and , Second Triumvirate, 36 B.C., , Gaul
was originally founded as the Roman city , a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as by the end of the 1st century A.D. The etymology of is a latinization of the Gaulish place name Lugodunon. While dunon means , the source of Lug is uncertain. The most commonly offered meaning is the god named Lug. During the Middle Ages, was transformed to by natural sound change.RR70870. Bronze , 515, 7, 689, F, 16.797 g, maximum 29.9 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 36 B.C.; IMP DIVI , two heads back to back: laureate head of to left and of to right; between them branch with its tip bent to right over Octavian's head; Prow of galley to right, ornamented with an eye and ; superimposed on globe and above deck, below; ; $680.00 (€591.60)
, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D., Hadrianopolis,
refounded a Thracian tribal capital, changed its name to Hadrianopolis, developed it, adorned it with monuments, and made it the capital of the Roman province. The city is Edirne, Turkey today. From ancient times, the around Edirne has been the site of no fewer than 16 major battles or sieges. Military historian John Keegan identifies it as "the most contested spot on the globe" and attributes this to its geographical location. Licinius was defeated there by in 323, and was killed by the Goths during the Battle of Adrianople in 378.SH65237. Bronze AE 25, p. 157 & pl. XXII, 244 (V137/R244); , Suppl. II, 658; -, -, -, VF, green , 7.837 g, maximum 24.7 mm, 180o, Hadrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey) mint, IOYΛIA ∆O CEBACTH, draped right; A∆PIANOΠOΛEITΩN, galley left with four oarsmen and steersman in stern; very ; $600.00 (€522.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been the famous V Alaudae ('the larks'), a Caesarean legion which remained loyal to Antony but was later retained by . There are other possibilities, however: V Macedonica, a Caesarean legion about which little is known; V Urbana, disbanded after (and therefore quite likely an Antonian legion); and V Gallica, a Caesarean legion that was probably the one that under Lollius lost its to German raiders in Gaul in 17 B.C.RS74074. Silver , 544/18, 1221, II East 196, 32, 354, VF, banker's marks, 3.281 g, maximum 17.6 mm, 180o, mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT AVG III. VIR. R. P. C., galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - V, legionary between two standards; ex Gorny & Mosch auction 229, lot 1161; $440.00 (€382.80)
, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.
A skilled general and administrator, rebelled against , uniting Gaul, Spain and Britain into a Gallic-Roman empire. Successful against the Germans, he kept his empire secure and prosperous. He was assassinated by his own troops after he refused to allow them to sack Moguntiacum (Mainz).SH66364. Bronze , 87, 143 ( ), 177, VF, 13.981 g, maximum 30.7 mm, 0o, Agrippinensis or mint, 261 A.D.; IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS , , draped and right; (AVG in ), galley left, four rowers and steersman; $370.00 (€321.90)
Brettian League, , Italy, c. 211- 208 B.C., Time of Hannibal
The success of Hannibal at Cannae proved too much for the Bruttians' fidelity; they were among the first after the battle to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general. Some towns at first remained with Rome, but Petelia and Consentia were speedily reduced by other Bruttians and a small Carthaginian force, and the more important cities of Locri and Crotona followed not long after. Rhegium alone remained firm, and was able to defy throughout the war. The region became a Carthaginian stronghold, but the Romans, though avoiding any decisive engagement, continually gained ground by the successive reduction of towns and fortresses. The ravages of war were a severe blow to . Punishment by the Romans after the war completed their humiliation. They were deprived of most of their territory, and the whole nation was reduced to near servitude. A with an army was sent annually to watch over them. Colonies were established at Tempsa, Crotona, and Hipponium (renamed Vibo ). A fourth was settled at Thurii on their frontier. From this time the Bruttians as a people disappear from history. All coinage of the Brettii was issued while they were allied with Hannibal.SH72544. Bronze quarter unit, 120 - 122; 50; 1990; p. 332, 106 var (no controls), gVF, attractive green , 1.755 g, maximum 13.2 mm, 180o, mint, 211- 208; head of a sea goddess ( or ) left, with crab headdress, (thunderbolt) below neck; BRET/TIWN, crab, bunch of grapes (control symbol) above between claws, linear ; ; $350.00 (€304.50)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG III
This legion was probably Caesar's old III Gallica, which fought for Antony. Another possibility is III , which was perhaps taken over from . The III Augusta was probably an legion.RS73643. Silver , 544/15, 1217, II East 193, 28, aVF, 3.378 g, maximum 17.9 mm, ,180o, (?) mint, fall 32 - spring 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, of dots; LEG - III, ( ) between two legionary standards, of dots; $350.00 (€304.50)
, Seleukos, in Babylon, 311 - 306 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Struck in the name of Alexander, this coin also bears the personal badge of Seleukos, an . Seleukos was first appointed in in 320 B.C. but was put to flight by in 315. He returned in 311 only to be forced to evacuate later that year by a counterattack by Antigonus' son, Demetrius. Not long after, however, Seleukos again recovered the city.SH60135. Silver , I 293, 3449 (Marthus), 1512, aVF/F, 16.601 g, maximum 27.0 mm, 225o, uncertain mint, c. 311 - 305 B.C.; head of right, wearing scalp headdress; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne, right leg drawn back, in extended right, long vertical behind in left, flukes up flanked by ∆ - I in left , under throne; $290.00 (€252.30)
, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
was the goddess of harvest and her main attribute is grain. This suggests the arrival of grain by sea from the provinces (especially from ) and its distribution to the people. RB73007. , 1143 (also heroic ), 326 (same), 560a (S), 180 var (no drapery), 3576, VF, nice heroic , green , about 1/3 on each side a little rough, 26.172 g, maximum 34.3 mm, 180o, Rome mint, late 118 A.D.; IMP TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate right, bare chest, drapery on left shoulder; (in ), III, standing left, stalks of grain in right hand over at feet on left, in left, prow behind on right, flanking across ; ; $240.00 (€208.80)
, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.
This has been attributed to "Mint II," which is believed to be Cologne, but it is quite crude and could also be imitative. See , II, p. 349, note 1, for comments on imitative of this and similar types. RB90466. Bronze , cf. CNG auction 109, lot 243 (same die); 313; Méricourt-l'Abbé Hoard in (1992) 95, VF, struck with damaged die, corrosion, 9.446 g, maximum 25.3 mm, 90o, Mint II Cologne (or imitative) mint, c. 266 - spring 269 A.D.; IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS , and right; galley right, five oarsmen, AMV above, retrograde P left, Q(?) right, waves over frond left below; $200.00 (€174.00)
, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
In 142, ordered the construction of the Antonine Wall. When the wall ran 39 miles (63 km) from Old Kilpatrick in Dunbartonshire on the Firth of Clyde to Carriden near Bo'ness on the Firth of Forth (Scotland). The Romans built nineteen forts and smaller fortlets (milecastles), to protect the against the Caledonians.RB90470. , 1315, 819, 642(a), 863, 4237, aF, 22.720 g, maximum 33.3 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 141 - 143 A.D.; ANTONINVS AVG - P P TR P , laureate head right; , reclining left, wreathed with reeds, resting right hand on boat on his far side, reeds in left, left arm resting on urn on its side from which water flows, S C in ; ; $200.00 (€174.00)
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