arabs were either pagans or Christians. itself was predominantly Aramaic with Arab speaking people.BZ77973. Bronze fals, 7; 560; 49; 3517.1 (S), -, aF, rough, 3.450 g, maximum 17.7 mm, Dimashq ( ) mint, c. 650 A.D.; DAMACKOC, emperor standing facing, long in left hand, in right hand, bird standing right atop T on left, ΛEO curving downward on right; large M (40 nummi), above, arc over horizontal line below, ANO downward on left, X/Y/II (frozen pseudo regnal year 17) in three lines on right, ∆AM ( ) in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $27.00 (Ä24.03)
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