, Senones, Gaul ( of Sens, France), c. 100 - 60 B.C.
About 400 B.C. the Senones crossed the Alps and, having driven out the Umbrians, settled on the east coast of Italy from Forlì to Ancona (ager Gallicus), and founded Sena Gallica (Senigallia) their capital. In 391 B.C., they invaded and besieged Clusium. The Clusines appealed to Rome, which led to war. In 390 B.C. (or 387 B.C.), the Senones routed the Roman army at Allia and then sacked Rome. For more than 100 years the Senones were engaged in hostilities with Rome. They were finally subdued in 283 B.C. by P. Cornelius Dolabella and driven from Italy. In Gaul, from 53 to 51 B.C., the Senones engaged in hostilities with , brought about by their expulsion of Cavarinus, whom he had appointed their . In 51 B.C., a Senonian named Drappes threatened the Provincia, but was captured and starved himself to death. Their chief towns were Agedincum (later Senones, whence Sens), Metiosedum (Melun?), and Vellaunodunum (site uncertain).
SH75807. Gold , Globular ; 532; 2537; 15, pl. V, 128; 94 (Carnutes?); -, aVF, 7.221 g, maximum 12.4 mm, Agedincum? (Sens, France) mint, c. 100 - 60 B.C.; small in center of plain globule with prominent rim; plain globule with prominent rim; ex Nomos AG, obolos 1, lot 28; ex Cologny Collection; $850.00 (€739.50)
of Chalkis, Coele , Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.
Lysanias is called Tetrarch of by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) on the throne of (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, had him executed, and gave his territory to VII.GB90942. Bronze AE 19, 11.g, 4769, 145 ., 1243, -, VF, 3.505 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; veiled female right, no ; double , flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very ; $400.00 (€348.00)
Brettian League, , Italy, c. 211- 208 B.C., Time of Hannibal
The success of Hannibal at Cannae proved too much for the Bruttians' fidelity; they were among the first after the battle to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general. Some towns at first remained with Rome, but Petelia and Consentia were speedily reduced by other Bruttians and a small Carthaginian force, and the more important cities of Locri and Crotona followed not long after. Rhegium alone remained firm, and was able to defy throughout the war. The region became a Carthaginian stronghold, but the Romans, though avoiding any decisive engagement, continually gained ground by the successive reduction of towns and fortresses. The ravages of war were a severe blow to . Punishment by the Romans after the war completed their humiliation. They were deprived of most of their territory, and the whole nation was reduced to near servitude. A with an army was sent annually to watch over them. Colonies were established at Tempsa, Crotona, and Hipponium (renamed Vibo ). A fourth was settled at Thurii on their frontier. From this time the Bruttians as a people disappear from history. All coinage of the Brettii was issued while they were allied with Hannibal.SH72544. Bronze quarter unit, 120 - 122; 50; 1990; p. 332, 106 var (no controls), gVF, attractive green , 1.755 g, maximum 13.2 mm, 180o, mint, 211- 208; of a sea goddess ( or ) left, with crab headdress, (thunderbolt) below neck; BRET/TIWN, crab, bunch of grapes (control symbol) above between claws, linear ; ; $350.00 (€304.50)
Roman Republic, L. Aemilius Paullus, 62 B.C.
At the end of the Third Macedonian War (171 - 168 B.C.), Perseus of was decisively defeated by Rome at the Battle of Pydna. He surrendered to general Aemilius Paullus and was imprisoned in Rome with his half-brother Philippus and his son Alexander. The Antigonid kingdom was replaced with four republics, which were later dissolved and became the Roman province of .SH74531. Silver , 366, 10, 415/1, Nice gVF, attractive coin, nice , some minor scratches and marks, small edge test cut, 3.901 g, maximum 19.4 mm, 150o, Rome mint, 62 B.C.; LEPIDVS , veiled and diademed of right; , Paullus on right, standing left, togate, touching in center; on the left, three standing bound captives: Perseus of , his half-brother, and his son; $300.00 (€261.00)
, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.
