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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ History ▸ Enemies of RomeView Options:  |  |  | 

Enemies of Rome

Tetrarchy of Chalkis, Coele Syria, Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.

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Lysanias is called Tetrarch of Abila by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian satrap Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) Antigonus on the throne of Judaea (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support Antigonus against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, Mark Antony had him executed, and gave his territory to Cleopatra VII.
GB90942. Bronze AE 19, Herman 11.g, RPC I 4769, HGC 9 145 corr., Lindgren III 1243, BMC Galatia -, VF, weight 3.505 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse veiled female bust right, no inscription; reverse double cornucopia, flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very rare; $400.00 (€352.00)
 


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB72290. Bronze AE 17, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613 var (divided ethnic); BMC Italy p. 131, 12 var (same), VF, green patina, weight 3.570 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 225o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; rare; $180.00 (€158.40)
 


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB73614. Bronze AE 20, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613; BMC Italy p. 131, 12, F, weight 3.792 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; rare; $170.00 (€149.60)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, 221 - 210 B.C.

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The Second Punic War, 218 - 201 B.C., is most remembered for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, followed by his crushing victories over Rome in the battle of the Trebia, at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. After these defeats, many Roman allies joined Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. More capable in siege-craft, the Romans recaptured all the major cities that had defected. The Romans defeated an attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus and, in Iberia, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the Battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa where Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, resulting in the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.Hannibal's route of invasion
GB90106. Bronze AE 21, Viola CNP 106e; Alexandropoulos MAA pl. 4, 90; SNG Cop 309 ff. var (different Punic letter); SGCV II 6518 var (same), gF, weight 6.816 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, 221 - 210 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed in grain; reverse horse standing right, head turned back, right foreleg raised, Punic letter gimel below; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


Syracuse, Sicily, Pyrrhus of Epirus, 278 - 276 B.C.

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In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in Apulia. Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his victory, he famously replied: "Another such victory and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrric victory, a victory achieved at ruinous cost.
GI75171. Bronze litra, Calciati II p. 321, 176; SNG Cop 813, SNG ANS 852; SGCV I 1214; HGC 2, 1451, VF/F, weight 11.494 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 270o, Syracuse mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles left, clad in Nemean Lion scalp head-dress; reverse ΣYPA−KOΣIΩN, Athena Promachos advancing right, hurling thunderbolt with right, shield in left; $110.00 (€96.80)
 


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

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This type refers to Severus' victories over Parthia. Severus assumed the title "Parthicus Maximus," greatest of Parthian conquerors.
RS75004. Silver denarius, RIC IV 176, RSC III 370, BMCRE V 256, cf. SRCV II 6323 (TR P X COS III, 202 A.D.), VF, nice portrait, attractive toning, excellent centering, some reverse die wear, weight 3.404 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 201 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PART MAX P M TR P VIIII, trophy of captured arms, flanked by two captives seated facing outward and wearing pointed caps; $100.00 (€88.00)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, c. 241 - 221 B.C.

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Carthage, a Phoenician city-state on the Gulf of Tunis in North Africa, was once a major hub of trade and dominated the western Mediterranean. Conflict with the Sicilian Greeks and the Roman Republic led to recurring war. In 146 B.C., after the third and final Punic War, Carthage was destroyed and occupied by Rome.
GB76848. Bronze shekel, Apparently unpublished control variant; Viola CNP 224, Müller Afrique 175, SNG Ashmolean 269, Alexandropoulos 63 (only ayin, bet & het listed), aVF, green patina, scratches, potentially active corrosion (appears stabilized), weight 4.303 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 90o, Carthage mint, c. 310 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit-Kore left wearing wreath of grain, wearing earring with one pendant, and pendant necklace, dot border; reverse horse standing right with all four hooves on exergue line, long caduceus on far side of horse at center, Punic control letter alef right, dot border; $95.00 (€83.60)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Early 3rd Century B.C.

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Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, died in 289 B.C. He restored the Syracusan democracy on his death bed, stating that he did not want his sons to succeed him as king. The following year, some of his disbanded mercenaries, calling themselves Mamertines (Sons of Mars), seized Messana in northeast Sicily. The city became a base from which they ravaged the Sicilian countryside. Syracuse was weakened by his loss and Carthage began a renewal of their power in Sicily.
GB76852. Bronze AE 17, Viola CNP 94, Alexandropoulos 22, HGC 2 1674 (S), Müller Afrique 315, Weber III 8486, SNG Cop VIII 126, SGCV II 6530, BMC Sicily -, F, well centered, green patina, areas of corrosion, weight 3.626 g, maximum diameter 16.6 mm, die axis 90o, Carthage or uncertain Sicilian mint, Early 3rd Century B.C.; obverse date palm tree with two bunches of hanging fruit, no legend, symbols or monogram; reverse unbridled horse standing right, head turned back looking left, no legend, symbols or monogram; scarce; $90.00 (€79.20)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, c. 350 B.C.

