Kingdom of , Manfred von Hohenstaufen, 1258 - 1266
Manfred was frequently in conflict with the Papacy and was excommunicated by three different popes. In the Divine Comedy, Dante meets Manfred outside the gates of Purgatory, where the spirit explains that, although he repented of his sins in the moment of death, he must atone by waiting 30 years for each year he lived as an excommunicate, before being admitted to Purgatory proper. Queen Elizabeth is a descendant of Manfred. ME73619. Bronze denaro, 482 (NC, Manfredonia), 613, 208, -, VF, 0.600 g, maximum 15.3 mm, 90o, Brindisi or Manfredonia mint, 1258 - 1264; + •AyNFR'•REX• (NF ), •m•; + •SICILIE•, ; $90.00 (€80.10)
Kingdom of , Manfred von Hohenstaufen, 1258 - 1266
The reading of the legends on this is not certain. did not have an adequate specimen and used a line drawing in place of the usual photograph. MEC notes there are no know specimens with clear legends. ME54998. Bronze denaro, 609A, 1277 (R2), gVF, 0.738 g, maximum 16.0 mm, 270o, Messina mint, + MAYNFRID, S entwined around ; + REX SICILIE, Ω over • R •; fantastic for the !; ; $85.00 (€75.65)
Kingdom of , Frederick II (HRE), 1197 - 1250
Frederick was born in Catania. In his youth, his reign was under the control of powerful Sicilian barons, and was plagued by wars with the Kingdom of Naples and by the Black Death, which killed his elder brother and predecessor. In 1372 he was able to come to peace terms with Naples and Pope Gregory IX. ME66347. denaro, 290 (NC), 560, 464 (NC), VF, nice green , 0.765 g, maximum 16.9 mm, 315o, Brindisi mint, 1245; + F•ROMANORVM, IMPR (IMP ) in center with double suspension mark above; + IERSL' ET SICIL' R ( of Jerusalem and ), , crescent in each quarter; $85.00 (€75.65)
Kingdom of , VI (HRE), 1194 - 1197
VI was of Germany from 1190 - 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 - 1197, and of from 1194 - 1197. In 1197, his German soldiers mercilessly suppressed a revolt in Italy, especially in southern . In this same year, prepared for a Crusade, but, on 28 September, he died of malaria (or he may have been poisoned) in Messina. His son, Frederick II, inherited both the Kingdom of and the Imperial crown.ME66349. denaro, 256 (NC), 485, 434 (NC), VF, nice green , 0.792 g, maximum 17.4 mm, 135o, Brindisi mint, 1194 - 1196; HE •INPERATOR (HE ), , six pointed in the third and fourth quarters; C INPERATRIX•, Ω (suspension mark) over A•P; ; $85.00 (€75.65)
Kingdom of Naples and , Charles I of Anjou, 1266 - 1285
Charles I of Anjou was the of by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262. He was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282.ME66617. denaro, 343 (R), 634, 35, -, VF, 0.547 g, maximum 16.0 mm, 45o, Brindisi mint, 1266 - 1278; + DEI GRA REX• •, KAR (AR ), Ω above; DVC APVL' ET PRIC CAP, , the horizontal beam a with four pendants, a lis in each lower quarter; ; $85.00 (€75.65)
, , 13 August 582 - 22 November 602 A.D.
By 602, Maurice ordered the troops to stay beyond the Danube over winter, but they revolted and marched back to Constantinople under the leadership of Phocas. On 27 November, Maurice was captured trying to escape, he was forced to witness the slaughter of his five sons and all his supporters, and was beheaded. His wife, and his three daughters were spared, and sent to a monastery. Phocas was proclaimed the emperor.BZ69192. Bronze , 24c, 281, 140, 249, 306, 1169, 7.100, 583, F, 3.225 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 180o, mint, 588 - 602 A.D.; D N mAVRIC - TIb P P AVC (or similar), helmeted, draped, and facing, helmet with crest and , in right; large X (10 nummi), SE-CI-LI-A in angles; $85.00 (€75.65)
Kingdom of Naples and , Conrad I, of Jerusalem and , 1250 - 1254
Conrad was the son of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. In he was Conrad I, but by other German titles he was known as Conrad IV. ME70455. denier, 301 (NC), 577 - 578, 476, 158, aVF, 0.527 g, maximum 15.2 mm, 270o, Brindisi mint, + • IERVSALEM •, C•O / R, --- above, within inner ; + • ET • SICIL' • REX •, , within inner ; $85.00 (€75.65)
Kingdom of , Charles of Anjou, 1266 - 1285
Charles received the Kingdom of as a papal grant but had to take it by force from the Hohenstaufen. In 1282, he was expelled from by rebellion. He continued to claim the island, but ruled only the peninsula from his capital at Naples. By conquest he became of Albania in 1272, by purchase of Jerusalem in 1277, and he inherited the Principality of Achaea in 1278.ME70461. denaro, 353 (R), 497 (R), 650, 47, VF, nice green , 0.903 g, maximum 16.8 mm, Brindisi mint, early coinage, 1266 - 1278; + K DEI GRA REX SICIL', large lis above narrow crescent with horns up; + DVC APVL' ET PRNC CAP, ; ; $85.00 (€75.65)
, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Heraclius offered peace to Khusro, presumably in 624, threatening otherwise to invade , but Khusro rejected the offer. Heraclius marched into with an army of probably less than 25,000 men, willingly abandoning any attempt to secure his rear or maintain lines of communication. Heraclius fought brilliantly and bravely repeatedly defeated the Persian forces. When the war ended in 628, Khusro had been murdered by his own men, the Byzantines regained all their lost territories, their captured soldiers, a war indemnity, and most importantly for them, the True and other relics that were lost in Jerusalem in 614.BZ64050. Bronze , 62; 1, 257; 410; 886; 241, VF, pit ( defect?) on , 5.067 g, maximum 10.0 mm, 180o, , Catania mint, 625 - 626 A.D.; facing busts of Heraclius on left, bearded, and Heraclius Constantine on right, beardless; both crowned, draped and ; between their heads; large I (10 nummi), ANNO right, X/ς (year 16) right, CAT in ; ; $80.00 (€71.20)
, the Armenian and Constantine, 25 December 813 - 25 December 820 A.D.
In 815, Leo concluded a 30-year peace treaty with Omurtag of Bulgaria. The treaty was honored by both sides and renewed after the accession of Michael II in 820. In 821, Thomas the Slav rebelled and laid siege to Constantinople to seize the Imperial throne. Omurtag sent an army to Michael II put down the rebellion. accounts report that Thomas' army was routed at the Battle of Kedouktos (winter 822 or spring 823), however, modern scholars consider the battle a , albeit costly, for the rebel.BZ65995. Bronze , 497; , 1, 19; 30/Sy/AE/01; 22; 22; 1803; 1635; 29.7, gVF, typical , 3.267 g, maximum 18.3 mm, 0o, mint, 817 - 25 Dec 820 A.D.; facing busts of Leo, on left, with short beard and Constantine, each wears crown and , between above; Λ•K (initials of Leon and Konstantine), above; $80.00 (€71.20)
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