of Chalkis, Coele , Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.
Lysanias is called Tetrarch of by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) on the throne of (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, had him executed, and gave his territory to VII.GB90942. Bronze AE 19, 11.g, 4769, 145 ., 1243, -, VF, 3.505 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; veiled female right, no ; double , flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very ; $400.00 (€352.00)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB72290. Bronze AE 17, 650; 46; 613 var (divided ); p. 131, 12 var (same), VF, green , 3.570 g, maximum 17.1 mm, 225o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; ; $180.00 (€158.40)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20, 650; 46; 613; p. 131, 12, F, 3.792 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; ; $170.00 (€149.60)
, , 221 - 210 B.C.
GB90106. Bronze AE 21, 106e; MAA pl. 4, 90; 309 ff. var (different Punic letter); 6518 var (same), gF, 6.816 g, maximum 20.9 mm, 0o, mint, 221 - 210 B.C.; of Tanit left, wreathed in grain; horse standing right, turned back, right foreleg raised, Punic letter gimel below; $125.00 (€110.00)
, , Pyrrhus of , 278 - 276 B.C.
In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in . Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his , he famously replied: "Another such and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrric , a achieved at ruinous cost.GI75171. Bronze , II p. 321, 176; 813, 852; 1214; , 1451, VF/F, 11.494 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 270o, mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; of left, clad in scalp head-dress; ΣYPA−KOΣIΩN, Promachos advancing right, hurling thunderbolt with right, in left; $110.00 (€96.80)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
This refers to Severus' victories over . Severus assumed the title "Parthicus ," greatest of Parthian conquerors.
RS75004. Silver , 176, 370, 256, cf. 6323 (TR P X , 202 A.D.), VF, nice portrait, attractive , excellent centering, some die wear, 3.404 g, maximum 19.5 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 201 A.D.; SEVERVS AVG, laureate right; , of captured arms, flanked by two captives seated facing outward and wearing pointed caps; $100.00 (€88.00)
, , , c. 241 - 221 B.C.
, a Phoenician city-state on the Gulf of Tunis in , was once a major hub of trade and dominated the western Mediterranean. Conflict with the Sicilian Greeks and the Roman Republic led to recurring war. In 146 B.C., after the third and final Punic War, was destroyed and occupied by Rome.GB76848. Bronze , Apparently unpublished control variant; 224, 175, 269, 63 (only ayin, bet & het listed), aVF, green , scratches, potentially active corrosion (appears stabilized), 4.303 g, maximum 19.4 mm, 90o, mint, c. 310 - 290 B.C.; of Tanit-Kore left wearing wreath of grain, wearing earring with one pendant, and pendant necklace, dot ; horse standing right with all four hooves on line, long on far side of horse at center, Punic control letter alef right, dot ; $95.00 (€83.60)
, , , Early 3rd Century B.C.
Agathocles, the tyrant of , died in 289 B.C. He the Syracusan democracy on his death bed, stating that he did not want his sons to succeed him as . The following year, some of his disbanded mercenaries, calling themselves (Sons of ), seized Messana in northeast . The city became a base from which they ravaged the Sicilian countryside. was weakened by his loss and began a renewal of their power in .GB76852. Bronze AE 17, 94, 22, 1674 (S), 315, III 8486, 126, 6530, -, F, , green , areas of corrosion, 3.626 g, maximum 16.6 mm, 90o, or uncertain Sicilian mint, Early 3rd Century B.C.; date tree with two bunches of hanging fruit, no , or ; unbridled horse standing right, turned back looking left, no , or ; ; $90.00 (€79.20)
, , , c. 350 B.C.
By the 4th Century B.C., had become an obsession for . For sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 B.C., had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.GB49127. Bronze AE 17, 121, F, 3.177 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 45o, Sicilian? mint, c. 350 B.C.; youthful male left between two stalks of grain; horse galloping to right; on a Carthaginian bronze with of Tanit / horse with behind; $85.00 (€74.80)
Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to , and then to , before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or , but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.GB65641. Bronze half unit, 126, 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), 1626 ff., 897, 15, aVF, rough, nice green , 5.015 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 270o, or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; male left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; free horse prancing right, short below rear hooves, linear ; $85.00 (€74.80)
, , , c. 200 - 146 B.C.
At its height, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Continual war with the Sicilian Greeks, and then Rome, ended with the destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire population of the city in 146 B.C.GI90317. Bronze trishekel, 63g; 244; 412; MAA 105i, F, 18.051 g, maximum 27.4 mm, 315o, mint, c. 200 - 146 B.C.; of Tanit left, long hair, wreathed in grain, earring with one pendant; horse striding right, Punic letter bet above pellet below; ex Frascatius ; ; $75.00 (€66.00)
, , N. , c. 330 - 300 B.C.
In 312 B.C., the Syracusans asked for against their own tyrant Agathocles. In 311, the Carthaginian general Hamilcar, crossed over to , won the Battle of Himera, then laid siege to . Agathocles escaped from with a fleet in 310 and and attacked . Taking advantage of civil unrest, he nearly conquered the city. In 307 Agathocles was forced to return to to deal with unrest in his Sicilian dominions. His army that remained behind in was destroyed. In , general Hamilcar was captured and killed. Peace finally came in 306. In , the treaty restricted to the of the Halycus (Platani) River and allowed Agathocles to strengthen his rule over Greek .GI76849. Bronze AE 15, cf. 355, 23, 107, 1643, 1672 (many different control letters listed), F, scratches, 2.428 g, maximum 14.7 mm, 315o, uncertain Sicilian mint, c. 330 - 300 B.C.; date tree with two bunches of dates; Pegasos flying left, obscure Punic control letter below belly; $70.00 (€61.60)
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.
By 68, Jewish resistance in the had been crushed. made Maritima his headquarters and methodically proceeded to clear the coast.
JD76926. Bronze , 1360, , 2.499 g, maximum 17.1 mm, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around; ex (2004); $46.00 (€40.48)
Sardinia, Punic Rule, 264 - 241 B.C.
of Tanit / horse types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The of this particular , which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the of Tanit on this and on Locri bronzes.GB72291. Bronze AE 15, 60 (Sardinia); 224 ( ); 274, Fair/Fine, small , 1.612 g, maximum 14.5 mm, 0o, Sardinia mint, 264 - 241 B.C.; of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain; horse right; ; $45.00 (€39.60)
, Perseus, 179 - 168 B.C.
Perseus of was the last of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in created after the death of Alexander the Great. After losing the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., came under Roman rule.
The hero Perseus, the legendary founder of and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths in the cult of the Twelve . Perseus was the hero who killed and claimed Andromeda, having rescued her from a sea monster. GB51106. Bronze AE 19, 1274 ff., 1275, 1142 cor., -, gF, 5.789 g, maximum 18.4 mm, 0o, or Amphipolis mint, c. 179 - 168 B.C.; of hero Perseus right, wearing winged helmet peaked with , across shoulder; standing half-left on thunderbolt, right, wings open, B - A over Π−E flanking across , in ; $12.49 (€10.99)
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