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By the 4th Century B.C., Sicily had become an obsession for Carthage. For sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 B.C., Carthage had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.
GB49127. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 121, F, weight 3.177 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 45o, Sicilian? mint, c. 350 B.C.; obverse youthful male head left between two stalks of grain; reverse horse galloping to right; overstruck on a Carthaginian bronze with head of Tanit / horse with palm behind; $85.00 (€74.80)
 


Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.

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Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to Sidon, and then to Carthage, before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or Sidon, but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.
GB65641. Bronze half unit, Viola CNP 126, SNG Cop VIII 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), SNG München 1626 ff., SNG Morcom 897, Alexandropoulos 15, aVF, rough, nice green patina, weight 5.015 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 270o, Carthage or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; obverse male head left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; reverse free horse prancing right, short exergual line below rear hooves, linear border; $85.00 (€74.80)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, c. 200 - 146 B.C.

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At its height, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Continual war with the Sicilian Greeks, and then Rome, ended with the complete destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire population of the city in 146 B.C.
GI90317. Bronze trishekel, Viola CNP 63g; Müller Afrique 244; SNG Cop 412; Alexandropoulos MAA 105i, F, weight 18.051 g, maximum diameter 27.4 mm, die axis 315o, Carthage mint, c. 200 - 146 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, long hair, wreathed in grain, earring with one pendant; reverse horse striding right, Punic letter bet above pellet below; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins; rare ; $75.00 (€66.00)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, N. Africa, c. 330 - 300 B.C.

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In 312 B.C., the Syracusans asked Carthage for help against their own tyrant Agathocles. In 311, the Carthaginian general Hamilcar, crossed over to Sicily, won the Battle of Himera, then laid siege to Syracuse. Agathocles escaped from Syracuse with a fleet in 310 and and attacked Carthage. Taking advantage of civil unrest, he nearly conquered the city. In 307 Agathocles was forced to return to Syracuse to deal with unrest in his Sicilian dominions. His army that remained behind in Carthage was destroyed. In Sicily, general Hamilcar was captured and killed. Peace finally came in 306. In Sicily, the treaty restricted Carthage to the area west of the Halycus (Platani) River and allowed Agathocles to strengthen his rule over Greek Sicily.
GI76849. Bronze AE 15, cf. Viola CNP 355, Alexandropoulos 23, SNG Cop VIII 107, SNG München 1643, HGC 2 1672 (many different control letters listed), F, scratches, weight 2.428 g, maximum diameter 14.7 mm, die axis 315o, uncertain Sicilian mint, c. 330 - 300 B.C.; obverse date palm tree with two bunches of dates; reverse Pegasos flying left, obscure Punic control letter below belly; $70.00 (€61.60)
 


The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.

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By 68, Jewish resistance in the north had been crushed. Vespasian made Caesarea Maritima his headquarters and methodically proceeded to clear the coast.
JD76926. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1360, Fair, weight 2.499 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse amphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around; ex Forum (2004); $46.00 (€40.48)
 


Sardinia, Punic Rule, 264 - 241 B.C.

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Head of Tanit / horse head types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The style of this particular type, which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the style of Tanit on this type and Persephone on Locri bronzes.
GB72291. Bronze AE 15, Alexandropoulos 60 (Sardinia); SNG Cop 224 (Africa); Müller Africa 274, Fair/Fine, small flan, weight 1.612 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 0o, Sardinia mint, 264 - 241 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain; reverse horse head right; scarce; $45.00 (€39.60)
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Perseus, 179 - 168 B.C.

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Perseus of Macedonia was the last king of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in Macedonia created after the death of Alexander the Great. After losing the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., Macedonia came under Roman rule.

The hero Perseus, the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths in the cult of the Twelve Olympians. Perseus was the hero who killed Medusa and claimed Andromeda, having rescued her from a sea monster.
GB51106. Bronze AE 19, SNG München 1274 ff., SNG Cop 1275, SNG Alpha Bank 1142 cor., SNG Dreer -, gF, weight 5.789 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 0o, Pella or Amphipolis mint, c. 179 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of hero Perseus right, wearing winged helmet peaked with griffin head, harpa across shoulder; reverse eagle standing half-left on thunderbolt, head right, wings open, B - A over Π−E flanking across field, star in exergue; $12.49 (€10.99)







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Catalog current as of Saturday, February 06, 2016.
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Enemies of Rome