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Octavian and Divus Julius Caesar, Second Triumvirate, 36 B.C., Lugdunum, Gaul
Lyon was originally founded as the Roman city ColoniaCopiaFelixMunatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum by the end of the 1st century A.D. The etymology of Lugdunum is a latinization of the Gaulish place name Lugodunon. While dunon means hillfort, the source of Lug is uncertain. The most commonly offered meaning is the Celtic god named Lug. During the Middle Ages, Lugdunum was transformed to Lyon by natural sound change.RR70870. Bronze dupondius, RPC I 515, Giard Lyon 7, SNG Cop 689, F, weight 16.797 g, maximum diameter 29.9 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 36 B.C.; obverse IMP CAESARDIVI F DIVI IVLI, two heads back to back: laureate head of Divus Julius Caesar to left and bare head of Octavian to right; between them palm branch with its tip bent to right over Octavian's head; reverse Prow of galley to right, ornamented with an eye and dolphin; star superimposed on globe and meta above deck, COPIA below; rare; $490.00 (€436.10)
Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Deultum, Thrace
ColoniaFlavia Pacensis (or Pacifica) Deultum was founded by Vespasian. The colony assumed his family name, Flavia, and on account of Vespasian's devotion to the goddess of Peace (to whom he built a temple at Rome); it was called Pacensis (or Pacifica). RP77123. Bronze AE 22, SNG Deultum 1746-1749 (same dies); Jurukova Deultum 454, Varbanov II 3023(?); BMC Thrace -, gVF, nice patina, nice style, reverse die wear and crack, weight 6.695 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, Deultum (Debelt, Bulgaria) mint, Feb 244 - End Sep 249 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind, centration dimple; reverse CO-L FL PAC DEV,LT (LT in exergue), prow of galley left on waves, ram's head on point of ram, octopus and dolphin swimming left beside hull above waves; Pecunem Gitbud & Naumann auction 31 (3 May 2015), lot 313; rare; $215.00 (€191.35)
Syracuse, Sicily, Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then king of Syracuse, c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and Syracuse became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense altar. The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the Mamertini, he eventually allied with Rome. GI77003. Bronze tetras, BMC Sicily p. 218, 608; Calciati II p. 395, 197 (ΛY right not listed); SNG Cop 852; SNG Munchen 1403; SNG ANS 964 ff.; HGC 2 1550 (S), gVF, nice Poseidon, reverse about 1/5 off-center, very light corrosion and encrustation, light bumps and marks, weight 5.556 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 270o, Syracuse mint, c. 268 - 218 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Poseidon left; reverse ornamented trident head, dolphin downward flanking on each side, IEPΩ−NOΣ horizontal across field divided by shaft, ΛY lower right; $160.00 (€142.40)
Taras, Calabria, Italy, c. 380 - 355 B.C.
Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta). These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave Greece forever. Their leader, Phalanthus, consulted the oracle at Delphi and was told to make the harbor of Taranto their home. They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The reverse depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon. This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of modern Taranto today.GI85329. Silver nomos, Fischer-Bossert group 40, 607 (V239/R464); Vlasto 454 (same dies); HN Italy 879; SNG Cop 820 (same); SNG ANS 938; BMC Italy p. 174, 107, F, tight flan cutting off youth's head, minor die damage (raised lump) below Θ, weight 7.689 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Taras (Taranto, Italy) mint, c. 380 - 355 B.C.; obverse nude youth on horseback standing right, right hand lowered behind him on horse's side, reins in left hand, left foreleg raised, Θ below horse; reverse Taras astride a dolphin left, kantharos in extended right hand, left hand behind on dolphin, TAPAΣ below; $150.00 (€133.50)
Syracuse, Sicily, Dionysos I, 395 - 367 B.C.
Dionysius I was tyrant of Syracuse. He conquered several cities in Sicily and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in Sicily and made Syracuse the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive.GI84845. Bronze drachm, Calciati II p. 111, 62; SNG ANS 454; SNG Cop 720; SNG Munchen 1135; SNG Morcom 697; BMC Sicily p. 187, 287; SGCV I 1189, F, weight 32.460 g, maximum diameter 31.1 mm, die axis 45o, Syracuse mint, 395 - 367 B.C.; obverse ΣYPA, head of Athena left wearing olive wreathed Corinthian helmet; reverse sea star between two dolphins; $135.00 (€120.15)
Megara, Megaris, Greece, 307 - 243 B.C.
Megara is in WestAttica, the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. Megara was a trade port, its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. Megara specialized in exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pegae, to the west on the Corinthian Gulf and Nisaea, to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea. Megara had 23,456 inhabitants at the 2011 census.GB85282. Bronze AE 15, BCD Peloponnesos 9.5, SNG Cop 482, gF, weight 2.435 g, maximum diameter 14.8 mm, die axis 0o, Megara mint, 307 - 243 B.C.; obverse prow of galley left; reverse two dolphins swimming clockwise around MEΓ within dotted border; ex CNG, ex BCD Collection; $130.00 (€115.70)
Thasos, Islands off Thrace, c. 411 - 404 B.C.
In 411 B.C., Thasos revolted from Athens and received a Lacedaemonian governor. In 407 B.C. Spartans were expelled and the Athenians readmitted. After the Battle of Aegospotami in 405 B.C., Thasos again fell under the Lacedaemonians led by Lysander who formed a decarchy there. Athens must have recovered it, for later it was a subject of dispute with Philip II of Macedonia.GA84665. Silver tritartemorion, Le RiderThasiennes 12; SNG Cop 1033, BMC Thrace 60, SNG Fitzwilliam 3665, McClean 4218, SGCV I 1756, VF, well centered, surfaces lightly etched, weight 0.393 g, maximum diameter 8.1 mm, die axis 180o, Thasos mint, c. 411 - 404 B.C.; obversehead of satyr right; reverse ΘAΣI, two dolphins swimming; $120.00 (€106.80)
Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.
Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Most references attribute the type to Myus. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.GB69183. Bronze chalkous, SNG Munchen 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tub 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), VF, pitting, weight 1.910 g, maximum diameter 11.0 mm, die axis 270o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reversedolphin right, MY above, trident right below; rare; $110.00 (€97.90)
Syracuse, Sicily, c. 415 B.C., By the Master Phrygillos
Superbstyle by the master Phrygillos. Calciati referring to this type notes, "Coins exist signed by signed by Kimon (KIM), Phrygillos (ΦPI), Eukleidas (EY) and by an unknown engraver with the letter E (Eumenes?)." While the signature on this coin is not clear, it is without any doubt the work of Phrygillos.GI77310. Bronze hemilitron, Calciati II p. 47, 19 fr 4; SNG ANS 412; BMC Sicily p. 182, 243; SNG Cop 696 (obv. symbol off flan); SGCV I 1186; HGC 2 1479 (S), VF, rough, encrustations, areas of corrosion, weight 3.568 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 135o, Syracuse mint, c. 415 B.C.; obverseHead of Arethusa left, hair in sphendone (inscribed ΦPI?), dolphin behind; reverse ΣY−PA, wheel of four spokes, dolphin in each of the lower quarters; $110.00 (€97.90)
Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.
Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.GB67788. Bronze chalkous, SNG Munchen 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tub 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), F, weight 1.655 g, maximum diameter 11.1 mm, die axis 0o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reversedolphin right, MY above, trident right below; very rare; $90.00 (€80.10)