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Galatia was named for Gauls from Thrace who settled there and became its ruling caste following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 B.C. The local Cappadocian population was left in control of the towns and most of the land, paying tithes to the new military aristocracy who kept aloof in fortified farmsteads, surrounded by their bands. These Celtic warriors were often hired as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. For decades their war bands ravaged western Asia Minor. About 232 B.C. the Hellenized cities united under king Attalus I of Pergamum, defeated them, and forced them to confine themselves to Galatia. The Galatians were defeated by Rome in 189 B.C. and became a client state of Rome in 64 B.C. During his second missionary journey, St. Paul of Tarsus visited Galatia, where he was detained by sickness (Galatians 4:13). The Galatians were still speaking their language (Gaulish) in the 4th century A.D.
Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D., Ankyra, Galatia
Ankyra (Greek for anchor) is the modern Ankara, the capital of Turkey - not to be confused with Ankyra of Phrygia.SH45846. Bronze AE 25, SNG Leypold II, 2737; Mionnet IV p. 381, 37; BMC Galatia -; SNG BnF -; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -; SNG Righetti -; Weber -, gVF, green patina, weight 6.937 g, maximum diameter 25.2 mm, die axis 180o, Ancyra (Ankara, Turkey) mint, obverse IOYΛIA AYΓOYCTA, draped bust right; reverse MHTPOΠOΛEΩC ANKYPAC, Hermes standing half-left, naked, purse in right, caduceus in left; extremely rare; SOLD
Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D., Koinon of Galatia
RP63431. Bronze AE 21, RPC I 3566 (citing only 2 examples); c/m: Howgego 348 (5 pcs), F, weight 6.918 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, obverse ΓAΛBAC CEBACTOC, bare head left, c/m: owl standing right in circular punch; reverse CEBACTWN, hexastyle temple, pellet in center intercolumniation, shield in pediment; rare type and countermark; ex CNG auction 206; lot 343, ex D. Alighieri Collection; SOLD
Nero and Poppaea, 62 - 65 A.D., Koinon Galatia, Galatia
Poppaea was renowned for her beauty and voluptuous extravagance. In 62 A.D., Nero divorced his wife Octavia to marry Poppaea. According to Tacitus, Poppaea married Otho only to get close to Nero and then, in turn, became Nero's favorite mistress, and then wife. She bore Nero one daughter, Claudia Augusta, born 21 January 63, who died at only four months of age. At the birth of Claudia, Nero honored mother and child with the title of Augusta. According to Suetonius, one day in the summer of 65, Poppaea quarreled fiercely with Nero over his spending too much time at the races. She was pregnant with her second child. In a fit of rage, Nero kicked her in the abdomen, killing her.RP79843. Bronze AE 27, RPC I 3562, SNG BnF 2400, SNGvA 6117, SGICV 662, gF, nice portraits, legends not full struck, flan adjustment marks on the reverse, small flan crack, weight 13.988 g, maximum diameter 27.1 mm, die axis 0o, Tavium(?) mint, 62 - 65 A.D.; obverse NEPΩNOΣ ΣEBAΣTOY, laureate head of Nero right; reverse ΠOΠΠIAΣ ΣEBAΣTHΣ, draped bust of Poppaea right; SOLD
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Koinon of Galatia
Luna, the Greek moon-goddess, was female, which seems natural because the female menstrual cycle follows the lunar month. But Mên was a male moon-god, probably originally of the indigenous non-Greek Karian people. By Roman times Mên was worshiped across Anatolia and in Attica. He was associated with fertility, healing, and punishment. Mên is usually depicted with a crescent moon behind his shoulders, wearing a Phrygian cap, and holding a lance or sword in one hand and a pine-cone or patera in the other. His other attributes include the bucranium and chicken. A temple of Mên has been excavated at Antiochia, Pisidia.SH63417. Brass AE 26, RPC II 1621; SNG Cop 107; SNGvA 6133, BMC Galatia p. 8, 1; Arslan Roman 19; SNG Leypold -, Nice F, weight 9.993 g, maximum diameter 26.4 mm, die axis 15o, Ancyra (Ankara, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 69 - 79 A.D.; obverse AYTOKPA TITOΣ KAIΣAP ΣABAΣ YIOΣ, laureate head right; reverse ΣABAΣTHNΩN TEKTOΣAΓΩN, Mên standing left, wearing a Phrygian cap, crescent behind shoulders, phiale extended in right; ex Frank L. Kovacs; rare; SOLD
Kings of Galatia, Deiotaros, c. 64 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Celtic Tolistobogii tribe in western Galatia and became King of Galatia. He was a faithful ally of Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, for which he was rewarded by Pompey. Caesar pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, Mark Antony, for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by Caesar, Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age.GB84653. Bronze AE 18, Arslan K1; RPC I p. 536, 2; SNGvA 6099; HGC 7 775 (R1); BMC Galatia -; SNG Cop -, gVF, glossy dark green patina, slightest porosity, weight 5.923 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 45o, Pessinus (Ballihisar, Turkey) mint, c. 63 - 58 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse eagle standing left on fulmen (thunderbolt), head right, wings slightly open, monogram (∆HIOTAP) left; rare; SOLD
