Kingdom of Naples, Charles V (HRE), 1516 - 1554
Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. It was during Charles reign that Spain conquered the Aztecs of Mexico and Incas of Peru, and then extended its control across much of South and Central America. Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage was the first circumnavigation of the Earth. He retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, and the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son . The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century. Charles was only 54 when he retired, but after 34 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery where he died aged 58. Charles' motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain.ME66324. Bronze 2 cavalli, 155/3 var. (normal obv ends IMP RO, MIR notes variations exist), F, 3.115 g, maximum 21.3 mm, 135o, Naples mint, CAROLVS • IIII • RO • IMP (sic), right, A under neck; + REX ARAGO VTRIVS, imperial crown; variety; $120.00 (€106.80)
Kingdom of Naples, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1309
When his father died, Charles was a prisoner of III of Aragon. Edward I of England mediated peace, and Charles was liberated on the condition that he was to retain Naples alone. was left to the Aragonese. Three of his sons and 60 nobles were sent as hostages for his release. Pope Nicholas IV immediately absolved Charles from all the conditions he had sworn to observe, crowned him of in 1289, and excommunicated Alfonso III of Aragon. The two sides fought for the next 13 years until Charles finally gave up all rights to , agreed to marry his daughter Eleanor to Frederick, and lived the rest of his life peacefully in Naples.ME65257. denaro, 25, 1631, 689, VF, , grainy, 0.554 g, maximum 17.4 mm, 45o, Naples mint, 1290 - 1292; +: KARL': SCD': REX:, crowned facing; +: IERL': ET: SICIL':, fleurée; $115.00 (€102.35)
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II. ME66350. Bronze follaro, 133 (R2), -; -, , 0.852 g, maximum 11.5 mm, 135o, Bari mint, 1139 - 1154 A.D.; half-length figure of St. Demetrius standing facing, , transverse spear in right, in left; pseudo-Kufic one-line , above; very ; $100.00 (€89.00)
Lot of 8 Deniers of Lucca, Tuscany, First Crusade, 11th or 12th Century, "ERAT HAEC NOSTRA MONETA"
During the 10 and 11th centuries Lucca was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1160 Lucca became an independent republic, which it remained for almost 500 years.
The deniers of the mint of Lucca along with those issued from the mints of Charters, Le Mans, Melgueil, Le Puy, Valence and Melle are mentioned by the chronicler of Aguilers who accompanied the count of Toulouse of Saint-Gilles as the "Erat Haec Nostra Moneta" the coins used in the Latin East by members of the First Crusade. These coins frequently turn up in hoards found in lands held by the Franks in and .ME76444. denier, cf. 9 - 18, c. 0.7 g, maximum c. 16 mm, Lucca mint, 11th or 12th Century; +IHPERATOR, degraded OTTO ; +ENRICVS (blundered), LVCΛ around central pellet; $100.00 (€89.00)
Kingdom of Naples and , Conrad II (Conradin), of Jerusalem and , 1254 - 1258
Conrad II in was officially Conrad III in Jerusalem but was called "the Younger" or "the Boy," and most often the diminutive "Conradin." Conradin was an infant when he assumed the throne. Manfred his regent, although only about 18 years old, acted loyally and with vigor in the execution of his trust. However, upon a false rumor of Conradin's death, Manfred was crowned 1258 and refused to abdicate when the rumor was proved false. Pope Clement IV defeated and killed Manfred. At age 16, Conradin was defeated and beheaded by Charles of Anjou, ending the legitimate Hohenstaufen line.ME76448. denaro, 310 (R3), 590, 482 var. (R, no R at end of ), 166, F, 0.488 g, maximum 14.9 mm, 0o, Brindisi mint, 1254 - 1258; •+• C•SECVNDVS, crowned facing with left; •+• IER ET SICIL'•R, , pellet in second and third quarters; ; $100.00 (€89.00)
Kingdom of Naples and , Phillip III of Spain, 13 September 1598 - 31 March 1621
Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. ME66317. Bronze , 225 var. (unlisted control symbol), aF, 2.182 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 45o, Naples mint, 1619; + PHILIPP III D G REX, overflowing with bunches of grapes, other fruit, and stalks of grain, 16-19 flanking across ; * VIGILAT ET CVSTODIT (watches and keeps), recumbent atop round with ornamented side, MV (control symbol) below; (R2); $95.00 (€84.55)
Kingdom of Naples, Phillip III of Spain, 13 September 1598 - 31 March 1621
Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. ME66318. Bronze 2 cavalli, 225/6, aF, 3.954 g, maximum 23.9 mm, 180o, Naples mint, 1620; + PHILIPP III D G REX, overflowing with bunches of grapes, other fruit, and stalks of grain, 16-20 flanking across ; * VIGILAT ET CVSTODIT (watches and keeps), recumbent atop round with ornamented side; (R2); $95.00 (€84.55)
Kingdom of Naples and , Charles I of Anjou, 1266 - 1285
Charles I of Anjou was the of by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262. He was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282.ME66658. Bronze denaro, 356 (R), 665, 499 var. (legends reversed, NC), VF, 0.546 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 90o, Brindisi mint, 1277; + •DEI•GRA•REX• •, •K• in frame of six arches; + DVC APVL PRIC CAP, with trefoil at each end and in each quarter; $95.00 (€84.55)
Kingdom of Naples, Joanna of Castile and Charles V, 1516 - 1519
Joanna of Castile, known as Joanna the Mad, was the daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. She was a great beauty in her youth, and one of the most educated women in Europe, fluent in several languages. At 17 Joanna married Philip the Handsome, who was crowned of Castile in 1506, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain. After Philip's death that same year, Joanna became mentally ill and was confined to a nunnery for the rest of her life. Though she remained the legal queen of Castile throughout this time, her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, was regent until his death, when she inherited his kingdom as well. From 1516, her son, Charles, ruled as in her name.ME70802. Bronze half sestino, 123/1 (R3), aF, 1.470 g, maximum 19.0 mm, 90o, Naples mint, 1516 - 1519; + LETICIA , crown over •I•C•; IVSTVS • REX, ; very ; $90.00 (€80.10)
Kingdom of Naples, Robert of Anjou (the Wise), 1309 - 1343 A.D.
Robert of Anjou, known as Robert the Wise, was of Naples, titular of Jerusalem, Count of Provence and Forcalquier from 1309 to 1343, and the central figure of Italian politics of his time.ME68463. denaro, 718 - 719, 1637, 29, aVF, nice green , slightly wavy and , light scratches, 0.476 g, maximum 16.0 mm, 180o, Naples mint, 1309 - 1343 A.D.; + ROBERTU DEI GRA, four lis around center, upper lis at center of ; + IERL ET SICIL' REX, ; $90.00 (€80.10)
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