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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Hoards| ▸ |Galilee Hoard||View Options:  |  |  |   

The Galilee Hoard, 131 Bronze Coins, Deposited c. 84 B.C., Found 1989

In 1989, Alex Malloy received a hoard of 131 bronze coins. The find location was reported to be north of the Sea of Galilee. The hoard is of special interest as it represents the fascinating historical struggle in that region in the end of the 2nd century B.C. and the beginning of the 1st century B.C. All the historical players of the period are represented in the hoard. The Syrian kings, Antiochus VIII, his sons, Demetrius III and Antiochus XII, the Hasmonean Alexander Jannaeus and the Nabataean Aretas III are included. The nine mints represented are Damascus, Antioch on the Orontes, Akko-Ptolemais, Tyre, Jerusalem, Seleucis on the Orontes, the Nabataean mint of Petra, Sidon, and Biblos. Click here to read Alex Malloy's study "The Galilee Hoard" and Allen Berman's "Historical Background to the Galilee Hoard."


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus XII Dionysos, c. 87 - 84 B.C.

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The latest coin in the Galilee Hoard. This type was likely struck in late 84 B.C., shortly before Antiochus' death and the loss of Damascus to Nabataea.
GY46336. Bronze hemichalkon, Houghton-Lorber II 2482, Houghton CSE 867, SNG Spaer 2895 - 2896; BMC Seleucid -; Galilee Hoard H84 (this coin), VF, weight 3.345 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, 4th issue, c. 84 B.C.; obverse diademed, bearded head of Antiochos XII right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOX ∆IONYΣO EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY, Nike walking right, wreath in extended right, palm frond over shoulder in left, monogram in exergue; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); rare; SOLD


Seleukid Kingdom, Demetrius III Eucaerus, c. 96 - 87 B.C.

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Demetrius III Eucaerus ("the Timely") was nicknamed Acaerus ("the Untimely) by the Jews. He defeated the Hasmonaean Priest King Alexander Jannaeus but was forced to withdraw from Judaea by the hostile population. While attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip I Philadelphus, he was defeated by the Arabs and Parthians, and taken prisoner. He was held in confinement in Parthia by Mithridates II until his death in 88 B.C.
GY46358. Bronze AE 19, Newell LSM 125 var. (no monogram), Houghton-Lorber II 2455(6) var. (same, referencing only LSM); Galilee Hoard H42 (this coin), VF, weight 4.561 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, 94 - 93 B.C.; obverse radiate and diademed, lightly bearded head of Demetrius III right; reverse BACIΛEΩC ∆HMHTPIOY ΘEOY ΦIΛOMHTOPOC CΩTHPOC, Hermes standing facing, palm frond in right, kerykeion in left, ΘIΣ (year 219) followed by HD monogram in exergue; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); very rare; SOLD


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus XII Dionysos, c. 87 - 84 B.C.

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Antiochus XII was immediately challenged by the Nabataeans whose territories had grown during the Seleucids' perpetual fratricidal wars. While Antiochus was campaigning against the Nabataeans, these wars continued - Philip I took Damascus. Antiochus was forced to return to Damascus and evict his brother. Returning to the Nabataean front again, Antiochus, this time, had to overcome the resistance of Alexander Jannaeus en route. He soon perished in battle at the hands of the Nabataeans, leaving Damascus without a ruler. Damascus, the long time Southern stronghold of Seleucid power freely gave itself over to the benevolent rule of King Aretas III of Nabataea.
GY46334. Bronze chalkon, Houghton-Lorber II 2473, Houghton CSE 871, SNG Spaer 2897 ff.; BMC Seleucid p. 102, 4; Galilee Hoard H93 (this coin), VF, weight 6.642 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, first issue, c. 87 - 86 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped, beardless bust of Antiochos XII right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYC ΦIΛOΠATOPOC KAΛΛINIKOY, Tyche standing left, turreted, palm in frond in right hand, scepter in left hand, Π outer left; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); SOLD


Ake Ptolemais, Galilee, 132 - 109 B.C.

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In 103 B.C. the King of Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, with ambition to expand his territory, attacked Ake-Ptolemais. Ptolemais called on Ptolemy of Cyprus to its aid and it soon seemed Jannaeus would be crushed. But Cleopatra III of Egypt intervened, driving out Ptolemy (her own son) and reluctantly left Ptolemais under Jannaeus.
GB46326. Bronze hemichalkous, cf. Kadman Akko Ptolemais 24 - 42; BMC Phoenicia p. 128, 10; SGICV 6046; Galilee Hoard H114 (this coin), F/EF, obverse off-center, weight 1.584 g, maximum diameter 13.0 mm, die axis 0o, Galilee, Ake Ptolemais (Acre, Israel) mint, obverse jugate heads of the Dioskouroi right; reverse ...EPAΣ AΣ...(downward on left), ...ΠTOΛ...(downward on right), cornucopia with fruits, H monogram left; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); SOLD


Seleukid Kingdom, Demetrius III Eucaerus, c. 96 - 87 B.C.

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Demetrius III Eucaerus ("the Timely") was nicknamed Acaerus ("the Untimely) by the Jews. He defeated the Hasmonaean Priest King Alexander Jannaeus but was forced to withdraw from Judaea by the hostile population. While attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip I Philadelphus, he was defeated by the Arabs and Parthians, and taken prisoner. He was held in confinement in Parthia by Mithridates II until his death in 88 B.C.
GY46353. Bronze AE 18, Houghton-Lorber II 2456(4); SNG Spaer 2871 - 2873; Galilee Hoard H47 (this coin), VF, weight 3.125 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, 96 - 87 B.C.; obverse radiate and diademed, lightly bearded head of Demetrius III right; reverse BACIΛEΩC ∆HMHTPIOY ΘEOY ΦIΛOMHTOPOC CΩTHPOC, Hermes standing left on a square basis, kerykeion in right, palm frond in left, N over A left; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); SOLD


Seleukid Kingdom, Demetrius III Eucaerus, c. 96 - 87 B.C.

