Proto-Elamite (South-Western Iran), , 3000 - 2500 B.C.
The Elamites called their country Haltamti, but it is Elam in the Hebrew Bible, where they are called the offspring of Elam, eldest son of Shem (Genesis 10:22, Ezra 4:9). To the east of , Elam was of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). Written records from around 3000 B.C. parallel Mesopotamian history. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role in the short lived Gutian Empire of the 22nd century B.C. During the Persian dynasty that succeeded Elam, the Elamite language remained among those in official use.AS48860.
; cf. Amiet 1028 - 1029, , carved black , drill and linear design with two and tree, 23 mm long, ex Sale, 5/99, #1329; SOLD
South Arabian, Sabaean Hematite Seal, c. 1000 B.C.
AA31273. Sabaean hematite seal, 1.2 cm (1/2") long, horse rampant before seated God on X stool, drill and line cut design, the design and shape are most unusual;
Southern , , Jemdet Nasr Period, c. 3200 - 2900 B.C.
Very early from the dawn of . The earliest cylinder seals, such as this one, are from the Jemdet Nasr Period in .AS48859.
; Malloy Artifacts 394 (this seal), cf. 203, , quality seal, clear calcite , linear opposing triangles indicating mountains and valleys; 17 mm long; ex sale 5/99, #1326; SOLD
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