Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II. ME66350. Bronze follaro, 133 (R2), -; -, , 0.852 g, maximum 11.5 mm, 135o, Bari mint, 1139 - 1154 A.D.; half-length figure of St. Demetrius standing facing, , transverse spear in right, in left; pseudo-Kufic one-line , above; very ; $140.00 (€123.20)
Kingdom of , Frederick II (HRE), 1197 - 1250
Frederick was born in Catania. In his youth, his reign was under the control of powerful Sicilian barons, and was plagued by wars with the Kingdom of Naples and by the Black Death, which killed his elder brother and predecessor. In 1372 he was able to come to peace terms with Naples and Pope Gregory IX. ME70452. denaro, 286, 555, 459 (NC), 128, VF, centered, earthen fill, 0.697 g, maximum 17.8 mm, 0o, Brindisi mint, 1243; + F ROM IMPR SEP AVG', right; +•R• IERSL' ET SICIL'•, standing facing, right, wings open; $140.00 (€123.20)
Kingdom of Naples, Phillip III of Spain, 13 September 1598 - 31 March 1621
Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. ME66316. Bronze 2 cavalli, 231 (R2), F, uneven strike, , 2.182 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 0o, Naples mint, + PHILIPP III D G REX ARA, two flints and two flint locks forming a , a flame in each angle; ET HIERVSA, crown, two crossed scepters inside; ; $135.00 (€118.80)
Kingdom of Naples, Charles V (HRE), 1516 - 1554
Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. It was during Charles reign that Spain conquered the Aztecs of Mexico and Incas of Peru, and then extended its control across much of South and Central America. Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage was the first circumnavigation of the Earth. He retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, and the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son . The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century. Charles was only 54 when he retired, but after 34 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery where he died aged 58. Charles' motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain.ME66324. Bronze 2 cavalli, 155/3 var (normal obv ends IMP RO, MIR notes variations exist), F, 3.115 g, maximum 21.3 mm, 135o, Naples mint, CAROLVS • IIII • RO • IMP (sic), right, A under neck; + REX ARAGO VTRIVS, imperial crown; variety; $135.00 (€118.80)
Kingdom of Naples and , Charles I of Anjou, 1266 - 1285
Charles I of Anjou was the of by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262. He was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282.ME66666. denaro, 498 (R), MIR 355 (R2), 660, gF, 0.568 g, maximum 15.3 mm, 180o, Brindisi mint, 1276; + DEI GRA REX SICIL', KAR , double omega above, pellet below; DVC APVL' PRIC CAPE, , lis in each quarter; ; $130.00 (€114.40)
Kingdom of Naples and , Charles I of Anjou, 1266 - 1285
Charles I of Anjou was the of by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262. He was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282.ME66658. Bronze denaro, 356 (R), 665, 499 var (legends reversed, NC), VF, 0.546 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 90o, Brindisi mint, 1277; + •DEI•GRA•REX• •, •K• in frame of six arches; + DVC APVL PRIC CAP, with trefoil at each end and in each quarter; $125.00 (€110.00)
Kingdom of Naples, Robert of Anjou (the Wise), 1309 - 1343 A.D.
Robert of Anjou, known as Robert the Wise, was of Naples, titular of Jerusalem, Count of Provence and Forcalquier from 1309 to 1343, and the central figure of Italian politics of his time.ME68463. denaro, 718 - 719, 1637, 29, aVF, nice green , slightly wavy and , light scratches, 0.476 g, maximum 16.0 mm, 180o, Naples mint, 1309 - 1343 A.D.; + ROBERTU DEI GRA, four lis around center, upper lis at center of ; + IERL ET SICIL' REX, ; $120.00 (€105.60)
Kingdom of Naples and , Conrad I, of Jerusalem and , 1250 - 1254
Conrad was the son of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. In he was Conrad I, but by other German titles he was known as Conrad IV. ME66342. denier, 301 (NC), 577 - 578, 476, 158, VF, 0.680 g, maximum 15.1 mm, 90o, Brindisi mint, 1250 - 1254; + • IERVSALEM •, C•O / R, --- above, within inner ; + • ET • SICIL' • REX •, , within inner ; $120.00 (€105.60)
Republic of Ancona, Italy, c. 1250 - 1348 A.D.
Ancona, on the Adriatic Sea in Le Marche, is 280 km northeast of Rome. During this period Ancona was an oligarchic republic, ruled by six elected Elders. In 1348, after the city was weakened by the black death and a fire that destroyed many important buildings, the Malatesta took control but they were ousted in 1383. In 1532 Ancona lost its freedom and became of the Papal States, under Pope Clement VII. ME70815. denaro, 33, VF, 0.532 g, maximum 15.6 mm, 0o, Ancona mint, c. 1250 - 1348 A.D.; +•PP•S•QVI•RI•A•, CVS around central pellet within inner ; +•DE•ANCONA•, within inner ; $120.00 (€105.60)
Kingdom of , Frederick II (HRE), 1198 - 1250
Frederick II was one of the most powerful Holy of the Middle Ages. At two he was crowned of , co-ruler with his mother Constance, the daughter of Roger II of . In 1220, he was made of the Romans, and as such, of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy. He became of Jerusalem through marriage and the Sixth Crusade. Due to frequent disputes with the Papacy, he was excommunicated four times and Pope Gregory IX called him the Antichrist. An avid of science and the arts, he spoke Latin, Sicilian, German, French, Greek and Arabic. ME66664. denaro, MIR 294 (R2), 568, 471 (NC), gVF, 0.920 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 90o, Messina mint, 1248; + ROM INPERATOR (INP ), F•R in center, Ω (suspension mark) above; + IERL' ET SICIL' R (Jerusalem and ), , in 2nd and 3rd quarters; ; $120.00 (€105.60)
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