Click for a larger photo
Demetrius III Eucaerus ("the Timely") was nicknamed Acaerus ("the Untimely) by the Jews. He defeated the Hasmonaean Priest King Alexander Jannaeus but was forced to withdraw from Judaea by the hostile population. While attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip I Philadelphus, he was defeated by the Arabs and Parthians, and taken prisoner. He was held in confinement in Parthia by Mithridates II until his death in 88 B.C.
GY46357. Bronze AE 20, Houghton-Lorber II 2455 (various dates and control symbols); SNG Spaer 2850 et al. (same); Galilee Hoard H43 (this coin), aVF, weight 4.244 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, 96 - 91 B.C.; obverse radiate and diademed, lightly bearded head of Demetrius III right; reverse BACIΛEΩC ∆HMHTPIOY ΘEOY ΦIΛOMHTOPOC CΩTHPOC, Hermes standing facing, palm frond in right, kerykeion in left, control symbols outer left, date in exergue; wide flan cracks, ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); SOLD


Seleukid Kingdom, Demetrius III Eucaerus, c. 96 - 87 B.C.

Click for a larger photo
Demetrius III Eucaerus ("the Timely") was nicknamed Acaerus ("the Untimely) by the Jews. He defeated the Hasmonaean Priest King Alexander Jannaeus but was forced to withdraw from Judaea by the hostile population. While attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip I Philadelphus, he was defeated by the Arabs and Parthians, and taken prisoner. He was held in confinement in Parthia by Mithridates II until his death in 88 B.C.
GY46362. Bronze AE 18, Houghton-Lorber II 2455(1), Houghton CSE II 802, SNG Spaer 2842 - 2843, SNG Cop 421; Galilee Hoard H38, aVF, weight 3.190 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, 96 - 95 B.C.; obverse diademed, lightly bearded head of Demetrius III right; reverse BACIΛEΩC ∆HMTPIOY ΘEOY ΦIΛOΠATOPOC CΩTHPOC, Hermes standing half left, nude, long palm frond vertical in right, caduceus in left, monograms outer left, IIΣ (year 217) and H∆ monogram in exergue; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); SOLD


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus XII Dionysos, c. 87 - 84 B.C.

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Antiochus XII was immediately challenged by the Nabataeans whose territories had grown during the Seleucids' perpetual fratricidal wars. While Antiochus was campaigning against the Nabataeans, these wars continued - Philip I took Damascus. Antiochus was forced to return to Damascus and evict his brother. Returning to the Nabataean front again, Antiochus, this time, had to overcome the resistance of Alexander Jannaeus en route. He soon perished in battle at the hands of the Nabataeans, leaving Damascus without a ruler. Damascus, the long time Southern stronghold of Seleucid power freely gave itself over to the benevolent rule of King Aretas III of Nabataea.
GY46333. Bronze chalkon, Houghton-Lorber II 2476, Houghton CSE 870, SNG Spaer 2907 ff.; Galilee Hoard H94 (this coin), VF, obv off-center, grainy, weight 6.341 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, second issue, c. 86 - 85 B.C.; obverse diademed, beardless head of Antiochos XII right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYC ΦIΛOΠATOPOC KAΛΛINIKOY, Tyche (or Apollo?) standing left, diademed, palm in frond in right hand, scepter in left hand, monogram outer left; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); SOLD


Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.

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Severely unpopular, Jannaeus was pelted with citrons (etrog) on the Festival of Tabernacles (Sukkot) and according to Josephus, "being enraged at this, he killed some 6,000." A full scale revolt erupted and rebels called for the aid of the Seleucid King Demetrius II. Demetrius forced Jannaeus into the mountains but at Demetrus' withdrawal Jannaeus re-established his authority and crucified 800 rebels who were forced to watch the slaughter of their wives and children from their crosses (Jos. Ant. XIII:380).
BB46330. Bronze prutah, Galilee Hoard H102 (this coin), Hendin 1145, Meshorer TJC P, Meshorer AJC E, aVF, off-center, weight 1.852 g, maximum diameter 13.4 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, obverse Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); SOLD


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus XII Dionysos, c. 87 - 84 B.C.

Click for a larger photo
Antiochus XII was immediately challenged by the Nabataeans whose territories had grown during the Seleucids' perpetual fratricidal wars. While Antiochus was campaigning against the Nabataeans, these wars continued - Philip I took Damascus. Antiochus was forced to return to Damascus and evict his brother. Returning to the Nabataean front again, Antiochus, this time, had to overcome the resistance of Alexander Jannaeus en route. He soon perished in battle at the hands of the Nabataeans, leaving Damascus without a ruler. Damascus, the long time Southern stronghold of Seleucid power freely gave itself over to the benevolent rule of King Aretas III of Nabataea.
GY46343. Bronze chalkon, Houghton-Lorber II 2478; Houghton CSE 866; SNG Spaer 2884 ff.; BMC Seleucid p. 102, 6; Galilee Hoard H73 (this coin), F, weight 5.667 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, third issue, c. 85 - 84 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped, lightly bearded bust of Antiochos XII right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYC ΦIΛOΠATOPOC KAΛΛINIKOY, Zeus standing left, Nike in right, long scepter in left hand, monogram outer left; ex Galilee Hoard (found north of the Sea of Galilee in 1989); SOLD




  




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Galilee Hoard