Personification of the siege of Sarmizegetusa! In 106 A.D., besieged Sarmizegetusa, the Dacian capital. With the aid of a Dacian traitor, the Romans found and destroyed water pipes supplying the city. Running out of water and food the city fell and was burned to the ground. fled but, followed by the Roman cavalry, committed suicide rather than capture. The river-god on the is usually described as , however, the likely personifies the impact of the Roman destruction of the Dacian's water supply. Dacia's own water supply has betrayed her, knocked her to the ground, and is choking her.SH63939. , 556, 793 note, 526, aF, 20.524 g, maximum 32.9 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 103 - 111 A.D.; TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P P, laureate right, slight drapery on far shoulder; S C, River-god, cloak billowing behind, leaning left with right knee on supine , forcing her to the ground, choking her with his right hand, reeds in left; very ; $240.00 (€208.80)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB72290. Bronze AE 17, 650; 46; 613 var (divided ); p. 131, 12 var (same), VF, green , 3.570 g, maximum 17.1 mm, 225o, Arpi mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; ; $200.00 (€174.00)
Carthaginians in Italy, Second Punic War, 215 - 205 B.C.
of Tanit / horse types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The of this particular , which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the of Tanit on this and on Locri bronzes.GB72269. Bronze AE 19, cf. 373; , p. 53, 5(c) and pl. VII, 5 (Locri), F, green , scratches, 6.491 g, maximum 19.6 mm, 315o, , Lokri Epizephrioi(?) mint, under Hannibal, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain; horse right, no letters or ; ; $180.00 (€156.60)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20, 650; 46; 613; p. 131, 12, F, 3.792 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 270o, Arpi mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; ; $170.00 (€147.90)
Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
The on this is often identified as the female goddess Tanit. It is apparently a male (Carthaginian men wore earrings). The of the varies, perhaps indicating different mints, and some of the heads do look feminine.GB68302. Bronze AE 16, 126, 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), 1626 ff., 897, 15, gVF, nice green , 4.058 g, maximum 16.4 mm, 135.0o, or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; male left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; free horse prancing right, short below rear hooves, linear ; $150.00 (€130.50)
, , 221 - 210 B.C.
GB90106. Bronze AE 21, 106e; pl. 4, 90; 309 ff. var (different Punic letter); 6518 var (same), gF, 6.816 g, maximum 20.9 mm, 0o, mint, 221 - 210 B.C.; of Tanit left, wreathed in grain; horse standing right, turned back, right foreleg raised, Punic letter gimel below; During the period this coin was struck Rome fought two major wars simultaneously: the First Macedonian War against Philip V and the Second Punic War against Hannibal. Rome would later be victorious in both conflicts and emerge as the sole superpower in the Mediterranean.; $125.00 (€108.75)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
This refers to Severus' victories over . Severus assumed the title "Parthicus ," greatest of Parthian conquerors.RS75004. Silver , 176, 370, 256, cf. 6323 (TR P X , 202 A.D.), gVF, nice portrait, attractive , excellent centering, some die wear, 3.404 g, maximum 19.5 mm, Rome mint, 201 A.D.; SEVERVS AVG, laureate right; , of captured arms, flanked by two captives seated facing outward and wearing pointed caps; $125.00 (€108.75)
, , , c. 350 B.C.
By the 4th Century B.C., had become an obsession for . For sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 B.C., had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.GB49127. Bronze AE 17, 121, F, 3.177 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 45o, Sicilian? mint, c. 350 B.C.; youthful male left between two stalks of grain; horse galloping to right; on a Carthaginian bronze with of Tanit / horse with behind; $95.00 (€82.65)
Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to , and then to , before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or , but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.GB65641. Bronze AE 16, 126, 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), 1626 ff., 897, 15, aVF, rough, nice green , 5.015 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 270o, or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; male left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; free horse prancing right, short below rear hooves, linear ; $85.00 (€73.95)
Athens, , , c. 87 - 86 B.C., Mithradatic War Issue
In 87 B.C., Mithridates moved his forces into and established Aristion as a tyrant in Athens. landed in and marched through into . Most cities declared their allegiance to Rome, foremost among them Thebes. Athens, however, remained loyal to Mithridates. After a long and brutal siege, Sulla's rough battle hardened legions, veterans of the , took Athens on the Kalends of March 86 B.C. They looted and burned temples and structures built in the city by various Hellenistic kings to themselves and gain prestige. Months later, only after they ran out of water, Aristion surrendered the Akropolis. Athens was looted and punished severely. Roman vengeance ensured would remain docile during later civil wars and Mithridatic wars.GB69776. Bronze , 307, p. 81, 554; 97; pl. 84, 45 - 48, F, crack, 7.255 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 0o, Athens mint, Mithradates VI of Pontos & Aristion, 87 - 86 B.C.; of right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; Zeus advancing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right, left extended, A/Q-E flanking below arms, between two crescents (one above and one below) in lower right ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $70.00 (€60.90)
, , N. , c. 350 - 320 B.C.
