Empire, Khusro II, Occupation of , 618 - 628 A.D.
During his temporary domination of , 618 - 628 A.D., Khusru allowed the mint to continue issuing the normal coinage, but substituted his portrait for the emperor's. The sun and moon replaced the , just as on coinage. It may seem strange that a Persian would wear a crown surmounted by a ; however, his wife Sira was a Christian, he was a benefactor of the of St. Sergius in Edessa, he honored the Virgin, and he sometimes wore a robe embroidered with a which he had received as a gift from the Emperor . The emperors resumed the imperial coinage of after their recapture of in 628 A.D.WA77071. Bronze 12 nummi,
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I Theos , c. 225 - 195 B.C.
Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and a son of General Apollodotus. According to Polybius, Euthydemus was a of Sogdiana who ousted the dynasty of Diodotus from and made himself . His kingdom seems to have been substantial, including Sogdiana to the , and Margiana and Ariana to the south or east of . When Antiochus III the Great attacked in 208 B.C., Euthydemus lost the Battle of the Arius but then resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra. Euthydemus negotiated peace asserting that he toppled the descendants of the rebel Diodotus and provided a barrier to barbarian invasions. Antiochus decided to recognize him as , and offered one of his daughters to Euthydemus' son Demetrius.AW73959. Bronze double unit, AK-1, series 17, 147, 87, 7523, 53 (R1), F, thick with beveled edge, corrosion, 7.245 g, maximum 23.4 mm, 45o, Ai Khanoum mint, c. 225 - 208/6 B.C.; bearded of Herakles right; horse prancing right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ above, EYΘY∆HMOY below; ; $100.00 (€89.00)
Indo-Scythian Kingdom, Azes II, c. 35 B.C. - 5 A.D.
Azes II may have been the last Indo-Scythian in the northern Indian subcontinent (modern day Pakistan). Indo-Scythian rule crumbled under the conquests of the Kushans who expanded into India to create the Kushan Empire. and Hoover now believe Azes II did not exist and attribute all Azes coins to Azes I or as imitative issues. A attributed to Azes I has been found on a coin traditionally attributed to Azes II, supporting their hypothesis. WA90095. Bronze hexachalkon, 102.193, 2386, 850f, 657, aVF, 12.825 g, maximum 29.4 mm, 135o, Taxila Sirsukh B(?) mint, c. 35 B.C. - 5 A.D.; BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY AZOY ( of Kings, Azes the Great), humped bull standing right, above, letter "jha" before forelegs; : Ayasa (great , of kings, Azes the Great), mane-less standing right, above; ex Ancient Imports; $60.00 (€53.40)
India, Kabul and Gandhara, Anonymous Post-Shahi, 1021 - 1200 A.D.
notes the Ghaznavids occupied the Shahi Kingdom and some of these coins may have been struck by them, however, the major issuers were probably the Chahamanas.WA74839. jital, "Bull and Horseman" jital; cf. 3, 33bis, 473, 235-236, Tye 33, VF, small dumpy , light corrosion, light earthen deposits, 3.418 g, maximum 13.6 mm, 225o, c. 1021 - 1200 A.D.; Sri Samanta Deva, Recumbent zebu left, and crescent before; sarada aksara, horseman right, holding banner, 'Bhi' on left; $38.00 (€33.82)
China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.
"Round as the heavens, square as the earth," is a Chinese saying used to metaphorically describe the of the coins. On the practical side, it was discovered very early that a square hole fit a square shaft, which enabled a stacked quantity of coins to be turned on a lathe to remove casting irregularities.CH54355. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Sheng Yuan Bao, seal script, clockwise, small size; 16.303, 593, 995, VF, 6.810 g, maximum 30.6 mm, 1094 - 1097 A.D.; very common; $18.00 (€16.02)
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