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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Gods, Olympians ▸ Poseidon or NeptuneView Options:  |  |  |   

Poseidon or Neptune

Lord of the Sea; god of the seas, earthquakes and horses. Symbols include the hippocamp and the trident. Son of Cronus and Rhea. Brother of Zeus and Hades.


Poseidonia, Lucania, Italy, c. 470 - 445 B.C.

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Poseidonia was founded around the end of the 7th century B.C. by Greek colonists from Sybaris. In the fifth century B.C., Poseidonia was conquered by the Lucani. Archaeological evidence indicates Greek and Oscan cultures thrived together. In 273 B.C., after the Poseidonians had sided with Pyrrhus against Rome, Poseidonia was refounded as the Roman city of Paestum.
GS87516. Silver nomos, SNG ANS 646, SNG Fitzwilliam 544, SNG Cop 1281, SNG München 1056 var. (inscription), HN Italy 1114 var. (same), SNG Tübingen -, SNG Lockett -, F, well centered, toned, some marks and scratches, etched surfaces, weight 7.712 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 90o, Poseidonia mint, c. 470 - 445 B.C.; obverse Poseidon advancing right, chlamys over shoulders, brandishing trident in raised right hand, left arm outstretched before him, ΠOMES retrograde downward on right; reverse bull standing right, within round incuse, ΠOMES retrograde above; $215.00 (€182.75)
 


Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Ancient Unofficial Cast

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This coin is clearly cast and not an official struck mint issue. Many unofficial counterfeits or perhaps semi-offical local imitations were struck and cast in Gaul, especially during the reign of Claudius (up to 50% of the bronze Claudius coins found in some areas), apparently due to shortages of official coinage. This coin was probably cast at that time.
RB88887. Cast bronze as, cf. RIC I Gaius 58, BMCRE II Tiberius 161, BnF II Caligula 77, Hunter I 1, Cohen I 3, SRCV I 1812 (official, Rome mint, struck under Caligula), F, green patina, corrosion, casting seams and sprues, weight 15.775 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, die axis 180o, unofficial mint, 38 - c. 60 A.D.; obverse M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing a rostral crown; reverse Neptune standing facing, head left, nude but for cloak draped over arms, dolphin in right hand, trident vertical in left hand, large S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $150.00 (€127.50)
 


Syracuse, Sicily, Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.

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Hieron II was tyrant and then king of Syracuse, c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and Syracuse became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense altar. The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the Mamertini, he eventually allied with Rome.
GB81527. Bronze AE 19, cf. Calciati II p. 395, 197 ff.; SNG Cop 844 ff., SNG ANS 964 ff., SGCV I 1223 (various controls), aVF, well centered, nice patina, weight 5.663 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 90o, Syracuse mint, 275 - 215 B.C.; obverse head of Poseidon left; reverse IEPΩ−NOΣ, ornamented trident head, dolphins at sides, uncertain control marks below; ex Forum (2014); $110.00 (€93.50)
 


Krannon, Thessaly, Greece, 400 - 344 B.C.

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The city of Krannon, named for the son of Poseidon, was located in Thessaly near the source of the river Onchestus. It was the home of the powerful Scopadae family.
GB88315. Bronze AE 18, cf. BMC Thessaly p. 17, 7; BCD Thessaly 1081.1; Rogers 179 ff.; SNG Cop 39 - 40; SGCV I 2075; HGC 4 384 (various ethnic arrangements), gF, dark patina, high points flatly struck, weight 5.044 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 90o, Krannon, Thessaly mint, 400 - 344 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reverse KPA (or similar), horseman galloping right, wearing petasos and chlamys, trident below; ex Harlan J. Berk, ex Ancient Imports; $90.00 (€76.50)
 


Amphipolis, Macedonia, c. 148 - 31 B.C.

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In 168 B.C., the Romans invaded Macedonia and overthrew King Perseus in the First Battle of Pydna. In 149 B.C., Andriskos, at that time ruler of Adramyttium only, claiming to be Perseus' son, announced his intention to retake Macedonia from Rome. Andriskos traveled to Syria to request military help from Demetrius Soter of Syria. Demetrius instead handed him over to Rome. Andriskos escaped captivity, raised a Thracian army, invaded Macedonia, and defeated the Roman praetor Publius Juventius. Andriskos then declared himself King Philip VI of Macedonia. In 148 B.C., Andriskos conquered Thessaly and made an alliance with Carthage, thus bringing the Roman wrath on him. In 148 B.C., in what the Romans called the Fourth Macedonian War, he was defeated by the Roman praetor Q. Caecilius Metellus at the Second Battle of Pydna. He fled to Thrace, whose prince gave him up to Rome. Andriskos' brief reign over Macedonia was marked by cruelty and extortion. After this, Macedonia was formally reduced to a Roman province.
GB79921. Bronze AE 19, SNG ANS 128 corr.; SNG Cop 66 var. (control); BMC Macedonia p. 49, 46 ff. var. (controls); HGC 3.1 424 (R2), F, centered, green patina, cleaning scratches, weight 8.717 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 30o, Amphipolis mint, c. 148 - 31 B.C.; obverse bearded head of Poseidon right wearing taenia; reverse horse trotting right, AMΦIΠ−O/ΛITΩN divided above and below, ATP monogram (control) above; rare; $80.00 (€68.00)
 


Syracuse, Sicily, Roman Rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.

