and , Second Triumvirate, 36 B.C., , Gaul
was originally founded as the Roman city , a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as by the end of the 1st century A.D. The etymology of is a latinization of the Gaulish place name Lugodunon. While dunon means , the source of Lug is uncertain. The most commonly offered meaning is the god named Lug. During the Middle Ages, was transformed to by natural sound change.RR70870. Bronze , 515, 7, 689, F, 16.797 g, maximum 29.9 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 36 B.C.; IMP DIVI , two heads back to back: laureate of to left and of to right; between them branch with its tip bent to right over Octavian's ; Prow of galley to right, ornamented with an eye and ; superimposed on globe and above deck, below; ; $680.00 (€598.40)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been a legion raised by Antony and disbanded by . The XI , an old legion of Caesar's, fought for (and won the title Actiaca at the battle of ).
SH76403. Silver , 544/25, 1229, II East 203, 39, VF, 3.378 g, maximum 17.3 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, of dots; LEG - XI, ( ) between two legionary standards, of dots; from the Jeff Michniak Collection; $550.00 (€484.00)
, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D., Hadrianopolis,
refounded a Thracian tribal capital, changed its name to Hadrianopolis, developed it, adorned it with monuments, and made it the capital of the Roman province. The city is Edirne, Turkey today. From ancient times, the around Edirne has been the site of no fewer than 16 major battles or sieges. Military historian John Keegan identifies it as "the most contested spot on the globe" and attributes this to its geographical location. Licinius was defeated there by in 323, and was killed by the Goths during the Battle of Adrianople in 378.SH65237. Bronze AE 25, p. 157 & pl. XXII, 244 (V137/R244); , Suppl. II, 658; -, -, -, VF, green , 7.837 g, maximum 24.7 mm, 180o, Hadrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey) mint, IOYΛIA ∆O CEBACTH, draped right; A∆PIANOΠOΛEITΩN, galley left with four oarsmen and steersman in stern; very ; $540.00 (€475.20)
Messana, , c. 330 - 325 B.C.
Founded in the 8th century B.C., until the 5th century Messina was called Zancle, meaning "scythe" because of the shape of its harbor. The Carthaginians sacked the city in 397 B.C. and then Dionysius I of conquered it. In 288 B.C. the Mamertine mercenaries seized the city by treachery, killing all the men and taking the women as their wives. The city became a base from which they ravaged the countryside, leading to conflict with . Initially assisted the , but when attacked a second time, the petitioned the Roman Republic for aid. Although initially reluctant, to limit Carthaginian power, Rome allied with the . In 264 B.C., Roman troops were deployed to , the first time a Roman army acted outside the Italian Peninsula. At the end of the First Punic War, Messana was a free city allied with Rome.
SH70588. Bronze tetras, 840 (R1, same dies); 751 - 752 (D20/-); I p. 52, 16; 421; 674; -; -, VF, nice , nice strike, nice , 5.033 g, maximum 16.1 mm, 135o, Messana (Messina, , Italy) mint, c. 330 - 325 B.C.; ΠOΣEI∆AN, laureate of Poseidon left, ∆ (mark of value) behind; M−E−Σ−Σ−A−NI−ON, ornate trident , flanked on each side by a with down; ; $480.00 (€422.40)
Brettian League, , Italy, c. 211- 208 B.C., Time of Hannibal
The success of Hannibal at Cannae proved too much for the Bruttians' fidelity; they were among the first after the battle to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general. Some towns at first remained with Rome, but Petelia and Consentia were speedily reduced by other Bruttians and a small Carthaginian force, and the more important cities of Locri and Crotona followed not long after. Rhegium alone remained firm, and was able to defy throughout the war. The region became a Carthaginian stronghold, but the Romans, though avoiding any decisive engagement, continually gained ground by the successive reduction of towns and fortresses. The ravages of war were a severe blow to . Punishment by the Romans after the war completed their humiliation. They were deprived of most of their territory, and the whole nation was reduced to near servitude. A with an army was sent annually to watch over them. Colonies were established at Tempsa, Crotona, and Hipponium (renamed Vibo ). A fourth was settled at Thurii on their frontier. From this time the Bruttians as a people disappear from history. All coinage of the Brettii was issued while they were allied with Hannibal.SH72544. Bronze quarter unit, 120 - 122; 50; 1990; p. 332, 106 var (no controls), gVF, attractive green , 1.755 g, maximum 13.2 mm, 180o, mint, 211- 208; of a sea goddess ( or ) left, with crab headdress, (thunderbolt) below neck; BRET/TIWN, crab, bunch of grapes (control symbol) above between claws, linear ; ; $350.00 (€308.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG III
This legion was probably Caesar's old III Gallica, which fought for Antony. Another possibility is III , which was perhaps taken over from . The III Augusta was probably an legion.RS73643. Silver , 544/15, 1217, II East 193, 28, aVF, 3.378 g, maximum 17.9 mm, ,180o, (?) mint, fall 32 - spring 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, of dots; LEG - III, ( ) between two legionary standards, of dots; $350.00 (€308.00)
, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.
A skilled general and administrator, rebelled against , uniting Gaul, Spain and Britain into a Gallic-Roman empire. Successful against the Germans, he kept his empire secure and prosperous. He was assassinated by his own troops after he refused to allow them to sack Moguntiacum (Mainz).SH66364. Bronze , 87, 143 ( ), 177, VF, 13.981 g, maximum 30.7 mm, 0o, Agrippinensis or mint, 261 A.D.; IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS , , draped and right; (AVG in ), galley left, four rowers and steersman; $330.00 (€290.40)
, Seleukos, in Babylon, 311 - 306 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Struck in the name of Alexander, this coin also bears the personal badge of Seleukos, an . Seleukos was first appointed in in 320 B.C. but was put to flight by in 315. He returned in 311 only to be forced to evacuate later that year by a counterattack by Antigonus' son, Demetrius. Not long after, however, Seleukos again recovered the city.SH60135. Silver , I 293, 3449 (Marthus), 1512, aVF/F, 16.601 g, maximum 27.0 mm, 225o, uncertain mint, c. 311 - 305 B.C.; of right, wearing scalp headdress; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne, right leg drawn back, in extended right, long vertical behind in left, flukes up flanked by ∆ - I in left , under throne; $290.00 (€255.20)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
The XIII Gemina probably fought for , and so is not likely to be the Thirteenth Legion referred to on this coin.SH75371. Silver , 544/27, 1232a, II East 205, Sear Imperators 367, 42, F, dark , bankers' marks, some scratches and marks under tone, traces of deposits, shallow edge test, a little off center, 3.305 g, maximum 17.8 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III•VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, of dots; LEG - XIII, ( ) between two legionary standards, of dots; ex CNG e-auction 353, lot 419; $250.00 (€220.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.
RR75378. Silver , cf. 544/14, 1216, II East 190, 27 ff., VF, nice galley, rough, off center, 3.311 g, maximum 17.9 mm, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, of dots; LEG - [...], ( ) between two legionary standards, of dots; $250.00 (€220.00)
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