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CTP in the reverse legend identifies the magistrate, Lo. Io. Libonianos, as a strategos. Strategos, plural strategoi, is Greek meaning "general." In the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. In the modern Greek army, it is the highest officer rank.RP82728. Bronze AE 16, RPC Online III 2393 (18 spec.); SNG Cop 508; SNG Leypold 1201; SNG Tatis 757; Imhoof-Blumer LS p. 139, 13; BMC Lydia p. 246, 75; Winterthur 3917, VF, attractive dark green patina, bumps and marks, earthen deposits, weight 2.366 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, time of Trajan, c. 98 - 117 A.D; obverse CAP∆IA-NΩN, draped youthful bust of Dionysus right, wearing ivy wreath; reverse CTP ΛO IO ΛI-BΩNIANOY, filleted thyrsus, bee to right; ex Numismatic Naumann GmbH auction 60, lot 326; $145.00 (€127.60)
Ephesos, Ionia, c. 280 - 258 B.C.
We know of about a half dozen specimens with these obverse and reverse types but all name the magistrate KAΛΛIΓENHΣ. This is the only example known to Forum with this magistrate. GB91032. Bronze AE 13, SNGvA 1843 var. (magistrate), BMC Ionia -, SNG Cop -, SNG München -, SNG Tübingen -, SNG Kayhan -, SNG Keckman -, et al. -, gVF, dark patina with highlighting red earthen deposits, obv. a little off center, weight 1.888 g, maximum diameter 12.8 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesos mint, c. 280 - 258 B.C.; obverse bee with straight wings seen from above, E-Φ flanking high across field, border of dots; reverse forepart of stag kneeling right, looking back left, quiver upright behind, EYΘYKPATH (magistrate) downward on right; apparently unpublished with this magistrate and the only specimen known to Forum; extremely rare; $120.00 (€105.60)
Chersonesos, Thrace, c. 400 - 338 B.C.
Chersonesos is Greek for 'peninsula' and several cities used the name. The city in Thracian Chersonesos (the Gallipoli peninsula) that struck these coins is uncertain. The coins may have been struck at Cardia by the peninsula as a league, or perhaps they were struck by lost city on the peninsula named Chersonesos. Chersonesos was controlled by Athens from 560 B.C. to 338 B.C., aside from a brief period during this time when it was controlled by Persia. It was taken by Philip II of Macedonia in 338 B.C., Pergamon in 189 B.C., and Rome in 133 B.C. It was later ruled by the Byzantine Empire and then by the Ottoman Turks.GS91352. Silver hemidrachm, BMC Thrace p. 186, 49; SNG Cop 834; McClean -; Weber -; Dewing -; SNG Lockett -, SNG Milan -, SNG Berry -, SNG Dreer -, SNG von Post -, VF, toned, well centered lion, tight flan, scratches, weight 2.205 g, maximum diameter 12.9 mm, Chersonesos (Sevastopol, Ukraine) mint, c. 400 - 338 B.C.; obverse lion forepart right, head turned back left, tongue protruding; reverse quadripartite incuse with alternating shallow and deeper sunken quarters, pellet above X in one sunk quadrant, a bee in the opposite sunk quadrant; $100.00 (€88.00) ON RESERVE
"Kainon," Sicily, c. 367 - 340 B.C.
This issue, assigned to Alaisa in many references, was perhaps produced by Thracian mercenaries operating in Sicily in the 4th century B.C.GI89575. Bronze tetras, Calciati I, p. 252, 10; SNG Cop 134 (Alaesa); SNG München 218 (Alaisa); SNG ANS 1178 (Alaesa); BMC Sicily p. 29, 8 (Alaesa); HGC 2 509, aVF, flat strike, scattered porosity, tight flan cutting off head of griffin, edge cracks, weight 8.657 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 367 - 340 B.C.; obverse griffin springing left, wings open, grasshopper left below; reverse horse prancing left, loose reigns flying behind, KAINON in exergue, star with eight rays around a central pellet above; $70.00 (€61.60)
Ephesos, Ionia, c. 387 - 295 B.C.
Ephesos, on the west coast of Anatolia, was famous for its Temple of Artemis, completed around 550 B.C., one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The usual symbols of this nature-goddess and the city are the torch, stag, and the bee. Coins of Ephesos most frequently depict a bee on the obverse. The high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called the King Bee, while the virgin priestesses were called honey-bees (Melissae). Ephesus was one of the seven churches cited in the Book of Revelation and the Gospel of John may have been written there. GB89003. Bronze AE 10, cf. SNG Cop 254 - 255; SNG München 49; BMC Ionia -, SNGvA -, SNG Tübingen - SNG Kayhan -, weight 0.978 g, maximum diameter 10.0 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesos mint, c. 387 - 295 B.C.; obverse bee with straight wings seen from above, E-Φ flanking high across field; reverse stag kneeling left, head turned back right, astragalos (sheep or goat knuckle bone used for divination) above, magistrate name upward on left (obscure); $32.00 (€28.16)