, Armenian , Roupen I, 1080 - 1095 A.D.
In 1080, Roupen I declared independent from the , founding the Roupenian dynasty, which ruled Cilician until 1219. He led bold and successful military campaigns against the Byzantines, including capturing the fortress of Pardzerpert (Andirin, Turkey today), which became a stronghold of the .SH66597. Bronze Pogh, 1 var. (no crescent), 245 var. (same), aVF, 1.853 g, maximum 20.3 mm, 315o, Armenian : Raiben (Roupen), within , pellet in each quarter; Armenian : Tsara ay (Servant of God), within , crescent in one quarter; very ; $360.00 (€320.40)
, Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Aquitaine, 1362 - 1372
Edward of Woodstock (15 June 1330 - 8 June 1376), called the Black Prince, was the eldest son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall (from 1337), the Prince of Wales (from 1343) and the Prince of Aquitaine (1362-72). He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular in England during his lifetime. Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.
SH84611. Silver esterlin (sterling), 194c, 8133, 1125A, 511, d'Avant –, VF, , usual , clashed die, slightly off center, 0.996 g, maximum 18.9 mm, Poitiers mint, second issue; + : ED' PO·GIT·REG·AnGL P (Edwardus Primo Genetis Regis Anglie Princeps, double annulet before , rosette stops), half-length figure of Edward right, wearing floral . sword in right hand over right shoulder, raising left hand in ; : PRI-CPS - AQV-TAE (Prince of Aquitaine, double annulet before ), long , trefoil of three pellets in each quarter; ; $330.00 (€293.70)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B ( 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); -, MIR -, -, F, 2.163 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ of Kings, mostly off ), on three steps, dividing ; from a California collector; $240.00 (€213.60)
, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., , Coele
describes the as a "figure (?) with plumes headdress, on pedestal." The coin is worn and the "figure" is a bit taller and thinner than our , but the coin does seem to be this same .
The site of ancient (Dion, ) has not been conclusively identified. The four leading candidates for are Tell al-Husn and Edun, both near Irbid, in Jordan, Kufr Abil, near , and Tell al-Ash'ari, near the Syrian town of Der'a.RY77849. Bronze AE 22, 9 , 10 var. (legends), 10 var. (legends), -, -, -, -, aF, earthen deposit highlighting, , corrosion, 7.701 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, mint, 219 - 220 A.D.; AV KAI MAV ANTWNINO, laureate and draped or youthful right, from the front; temple, flaming within under central arch, ΓΠ-C (year 283) divided above roof, ∆IHNWN in ; very ; $225.00 (€200.25)
France, Strasbourg, Louis XIV, 1684
The Free City of Strasbourg remained neutral during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and retained its status as a Free Imperial City. However, the city was later annexed by Louis XIV of France to extend the borders of his kingdom. Louis' advisors believed that, as long as Strasbourg remained independent, it would endanger the King's newly annexed territories in Alsace, and, that to defend these large rural lands effectively, a garrison had to be placed in towns such as Strasbourg. Indeed, the bridge over the Rhine at Strasbourg had been used repeatedly by Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) forces, and three times during the Franco-Dutch War Strasbourg had served as a gateway for Imperial invasions into Alsace. In September 1681 Louis' forces, though lacking a clear casus belli, surrounded the city with overwhelming force. After some negotiation, Louis marched into the city unopposed on 30 September 1681 and proclaimed its annexation.
SH84610. Silver Sol, 2054, 87, 1599, VF, , light deposits, 0.936 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 180o, Strasbourg mint, 1684; MON• NOV• ARGENTINENSIS (new currency of Strasbourg), fleur-de-lis; * • IN• EXCELSIS• DEO• (glory to God in heaven), •I• / •SOL• / 1684 in three lines; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; $220.00 (€195.80)
, County of Tripoli, II, 1137-1152 A.D.
II considered the Syrian Christians of Tripoli responsible for treachery which led to his father's defeat and death in a battle with . After the battle, he took many of them prisoner, and as William of Tyre wrote, "he visited upon them diverse tortures in the presence of the people, and, in just proportion to the enormity of the crime which they had committed, he caused them to suffer death in its most cruel forms." This act was praised by the Latin Christians as "the first proofs of valor which were given by the young count, whereby he won the affection of all his people and universal approval." In 1142 donated Krak des Chevaliers, an enormous fortress on the road from Homs to the Mediterranean, as well as other smaller castles, to the Knights Hospitallers. The Hospitallers were virtually independent in the county, for which they protected Tripoli's borders from frequent raids by the forces of and Zanki, the Turkish atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.ME76426. Bronze fraction, 1, 194 - 199; 5; 513; VI 5, VF, octagonal , light corrosion, earthen deposits, 1.017 g, maximum 16.9 mm, Tripoli mint, c. 1145 - 1149; + RAIMVNDVS ( at the bottom, starts at 7:00, ), eight pointed , pellet between each ray, shallow crescent with horns up below, all within inner ; with three annulets at the end of each arm, crossed by smaller with crescent horns inward pellet and annulet at the end of each arm; very ; $200.00 (€178.00)
, County of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1252
Bohemond V was Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1233 to his death in January 1252. Bohemond V was the son of Bohemund IV of Antioch and Plaisance of Gibelet. Like his father before him, Bohemond had a notorious dislike for the Knights Hospitaller and the neighboring Kingdom of , preferring an with the Knights Templar. Peace with was assured only shortly before his death, with the mediation of Louis IX of France.ME76428. denier, 5, 75 - 127; 19; 547 - 550; IV 17, VF, , 0.609 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 315o, Tripoli mint, 1233 - 1251; + BAMVND' COMS, , three pellets in upper right quarter, beaded borders; + TRIPOL, eight pointed , annulets between the rays, beaded borders; ; $200.00 (€178.00)
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II.ME70465. Bronze follaro, 135 (R2), 227, F, both sides off-center, 1.120 g, maximum 14.9 mm, 180o, Messina mint, 1150 - 1151 A.D.; MP − ΘY (Greek abbreviation: Mother of God), half-length of the Virgin facing; Arabic arranged as a : umila five hundred forty five (struck in 545 AH), four dots arranged in a square in each quarter; very ; $180.00 (€160.20)
Kingdom of Naples and , Phillip II of Spain, 25 July 1554 - 13 September 1598
was of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as , Filipe I). From 1554 he was of Naples and as well as Duke of . During his marriage to Queen Mary I (1554 - 58), he was also of England and Ireland. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spanish as "Philip the Prudent" (Felipe el Prudente), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake Philippine Islands. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. The expression "The empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his possessions.ME66320. Bronze cavallo, 198 var. ( variations and the dividing the noted in MIR), aF, , 1.956 g, maximum 18.8 mm, 0o, Naples mint, PHILIPP REX ARA VT (sic), right, no date(?); HIERVS + (sic), crown, divided at the top by small ; $160.00 (€142.40)
Kingdom of Naples, Charles V (HRE), 1516 - 1554
Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. It was during Charles reign that Spain conquered the Aztecs of Mexico and Incas of Peru, and then extended its control across much of South and Central America. Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage was the first circumnavigation of the Earth. He retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, and the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son . The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century. Charles was only 54 when he retired, but after 34 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery where he died aged 58. Charles' motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain.SH66322. Bronze cavallo, 156, VF, 1.215 g, maximum 17.9 mm, 90o, Naples mint, PLVS : VLTRA, the Pillars of , banner over trefoil in center, crown above; REX : IVSTVS, ; $160.00 (€142.40)
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