, , 13 August 582 - 22 November 602 A.D.
By 602, Maurice ordered the troops to stay beyond the Danube over winter, but they revolted and marched back to Constantinople under the leadership of Phocas. On 27 November, Maurice was captured trying to escape, he was forced to witness the slaughter of his five sons and all his supporters, and was beheaded. His wife, and his three daughters were spared, and sent to a monastery. Phocas was proclaimed the emperor.BZ69192. Bronze , 24c, 281, 140, 249, 306, 1169, 7.100, 583, F, 3.225 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 180o, mint, 588 - 602 A.D.; D N mAVRIC - TIb P P AVC (or similar), helmeted, draped, and facing, helmet with crest and , in right; large X (10 nummi), SE-CI-LI-A in angles; $75.00 (€66.75)
Normans, Kingdom of , William II, 1166 - 1189 A.D.
Secluded and pleasure-loving, William II, the , seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign was marked by an ambitious foreign policy and vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa.ME77194. Bronze follaro, 432, VF, 2.208 g, maximum 12.6 mm, 0o, Messina mint, facing ; Arabic "al-malik / Ghulyalim / al-thani" ( William 2nd); $75.00 (€66.75)
, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Heraclius offered peace to Khusro, presumably in 624, threatening otherwise to invade , but Khusro rejected the offer. Heraclius marched into with an army of probably less than 25,000 men, willingly abandoning any attempt to secure his rear or maintain lines of communication. Heraclius fought brilliantly and bravely repeatedly defeated the Persian forces. When the war ended in 628, Khusro had been murdered by his own men, the Byzantines regained all their lost territories, their captured soldiers, a war indemnity, and most importantly for them, the True and other relics that were lost in Jerusalem in 614.BZ64050. Bronze , 62; 1, 257; 410; 886; 241, VF, pit ( defect?) on , 5.067 g, maximum 10.0 mm, 180o, , Catania mint, 625 - 626 A.D.; facing busts of Heraclius on left, bearded, and Heraclius Constantine on right, beardless; both crowned, draped and ; between their heads; large I (10 nummi), ANNO right, X/ς (year 16) right, CAT in ; ; $70.00 (€62.30)
, the Armenian and Constantine, 25 December 813 - 25 December 820 A.D.
In 815, Leo concluded a 30-year peace treaty with Omurtag of Bulgaria. The treaty was honored by both sides and renewed after the accession of Michael II in 820. In 821, Thomas the Slav rebelled and laid siege to Constantinople to seize the Imperial throne. Omurtag sent an army to Michael II put down the rebellion. accounts report that Thomas' army was routed at the Battle of Kedouktos (winter 822 or spring 823), however, modern scholars consider the battle a , albeit costly, for the rebel.BZ65995. Bronze , 497; , 1, 19; 30/Sy/AE/01; 22; 22; 1803; 1635; 29.7, gVF, typical , 3.267 g, maximum 18.3 mm, 0o, mint, 817 - 25 Dec 820 A.D.; facing busts of Leo, on left, with short beard and Constantine, each wears crown and , between above; Λ•K (initials of Leon and Konstantine), above; $70.00 (€62.30)
Kingdom of , Frederick II (HRE), 1198 - 1250
Frederick II was one of the most powerful Holy of the Middle Ages. At two he was crowned of , co-ruler with his mother Constance, the daughter of Roger II of . In 1220, he was made of the Romans, and as such, of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy. He became of Jerusalem through marriage and the Sixth Crusade. Due to frequent disputes with the Papacy, he was excommunicated four times and Pope Gregory IX called him the Antichrist. An avid of science and the arts, he spoke Latin, Sicilian, German, French, Greek and Arabic.ME66346. denaro, 549, 282 (NC), 455 (NC), 121, VF, porous, 0.533 g, maximum 17.6 mm, 45o, , Brindisi mint, 1239; F•- IM-PER-ATO-R•, long intersecting ; R•I-ER'-ET•S-ICL'•, crowned superimposed at center on long intersecting ; $70.00 (€62.30)
Kingdom of Naples and , Conrad II (Conradin), of Jerusalem and , 1254 - 1258
Conrad II in was officially Conrad III in Jerusalem but was called "the Younger" or "the Boy," and most often the diminutive "Conradin." Conradin was an infant when he assumed the throne. Manfred his regent, although only about 18 years old, acted loyally and with vigor in the execution of his trust. However, upon a false rumor of Conradin's death, Manfred was crowned 1258 and refused to abdicate when the rumor was proved false. Pope Clement IV defeated and killed Manfred. At age 16, Conradin was defeated and beheaded by Charles of Anjou, ending the legitimate Hohenstaufen line.ME66627. denaro, 322 (NC), 597, 484 (R), aVF, 0.566 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 0o, Brindisi mint, + SECVNDVS• R, C in center surrounded by four crescents; + IERL ET SICIL', with crescent in each quarter; ; $70.00 (€62.30)
Kingdom of , Manfred von Hohenstaufen, 1258 - 1266
Manfred was frequently in conflict with the Papacy and was excommunicated by three different popes. In the Divine Comedy, Dante meets Manfred outside the gates of Purgatory, where the spirit explains that, although he repented of his sins in the moment of death, he must atone by waiting 30 years for each year he lived as an excommunicate, before being admitted to Purgatory proper. Queen Elizabeth is a descendant of Manfred.ME66632. denaro, 610, 1278 (NC), 480 (R), VF, , 0.702 g, maximum 14.9 mm, 45o, Brindisi or Manfredonia mint, 1258 - 1266; + NFRIDVS REX, MA / Y in center, crescent above; SICILIE +, long ; ; $70.00 (€62.30)
, II and Constantine IV, 13 April 654 - 15 July 668 A.D.
In 654, II appointed his two-year old son Constantine IV as co-emperor ( ). In 659. II also elevated Constantine IV's younger brothers, Heraclius and , as co-emperors.SH69722. Bronze , 157; , 2, 180; 358; 6; 278; 1604; 209; 696; 12.91; 1109, F+, , , 5.629 g, maximum 27.0 mm, 135o, mint, 654 - 659; (left) in military attire with long staff in right, and Constantine in with in right, both crowned and stand facing; large M (40 nummi), above, SCL ( ) in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $70.00 (€62.30)
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II.ME68268. Bronze follaro or half follaro, 27 (follaro), 180 (follaro), 1222 (NC, half follero), 77 (half follero), F, typical and , 1.437 g, maximum 15.3 mm, 330o, Messina mint, c. 1130 - 1138 A.D.; the sitting facing on a throne, Latin flanking: P/O/Γ/E/P/I - A/N/A/Σ ( Roger); with pellet at each end, / NI-KA (Jesus Christ Conquers) in angles; ; $70.00 (€62.30)
Normans, Kingdom of , William II, 1166 - 1189 A.D.
Secluded and pleasure-loving, William II, the , seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign was marked by an ambitious foreign policy and vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa.ME68451. Bronze follaro, 401 ff., 1233, VF, 0.762 g, maximum 14.3 mm, 180o, Messina mint, 1166 - 1189; + OPERATAT IN VRBE MESSANE, o / REX W / SCOVS in center (OV ); Arabic "al-malik / Ghulyalim / al-thani" ( William 2nd) in center, "bi-amr al-malik al-mu'azzam al-musta'izz" around edge; $60.00 (€53.40)
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