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., and Poppaea, Claudiconium, Galatia
RP82516. Bronze AE 26, RPC I 3544, VF, weight 14.155 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 0o, Claudiconium mint, obverse NEPWN KAICAP CEBACTOC, laureate head right; reverse ΠOΠΠAIA CEBACTH KΛAYA∆EIKONIΣΩN, Poppaea seated left, poppy extended in right, long scepter vertical in left; SOLD
Plotina, Wife of Trajan, Augusta 105 - 129 A.D., Ankyra, Galatia
Ankara, formerly Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey and its second largest city, with a population of 4,587,558 (2014). Ankara is a very old city with Hittite, Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman archaeological sites. The historical center is a rocky hill rising 150 m (500 ft) over the left bank of the Ankara Cayi, a tributary of the Sakarya River, the classical Sangarius. The hill remains crowned by the ruins of the old citadel. There are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 B.C. Temple of Augustus and Rome that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum, an inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.RP74372. Bronze AE 20, SNGvA 3431, SNG Cop -, SNG Munchen -, SNG Tüb -, SNG Leypold -, BMC Galatia -, aF, edge crack, rough, weight 3.838 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 0o, Ancyra (Ankara, Turkey) mint, 112 - Aug 117 A.D.; obverse ΠΛΩTEINA CEBACTH, draped bust right; reverse ANKYPANΩN, cult statue of Artemis Ephasia standing facing, veiled, arms extended with supports, flanked by two stags; very rare; SOLD
Kings of Galatia, Amyntas, 37 - 25 B.C.
Mark Antony made Amyntas king of Galatia and several adjacent countries in 37 B.C. Most examples of this type depict Artemis with the features of Antony's wife, the famed Cleopatra VII of Egypt. According to Plutarch, Amyntas was among the adherents of Mark Antony at Actium in 31 B.C. but deserted to Octavian just before the battle. In 25 B.C., Amyntas was killed in an ambush by the widow of a highland prince avenging her husband's execution. Upon his death Galatia became a Roman province.GB86419. Bronze AE 19, RPC I 3503; SNG BnF 2369; SNG Cop 102; Sear Imperators 815; BMC Galatia p. 3, 14; HGC 7 784 (S), VF, green patina, earthen deposits, marks and scratches, small spots of corrosion, weight 3.145 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain mint, 37 - 31 B.C.; obverse draped bust of Artemis (with the features of Cleopatra VII) right, bow and quiver to left; reverse stag standing right, BAΣIΛE-ΩΣ above, AMYNTOΣ in exergue; scarce; SOLD
Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Koinon of Galatia
A copy of the famous "Will" of Augustus is on the walls of the temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra, depicted on this coin.RP45923. Orichalcum provincial sestertius, BMC Galatia p. 7, 10, SNG BnF 2427 - 2432 var. (legend variations), SNGvA 6121 - 6122 var. (same), VF, weight 20.562 g, maximum diameter 32.4 mm, die axis 45o, Galatia mint, magistrate Pomponius Bassus; obverse AYT NEP TPAIANOΣ KAIΣAP ΣE ΓEPM, laureate bust right; reverse KOINON ΓAΛATIAΣ EΠI ΠONΠΩNIOY BA, Hexastyle temple of Rome and Augustus at Ankyra, patera in ornamented pediment; SOLD
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Pessinus, Galatia
The temple of the imperial cult at Pessinus was Tiberian, but the decorative sculpture was conservative Augustan, suggesting the building may have been designed in the late Augustan period, c. 15 A.D. The temple was decommissioned the end of the 4th century. Perhaps as a sign of the rise of Christianity in Pessinus, Julian the Apostate made a pilgrimage there and wrote an angry letter concerning disrespect shown to the sanctuary of Cybele. In c. 398, Pessinus was established as the capital of the new province of Galatia Salutaris, and became the seat of a metropolitan bishop. In late 715 A.D., Pessinus was destroyed by an Arab raid. The area was lost to the Seljuk Turks late in the 11th century, after which Pessinus became an inconspicuous gradually depopulating mountain village.SH79769. Bronze AE 27, RPC I 3555 (5 spec.); BMC Galatia p. 18, 3; SNG BnF 2574, F, light roughness, coppery high-points, weight 10.747 g, maximum diameter 26.8 mm, die axis 180o, Pessinus (Ballihisar, Turkey) mint, magistrate Annius Afrinus, 49 - 54 A.D.; obverse KΛAY∆IOC KAICAP CEBACTOC, laureate head right; reverse hexastyle temple of the imperial cult (Sebasteion), ΠEC-CI/NO-YN/TI-WN in three lines across field, EΠI AΦPINOY below; very rare; SOLD
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