France, III, 1574 - 1589
Three months after Henri was made the elected of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, his brother, Charles IX of France, died and Henri returned to France to assume the French throne. Henri brought several Polish inventions back to France, including septic facilities which deposited excrement outside the castle walls, a bath with regulated hot and cold water, and the fork. Henri gave protestant Huguenots the right of public worship, except in and at Court. In response, I, Duke of Guise, formed the Catholic League. Henri III was eventually forced to flee . After he had the duke assassinated, Henri III prepared to return to but was murdered before he could return. During the French Revolution, Henri III was disinterred from his tomb, his body was desecrated and thrown into a common grave.
On May 31, 1575, III created a new 14.188 grams, .833 silver coin with the value of 20 sols tournois. The gold écu was set at 60 sols. The gold franc equaled 1/3 écu or 20 sols. This coin, corresponding to the value of the medieval gold franc, naturally took the name franc d'argent (silver franc). Our coin is a franc avec fraise, distinguished from the franc au col plat by the addition of a lace ruff to the king's collar. It was unique to the Toulouse mint. Due to constant clipping, the coinage of francs was suspended for on October 13, 1586. After the death of the , however, mints held by the Catholic League struck francs in his name.SH84614. Silver franc, 1130A, 1434, 3612, 970, aVF, , 13.995 g, maximum 35.2 mm, 180o, Toulouse (M) mint, 1586; •HENRICVS•III D•G FRANC ET•POL•REX• ( III, by the grace of god, of France and Poland), laureate and of III, ruffled collar, M (Toulouse workshop letter) below , 1586 at bottom between end and beginning of ; * SIT•NOMEN•DOMINI•BENEDICTVM S (Blessed be the name of the Lord), fleurée, H surrounded by dots in the center; $675.00 (€600.75)
England, Charles I, 1625 - 1649
Charles I attempted to reign as an absolute monarch and rule without Parliament. Civil war broke out, the forces of the lost, and Charles was beheaded. Parliament took control of the Tower mint in 1642.
UK85378. Silver crown, 2758, 2195 (R); crown mint mark on and , F/VF, light marks, 29.304 g, maximum 45.2 mm, 345o, Tower mint, 1635 - 1636; CAROLVS • D • G • MAG • BRI • FRA • ET • HIB • REX (Charles, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland), on horseback left (group III), holding upright sword in right hand, no ground; CRISTO • AVSPICE • REGNO • (I reign under the auspices of Christ), oval garnished - royal coat-of-arms ( , fleur de lis, harp) within ornate oval frame; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; ; $500.00 (€445.00)
, Armenian , Roupen I, 1080 - 1095 A.D.
In 1080, Roupen I declared independent from the , founding the Roupenian dynasty, which ruled Cilician until 1219. He led bold and successful military campaigns against the Byzantines, including capturing the fortress of Pardzerpert (Andirin, Turkey today), which became a stronghold of the .SH66597. Bronze Pogh, 1 var. (no crescent), 245 var. (same), aVF, 1.853 g, maximum 20.3 mm, 315o, 1080 - 1095 A.D.; Armenian : Raiben (Roupen), within , pellet in each quarter; Armenian : Tsara ay (Servant of God), within , crescent in one quarter; very ; $320.00 (€284.80)
, Edward III, 1327 - 1377
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most efficient military powers in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in the evolution of the English parliament, the ravages of the Black Death and the beginning of the Hundred Years' War. He remained on the throne for 50 years.
The outer abbreviates, "BENEDICTUM SIT NOMEN DOMINI DEI IHESU CHRISTI," which means, "Blessed be the name of the Lord our God, Jesus Christ."
