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CTP in the reverse legend identifies the magistrate, Lo. Io. Libonianos, as a strategos. Strategos, plural strategoi, is Greek meaning "general." In the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. In the modern Greek army, it is the highest officer rank.RP82728. Bronze AE 16, RPC Online III 2393 (18 spec.); SNG Cop 508; SNG Leypold 1201; SNG Tatis 757; Imhoof-Blumer LS p. 139, 13; BMC Lydia p. 246, 75; Winterthur 3917, VF, attractive dark green patina, bumps and marks, earthen deposits, weight 2.366 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, time of Trajan, c. 98 - 117 A.D; obverse CAP∆IA-NΩN, draped youthful bust of Dionysus right, wearing ivy wreath; reverse CTP ΛO IO ΛI-BΩNIANOY, filleted thyrsus, bee to right; ex Numismatic Naumann GmbH auction 60, lot 326; $145.00 (Ä127.60)
Ephesos, Ionia, c. 390 - 320 B.C.
In 356 B.C. the temple of Artemis was burned down, according to legend, by a lunatic called Herostratus. Ephesus planned a larger, grander temple and at once started rebuilding. When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 B.C., the Greek cities of Anatolia were liberated. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death, and Alexander was greeted warmly when he entered Ephesus in triumph. When Alexander saw that the temple of Artemis was not yet finished, he proposed to finance it and have his name inscribed on the front. But the Ephesians demurred, saying it was not fitting for one god to build a temple to another. GS92930. Silver diobol, SNG Kayhan 194; SNG Cop 243; SNGvA 1835; SNG MŁnchen 32; BMC Ionia p. 53, 53; SGCV II 4375, gF, dark toning, obverse a little off center, minor lamination defects, weight 0.938 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesos mint, c. 390 - 320 B.C.; obverse bee with straight wings, seen from above; reverse confronted heads of two stags, EΦ above; $100.00 (Ä88.00)
"Kainon," Sicily, c. 367 - 340 B.C.
This issue, assigned to Alaisa in many references, was perhaps produced by Thracian mercenaries operating in Sicily in the 4th century B.C. GI89575. Bronze tetras, Calciati I, p. 252, 10; SNG Cop 134 (Alaesa); SNG MŁnchen 218 (Alaisa); SNG ANS 1178 (Alaesa); BMC Sicily p. 29, 8 (Alaesa); HGC 2 509, aVF, flat strike, scattered porosity, tight flan cutting off head of griffin, edge cracks, weight 8.657 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 367 - 340 B.C.; obverse griffin springing left, wings open, grasshopper left below; reverse horse prancing left, loose reigns flying behind, KAINON in exergue, star with eight rays around a central pellet above; $60.00 (Ä52.80)
Ephesos, Ionia, 133 - 48 B.C.
Ephesus was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League on the west coast of Anatolia. The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis, completed around 550 B.C. and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation. The Gospel of John may have been written there. GB93847. Bronze AE 18, cf. SNG Cop 301 ff.; BMC Ionia p. 62, 134 ff., aF, weight 3.196 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesus mint, 133 - 48 B.C.; obverse bee, E−Φ flanking above wings, all within laurel wreath; reverse stag standing right, palm-tree in background center, uncertain monogram right, uncertain magistrate in exergue; $38.00 (Ä33.44)