At the height of its prominence, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Rivalry with Rome led to a series of conflicts, the Punic Wars. The Third Punic War ended in the destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population.GB59455. Bronze AE 18, III p. 381, 9 ff.; 20; 102 ff., F, flaked (stable), 6.288 g, maximum 17.5 mm, 135o, Sicilian(?) mint, c. 350 - 320 B.C.; tree; of horse right; ; $50.00 (€43.50)
Celt-Iberian, Bolskan, Iberia, 80 - 72 B.C.
Bolskan (modern Huesca, Spain) was the capital of the Iberian Vescetani tribe, located in Tarraconensis, about 65 km of the Ebro River, on the road from (modern Tarragona) and (modern Lleida) to Caesaraugusta (modern Zaragoza). For six years Bolskan was the capital of Quintus Sertorius, the renegade Roman general and Iberian hero who took control of Spain, defeating all the Roman armies sent to remove him, until he was assassinated in 72 B.C. In 37 B.C., the city was refounded as a Roman colony, Urbs .CE90117. Bronze AE 23, 1424 (R4), 734 ff., 814 ff., 1918, F, punch on , slightly , 6.511 g, maximum 23.90 mm, Bolskan (Huesca, Spain) mint, 80 - 72 B.C.; bearded male right, curly hair, dotted collar, down behind; horseman galloping right, spear in right hand, reins in left, above, Iberian "BoLSCaN" above ground line below; ex Ancient Imports; $50.00 (€43.50)
Sardinia, Punic Rule, 264 - 241 B.C.
of Tanit / horse types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The of this particular , which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the of Tanit on this and on Locri bronzes.GB72291. Bronze AE 15, 60 (Sardinia); 224 ( ); 274, Fair/Fine, small , 1.612 g, maximum 14.5 mm, 0o, Sardinia mint, 264 - 241 B.C.; of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain; horse right; ; $50.00 (€43.50)
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D., Irregular Issue
By 68, Jewish resistance in the had been crushed. made Maritima his headquarters and methodically proceeded to clear the coast.JD59019. Bronze , 1360b, F, , 1.679 g, maximum 17.0 mm, 180o, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around; $45.00 (€39.15)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
This refers to Severus' victories over . Severus assumed the title "Parthicus ," greatest of Parthian conquerors.
RS74210. Silver , 185; 373; p. 232, 385; 48; 6323, VF, frosty surfaces, edge cracks, 2.540 g, maximum 19.5 mm, 45o, Rome mint, 202 A.D.; SEVERVS AVG, laureate right; X P P, of captured arms, flanked by two Parthian captives seated facing outward and wearing pointed caps; $45.00 (€39.15)
, Perseus, 179 - 168 B.C.
Perseus of was the last of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in created after the death of Alexander the Great. After losing the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., came under Roman rule.
The hero Perseus, the legendary founder of and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths in the cult of the Twelve . Perseus was the hero who killed and claimed Andromeda, having rescued her from a sea monster. GB51106. Bronze AE 19, 1274 ff., 1275, 1142 cor., -, gF, 5.789 g, maximum 18.4 mm, 0o, or Amphipolis mint, c. 179 - 168 B.C.; of hero Perseus right, wearing winged helmet peaked with , across shoulder; standing half-left on thunderbolt, right, wings open, B - A over Π−E flanking across , in ; $40.00 (€34.80)
, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.
This was imitated by in the region of .GB46696. Copper AE 20, 1299, -, , F, 8.666 g, maximum 18.1 mm, 180o, Amphipolis mint, of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; MAKE ∆ONΩN, ornamented trident , below; ; $36.00 (€31.32)
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