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Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Stari Kostolac, Serbia)
Viminacium, a Roman Colony founded by Gordian III in 239 A.D. and the capital of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, was located about 20 km to the east of modern Kostolac, Serbia. Colonial coins are known of the emperors from Gordian III, dated AN I, Anno Primo, (year 1, autumn 239 - autumn 240 A.D.) to Valerian and Gallienus, dated AN XVI, Anno Sexto Decimo, (year 16, autumn 254 - autumn 255 A.D.). The usual reverse legend on the colonial coinage is P. M. S. COL. VIM., abbreviating Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium. The usual reverse type is a female personification of Moesia standing between a lion and a bull, and sometimes holding standards inscribed VII and IIII. The bull and the lion were symbols of the Legions VII Claudia and IV Flavia Felix, which were quartered in the province. The rebel Pacatian opened his mint at Viminacium in 248. Valerian opened an imperial mint at Viminacium. The city was destroyed in 440 by the Huns, rebuilt by Justinian I, and destroyed again by the Avars in 584.