Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
Flavius Domitianus was an effective emperor who spent much of his time in the provinces preserving order. Despite his effectiveness, he was extremely unpopular with the senatorial class at Rome. He appointed persons from the lower classes to positions of authority. When asked to prohibit execution of senators without a trial by peers he declined, thus dispelling the old illusions of republican government and exposing the true autocracy of his rule. Domitian's reign was marred by paranoia and cruelty in his latter years and he executed many Senators. In 96 A.D. he was stabbed to death in a plot, allegedly involving his own wife.
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.RB64531. Bronze quadrans, RIC II.1 243, Cohen 17, VF, weight 2.181 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, obverse IMP DOMIT AVG GERM, bust of Ceres (possibly with the features of Domitia) left, wreathed with grain; reverse bundle of three poppies and four stalks of grain, S - C flanking across field; rare; $190.00 (€165.30)
RS70562. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 741 (C3); RSC II 279; BMCRE II 205; BnF III 185, gVF, some luster, well centered on a typical tight flan, weight 3.541 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 14 Sep 92 - 13 Sep 93 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XII, laureate head right; reverse IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, helmeted and draped, thunderbolt in right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded shield at feet behind; $190.00 (€165.30)
RS70179. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Vespasian 957; RSC II 49; BMCRE II 234; BnF III 207; SRCV I 2638, VF, superb portrait, toned, weight 3.303 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, as caesar, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right; reverse COS V, helmeted rider on rearing horse right; $180.00 (€156.60)
Roman Empire, Anonymous, Domitian to Antoninus Pius, c. 81 - 161 A.D.
RIC identifies this type as common but it appears to be rare with the dove facing left.
Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia "Caligula threw coins among the people." Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by the emperor himself at a similar event.RB63623. Bronze quadrans, RIC II p. 218, 25, VF, weight 1.847 g, maximum diameter 14.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 81 - 161 A.D.; obverse diademed and draped bust of Venus right; reverse dove standing left, S C in exergue; rare; $145.00 (€126.15)
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Tomis, Moesia Inferior
Tomis (Constanta, Romania today) was founded by Greek colonists around 600 B.C. on the Black Sea shore for trade with the local Getic population. The Roman poet Ovid was banished by Augustus to Tomis in 8 A.D. and died there eight years later. By his account, Tomis was "a town located in a war-stricken cultural wasteland on the remotest margins of the empire."RP68780. Bronze AE 18, Varbanov 4646 (R6), AMNG I/II 2592, SNG Cop -, SNG Stancomb -, BMC Thrace -, VF, weight 4.517 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Tomis (Constanta, Romania) mint, obverse ∆OMETIANO-C KAICA ΓEPM, laureate head right; reverse TOM−ITΩN, Nike standing left on globe, wreath in right, palm frond in left; scarce; $140.00 (€121.80)
In 91 A.D., Pliny the Younger was named a tribunus plebis. On 24 August 79, he along with his uncle, Pliny the Elder, witnessed the eruption of Vesuvius, during which his uncle died. Pliny rose through the cursus honorum, a series of Imperial civil and military offices, and was an imperial magistrate under Trajan. He wrote hundreds of letters, many of which still survive, that are of great historical value for the time period. Some are addressed to reigning emperors or to notables such as the historian Tacitus. His letters to Trajan provide one of the few surviving records of the relationship between the imperial office and provincial governors.RS70129. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 719 (C2); RSC II 265; BMCRE II 176; BnF III 166; Hunter I -, VF, nice portrait, well centered on a tight flan, weight 3.588 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 14 Sep 90 - 13 Sep 91 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P X, laureate head right; reverse IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva advancing right, wearing helmet and aegis, brandishing spear in right hand, shield in left; $130.00 (€113.10)
RS70205. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Vespasian 921 (C2); RSC II 47; BMCRE II Vespasian 193; BnF III Vespasian 169; SRCV I 2637, gF, toned, weight 3.408 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, as caesar, early 76 - early 77 A.D.; obverse CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII, Pegasus standing right, archaic curved wing (only near wing showing), raising left foreleg; $130.00 (€113.10)
The pulvinar (plural pulvinaria) was a special couch used for displaying images of the gods, that they might receive offerings at ceremonies such as the lectisternium or supplicatio. In the famous lectisternium of 217 B.C., on orders of the sibylline books, six pulvinaria were arranged, each for a divine male-female pair, identified by Livy as:
Mercury-CeresRS70224. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Titus 271; RSC II 399a; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 79; SRCV I 2677, gF, excellent portrait, centered, toned, weight 3.208 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, as caesar, 80 A.D.; obverse CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right; reverse PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, pulvinar of Minerva: Corinthian helmet right on a draped facing throne without back; $130.00 (€113.10)
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
Isis was an Egyptian goddess, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshiped as the ideal mother, wife, matron of nature and magic. She was the friend of slaves, sinners, artisans, the downtrodden, as well as listening to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats and rulers. Isis is the Goddess of motherhood and fertility.RX57221. Bronze diobol, Dattari 502; RPC II 2482; Geissen 329; BMC Alexandria p. 37, 302; Milne 467; Emmett 296, F, weight 6.023 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 82 - 28 Aug 83 A.D.; obverse AYTOK KAIΣAP ∆OMITIANOΣ ΣEB, laureate bust right; reverse ETOYΣ ∆EYTEPOY (year 2), bust of Isis right, wearing crown of the sun disk, cow horns, and heads of grain, knot on breast; $125.00 (€108.75)
In 79 A.D., Mount Vesuvius spawned a deadly cloud of volcanic gas, stones, ash and fumes to a height of 33 km (20.5 miles), spewing molten rock and pulverized pumice at the rate of 1.5 million tons per second, ultimately releasing a hundred thousand times the thermal energy released by the Hiroshima bombing. The towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum were obliterated and buried underneath massive pyroclastic surges and lava. An estimated 16,000 people died from the eruption. Historians have learned about the eruption from the eyewitness account of Pliny the Younger, a Roman administrator and poet.RS70314. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Vespasian 1084; RSC II 384; BMCRE II Vespasian 265; BnF III 237; SRCV I 2642, F, nice portrait, toned, weight 3.472 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, as caesar, 79 A.D.; obverse CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate head right; reverse PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Salus standing left, legs crossed, leaning against column, feeding snake from patera; $125.00 (€108.75)
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