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This type was perhaps the last pseudo-autonomous issue of Syracuse.
RP79995. Bronze AE 19, Calciati II p. 434, 240/9 (same obverse die), SNG Morcom 838, SNG ANS 1099, SNG München 1483, Fine/Fair, obv off-center, ragged flan, weight 4.933 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 345o, Syracuse mint, c. 212 - 133 B.C.; obverse diademed, bearded male (Serapis, Poseidon or Zeus) head right; reverse ΣYPAKOCIΩN, female (Isis?) standing left, wreath (or sistrum?) in right, long scepter vertical behind in left; ex Forum (2011); scarce; $70.00 (€59.50)
 


Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.
GB67788. Bronze chalkous, SNG München 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tüb 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), F, weight 1.655 g, maximum diameter 11.1 mm, die axis 0o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reverse dolphin right, MY above, trident right below; very rare; $60.00 (€51.00)
 


Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.

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Neptune was the god of freshwater and the sea in Roman religion. He is the counterpart of the Greek god Poseidon. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Neptune was the brother of Jupiter and Pluto; the brothers presided over the realms of Heaven, the earthly world, and the Underworld. Salacia was his consort. Neptune was likely associated with fresh water springs before the sea. Like Poseidon, Neptune was worshiped by the Romans also as a god of horses, under the name Neptunus Equester, a patron of horse-racing.
RA87973. Billon antoninianus, MER-RIC 1044, Huvelin 1990 38, Komin 1267, Cohen VI 184, RIC V-1 214 var. (• or A in ex.), SRCV III 11353, aVF, well centered, reverse struck with a worn die, weight 3.917 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, issue 3, c. early – mid 270; obverse IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate head left; reverse NEPTVN AVG, Neptune standing slightly left, head left, nude but for cloak on left shoulder, dolphin in right hand, trident vertical in left hand; $60.00 (€51.00)
 


Amphipolis, Macedonia, c. 168 - 31 B.C.

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In 168 B.C., the Romans invaded Macedonia and overthrew King Perseus in the First Battle of Pydna. In 149 B.C., Andriskos, at that time ruler of Adramyttium only, claiming to be Perseus' son, announced his intention to retake Macedonia from Rome. Andriskos traveled to Syria to request military help from Demetrius Soter of Syria. Demetrius instead handed him over to Rome. Andriskos escaped captivity, raised a Thracian army, invaded Macedonia, and defeated the Roman praetor Publius Juventius. Andriskos then declared himself King Philip VI of Macedonia. In 148 B.C., Andriskos conquered Thessaly and made an alliance with Carthage, thus bringing the Roman wrath on him. In 148 B.C., in what the Romans called the Fourth Macedonian War, he was defeated by the Roman praetor Q. Caecilius Metellus at the Second Battle of Pydna. He fled to Thrace, whose prince gave him up to Rome. Andriskos' brief reign over Macedonia was marked by cruelty and extortion. After this, Macedonia was formally reduced to a Roman province.
GB87756. Bronze AE 18, SNG ANS 123; BMC Macedonia p. 49, 47; cf. SNG Cop 64 (monogram off flan); HGC 3.1 423 (R2), F, porous, light corrosion, weight 6.852 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 90o, Amphipolis mint, c. 168 - 31 B.C.; obverse bearded head of Poseidon right wearing taenia; reverse horse trotting right, ΩΣ monogram (control) right, Θ (control) below, AMΦIΠO/ΛITΩN above and below; rare; $50.00 (€42.50)
 


Mylasa, Caria, c. 2nd Century B.C.

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Mylasa (Milas, Turkey today) was often mentioned by ancient writers. The first mention is from early 7th century B.C., when Arselis, a Carian leader from Mylasa, helped Gyges in his fight for the Lydian throne. Under Persia, Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. Mylasa joined the Delian League c. 455 B.C., but Persian rule was restored by 400. Mylasa was the hometown and first capital of the Hecatomnid dynasty, nominally Persian satraps, but practically kings of Caria and the surrounding region, 377 - 352 B.C. In the Hellenistic era, the city was contested by Alexander's successors, but prospered. Mylasa was severely damaged in the Roman Civil War in 40 B.C., but again regained prosperity under Roman rule.
GB67789. Bronze AE 13, Akarca 34; SNG Cop 422; SNG Keckman 226; BMC Caria p. 129, 11; Weber 6528; SGCV II 4911, VF, light corrosion, weight 1.915 g, maximum diameter 12.5 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa (Milas, Turkey) mint, 2nd century B.C.; obverse free horse trotting right; reverse ornamented trident head, M−Y flanking shaft; $40.00 (€34.00)
 




  



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Poseidon or Neptune