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Home>Catalog>MedievalCoins>Italy PAGE 2/5«««12345»»»

Medieval Coins of Italy


Kingdom of Sicily, Frederick II (HRE), 1197 - 1250
Click for a larger photo Frederick was born in Catania. In his youth, his reign was under the control of powerful Sicilian barons, and was plagued by wars with the Kingdom of Naples and by the Black Death, which killed his elder brother and predecessor. In 1372 he was able to come to peace terms with Naples and Pope Gregory IX.
ME70452. Billon denaro, MIR 10 286, MEC Italy III 555, Biaggi 459 (NC), Spahr 128, VF, centered, earthen fill, weight 0.697 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 0o, Brindisi mint, 1243; obverse + F ROM IMPR SEP AVG', bare head right; reverse +•R• IERSL' ET SICIL'•, eagle standing facing, head right, wings open; $160.00 (€120.00)

Kingdom of Naples, Charles VIII of France, 22 February - 7 July 1495
Click for a larger photo Charles VIII of France invaded Italy with 25,000 men (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries) in September 1494 and marched across the peninsula virtually unopposed. The French Army subdued Pavia, Pisa and Florence on their way south and took Naples on 22 Feb 1495 without a pitched battle or siege. Alfonso was expelled and Charles was crowned King of Naples. The other Italian rulers, including the Pope and Ludovico of Milan, formed an anti-French coalition, the League of Venice, which forced Charles to flee back to France. Charles' garrisons in Naples were subdued by Aragonese allies of Alfonso on 7 July 1495.
ME66309. Bronze cavallo, Biaggi 2639 (NC), MIR 10 788 var (obv leg), MEC 14 1055 ff. var (obv leg), F, weight 1.735 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 0o, Sulmona mint, 22 Feb - 7 Jul 1495; obverse KROLVS D G R FRA SIC I •, crown above three lis, SMPE below; reverse XPS VIN XPS RE XPS IM, Jerusalem cross; $150.00 (€112.50)

Kingdom of Naples, Phillip III of Spain, 13 September 1598 - 31 March 1621
Click for a larger photo Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as part of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714.
ME66316. Bronze 2 cavalli, MIR Napoli 231 (R2), F, uneven strike, tight flan, weight 2.182 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, Naples mint, obverse + PHILIPP III D G REX ARA, two flints and two flint locks forming a cross, a flame in each angle; reverse SICILIAE ET HIERVSA, crown, two crossed scepters inside; rare; $150.00 (€112.50)

Kingdom of Naples, Charles V (HRE), 1516 - 1554
Click for a larger photo Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. It was during Charles reign that Spain conquered the Aztecs of Mexico and Incas of Peru, and then extended its control across much of South and Central America. Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage was the first circumnavigation of the Earth. He retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, and the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century. Charles was only 54 when he retired, but after 34 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery where he died aged 58. Charles's motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain.
ME66324. Bronze 2 cavalli, MIR Napoli 155/3 var (normal obv legend ends IMP RO, MIR notes legend variations exist), F, weight 3.115 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 135o, Naples mint, obverse CAROLVS • IIII • RO • IMP (sic), bare head right, A under neck; reverse + REX ARAGO VTRIVS, imperial crown; rare variety; $150.00 (€112.50)

Kingdom of Naples, Ferdinand II of Naples, January 1495 - 7 September 1496
Click for a larger photo Ferdinand II was the son and successor of Alphonso II, and heir of the Brienne claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. About one month into his reign, on 20 February 1495, Charles VIII of France invaded and took Naples, Ferdinand fled with the royal family and an escort of 14 galleys to the castle at Ischia. The commander of the island fortress had made an agreement with the French, and opposed the King's entrance. Ferdinand killed the commander personally and had his body thrown into the sea. Ferdinand later moved to Messina, where he joined his cousin Ferdinand II, king of Sicily and Spain. In the meantime, Pope Alexander VI formed a coalition against Charles, made up of Emperor Maximilian, Venice, Milan and Spain. When the French king was forced to leave Naples with most of his army, Ferdinand returned on 7 July 1496. The citizens, irritated by the terrible conduct of their French conquerors during the occupation, received him back with enthusiasm. He died two months later. Since he actually ruled for only three months, it is not surprising that all of his coin types are rare.
ME66328. Silver cinquina, MIR Napoli 103 (R); MEC Italy III 1060; Biaggi 1703 (NC); CNI XIX p. 243, 89; Pannuti-Riccio 6, VF, obverse double struck, clipped, weight 0.599 g, maximum diameter 15.3 mm, die axis 225o, Naples mint, Jan - 20 Feb 1495, or 7 Jul - 7 Sep 1496; obverse + FERRANDVS : II : D : G : R : (double annulet stops), mountain of diamonds, T between two flowers below; reverse + SICILIE : IERVSALEM (double annulet stop), cross of Jerusalem; rare; $130.00 (€97.50)

Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, Conrad II (Conradin), King of Jerusalem and Sicily, 1254 - 1258
Click for a larger photo Conrad II in Sicily was officially Conrad III in Jerusalem but was called "the Younger" or "the Boy," and most often the diminutive "Conradin." Conradin was an infant when he assumed the throne. Manfred his regent, although only about 18 years old, acted loyally and with vigor in the execution of his trust. However, upon a false rumor of Conradin's death, Manfred was crowned king 1258 and refused to abdicate when the rumor was proved false. Pope Clement IV defeated and killed Manfred. At age 16, Conradin was defeated and beheaded by Charles of Anjou, ending the legitimate Hohenstaufen line.
ME70458. Billon denaro, MIR 10 310 (R3), MEC Italy III 590, Biaggi 482 var (R, no R at end of reverse legend), Spahr 166, VF, centered, weight 0.764 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 0o, Brindisi mint, obverse •+• C•SECVNDVS, crowned eagle facing with head left; reverse •+• IER ET SICIL'•R, cross pattée, pellet in third and fourth quarters; rare; $130.00 (€97.50)

Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, Philip IV of Spain, 31 March 1621 - 17 September 1665
Click for a larger photo Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as part of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714.
ME66313. Bronze 3 cavalli, MIR Napoli 275/2 (1631, R) or 275/3 (1632, R3), F, weight 2.577 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Naples mint, 1631 or 1632; obverse PHILIPP IIII D G R S 1631 (or 1632), radiate bust left, uncertain letter or symbol (control) before, S (mint master Lorenzo Salamone) behind; reverse foliate cross, rosette at center, flame from each angle; rare; $120.00 (€90.00)

Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, Phillip III of Spain, 13 September 1598 - 31 March 1621
Click for a larger photo Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as part of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714.
ME66317. Bronze tornese, MIR Napoli 225 var (unlisted control symbol), aF, weight 2.182 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 45o, Naples mint, 1619; obverse + PHILIPP III D G REX, cornucopia overflowing with bunches of grapes, other fruit, and stalks of grain, 16-19 flanking across field; reverse * VIGILAT ET CVSTODIT (watches and keeps), recumbent lion atop round altar with ornamented side, MV (control symbol) below; rare (R2); $120.00 (€90.00)

Kingdom of Naples, Phillip III of Spain, 13 September 1598 - 31 March 1621
Click for a larger photo Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as part of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714.
ME66318. Bronze 2 cavalli, MIR Napoli 225/6, aF, weight 3.954 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 180o, Naples mint, 1620; obverse + PHILIPP III D G REX, cornucopia overflowing with bunches of grapes, other fruit, and stalks of grain, 16-20 flanking across field; reverse * VIGILAT ET CVSTODIT (watches and keeps), recumbent lion atop round altar with ornamented side; rare (R2); $120.00 (€90.00)

Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1309
Click for a larger photo When his father died, Charles was a prisoner of Peter III of Aragon. King Edward I of England mediated peace, and Charles was liberated on the condition that he was to retain Naples alone. Sicily was left to the Aragonese. Three of his sons and 60 nobles were sent as hostages for his release. Pope Nicholas IV immediatly absolved Charles from all the conditions he had sworn to observe, crowned him King of Sicily in 1289, and excommunicated King Alfonso III of Aragon. The two sides fought for the next 13 years until Charles finally gave up all rights to Sicily, agreed to marry his daughter Eleanor to King Frederick, and lived the rest of his life peacefully in Naples.
ME66335. Billon denaro, MIR Napoli 25, Biaggi 1631, MEC Italy III 689, F, weight 0.688 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 135o, Naples mint, 1290 - 1292; obverse +: KARL': SCD': REX:, crowned bust facing; reverse +: IERL': ET: SICIL':, cross fleurée; $120.00 (€90.00)



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REFERENCES

Anastasi, M. Monete Bizantine di Sicilia. (NP, 2009).
Bellinger, A.R. and P. Grierson, eds. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection. (1966 - 1999).
Berman, A. G. Papal Coins. (New York, 1991).
Biaggi, E. Monete e Zecche medievali Italiane dal Sec. VIII al Sec. XV. (Torino, 1992).
Corpus Nummorum Italicorum. (Rome, 1910-1943).
Erslev, K. Medieval Coins in the Christian J. Thomsen Collection. (South Salem, NY, 1992).
Grierson, P. & L. Travaini. Medieval European Coinage, Volume 14: Italy III: South Italy, Sicily, Sardinia. (Cambridge, 1998).
Hahn, W. Moneta Imperii Byzantini. (Vienna, 1973-81).
Lunardi, G. Le Monete della Repubblica di Genova. (Genoa, 1975).
Metlich, M. A. The Coinage of Ostrogothic Italy. (London, 2004).
Monete Italiane Regionali. (Pavia, 1996 - present).
Pannuti, M & V. Ricco. Le monete de Napoli. Nummorum Auctiones S.A., Lugano. (Naples, 1984).
Sear, D.R. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Travaini, L. "Hohenstaufen and Angevin denari of Sicily and Southern Italy: their mint attributions" in NC 1993.
Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Lombards and of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea, and Trebizond in the British Museum. (London, 1911).

Catalog current as of Thursday, April 24, 2014.
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Medieval Italy