ME85375. Silver Gros Tournois a la Porte, 8063, 63, 1067, 120, d'Avant 2856, –, gF, , , 2.478 g, maximum 23.9 mm, 270o, 1351 - 1356; ED'· REX : A*nGLIE / + BnDICTV · SIT · : DnI : nRI : DEI : IhV · XPI (annulet and double annulet stops, secret mark: asterisk between A and n), short ; + DVX : AQITA*nIE (double annulet stops, secret mark: asterisk between A and n), châtel aquitanique, gateway below; all within of arches containing twelve leaves; ; $265.00 (€235.85)
France, Strasbourg, Louis XIV, 1684
The Free City of Strasbourg remained neutral during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and retained its status as a Free Imperial City. However, the city was later annexed by Louis XIV of France to extend the borders of his kingdom. Louis' advisors believed that, as long as Strasbourg remained independent, it would endanger the King's newly annexed territories in Alsace, and, that to defend these large rural lands effectively, a garrison had to be placed in towns such as Strasbourg. Indeed, the bridge over the Rhine at Strasbourg had been used repeatedly by Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) forces, and three times during the Franco-Dutch War Strasbourg had served as a gateway for Imperial invasions into Alsace. In September 1681 Louis' forces, though lacking a clear casus belli, surrounded the city with overwhelming force. After some negotiation, Louis marched into the city unopposed on 30 September 1681 and proclaimed its annexation.SH84610. Silver Sol, 2054, 87, 1599, KM 245, VF, , light deposits, 0.936 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 180o, Strasbourg mint, 1684; MON• NOV• ARGENTINENSIS (new currency of Strasbourg), fleur-de-lis; * • IN• EXCELSIS• DEO• (glory to God in heaven), •I• / •SOL• / 1684 in three lines; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; $200.00 (€178.00)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B ( 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); -, MIR -, -, F, 2.163 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ of Kings, mostly off ), on three steps, dividing ; from a California collector; $195.00 (€173.55)
Kingdom of Naples and , Philip IV of Spain, 31 March 1621 - 17 September 1665
Naples was ruled by the Crown of Aragon as of the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714.ME66312. Bronze 3 cavalli, 276 (R4), F, 2.223 g, maximum 19.0 mm, 0o, Naples mint, 1647; PHILIPP IIII D G REX, right, GA/C (mint master Giovanni Andrea Cavo) left, 46 (or 47) below; , rosette at center, flame from each angle; extremely ; $190.00 (€169.10)
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II.ME70465. Bronze follaro, 135 (R2), 227, F, both sides off-center, 1.120 g, maximum 14.9 mm, 180o, Messina mint, 1150 - 1151 A.D.; MP − ΘY (Greek abbreviation: Mother of God), half-length of the Virgin facing; Arabic arranged as a : umila five hundred forty five (struck in 545 AH), four dots arranged in a square in each quarter; very ; $160.00 (€142.40)
United Kingdom, George IV, 29 January 1820 - 26 June 1830
From 1811 until his accession, George IV served as regent during his father's mental illness. He forbade his wife from attending his coronation and unsuccessfully attempted to divorce her, which brought the contempt of the people. For most of George's regency and reign, Prime Minister Lord Liverpool controlled the government with little from George. George's extravagant lifestyle and wasteful spending angered taxpayers at a time when Britain was fighting the Napoleonic Wars. He did not provide leadership in a time of crisis, nor did he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool led Britain's ultimate , negotiated the peace settlement, and attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. George IV was succeeded by his younger brother William.UK84145. Silver shilling, 3812, aEF, , reeded edge, 5.668 g, maximum 23.5 mm, 180o, Tower mint, 1825; GEORGIUS IV DE GRATIA 1825 (George IV, by the grace of God, 1825), left; BRITANNIARUM REX FID ET DEFENSOR ( of The British territories, Defender of the Faith), crowned standing left, atop a larger crown; rose, shamrock, and thistle below; $160.00 (€142.40)
of Christ, Class A3, Basil II & Constantine , c. 1023 - 11 November 1028 A.D.
The emperor's name and portrait are not of the design on the types referred to as . Instead of the earthly , these coins depict Jesus Christ, of Kings.BZ84502. Bronze , of Christ, class A3; 1818; ornaments 45, VF, green , , detail of not fully struck, encrustations, 10.063 g, maximum 31.0 mm, 180o, Greek(?) mint, c. 1023 - 11 Nov 1028 A.D.; EMMANOVHL, facing of Christ, wearing with crescent in each limb of , , and , holding gospels with both , to left IC, to right XC; IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ of Kings), above and below ; $150.00 (€133.50)
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