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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ History ▸ Enemies of RomeView Options:  |  |  | 

Enemies of Rome

Celtic, Senones, Gaul (Area of Sens, France), c. 100 - 60 B.C.

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About 400 B.C. the Senones crossed the Alps and, having driven out the Umbrians, settled on the east coast of Italy from Forlì to Ancona (ager Gallicus), and founded Sena Gallica (Senigallia) their capital. In 391 B.C., they invaded Etruria and besieged Clusium. The Clusines appealed to Rome, which led to war. In 390 B.C. (or 387 B.C.), the Senones routed the Roman army at Allia and then sacked Rome. For more than 100 years the Senones were engaged in hostilities with Rome. They were finally subdued in 283 B.C. by P. Cornelius Dolabella and driven from Italy. In Gaul, from 53 to 51 B.C., the Senones engaged in hostilities with Julius Caesar, brought about by their expulsion of Cavarinus, whom he had appointed their king. In 51 B.C., a Senonian named Drappes threatened the Provincia, but was captured and starved himself to death. Their chief towns were Agedincum (later Senones, whence Sens), Metiosedum (Melun?), and Vellaunodunum (site uncertain).
SH75807. Gold stater, Globular cross type; Sills 532; Delestrée-Tache 2537; Scheers 15, pl. V, 128; Cottam ABC 94 (Carnutes?); De La Tour -, aVF, weight 7.221 g, maximum diameter 12.4 mm, Agedincum? (Sens, France) mint, c. 100 - 60 B.C.; obverse small cross in center of plain globule with prominent rim; reverse plain globule with prominent rim; ex Nomos AG, obolos 1, lot 28; ex Cologny Collection; $850.00 (€739.50)
 


Tetrarchy of Chalkis, Coele Syria, Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.

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Lysanias is called Tetrarch of Abila by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian satrap Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) Antigonus on the throne of Judaea (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support Antigonus against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, Mark Antony had him executed, and gave his territory to Cleopatra VII.
GB90942. Bronze AE 19, Herman 11.g, RPC I 4769, HGC 9 145 corr., Lindgren III 1243, BMC Galatia -, VF, weight 3.505 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse veiled female bust right, no inscription; reverse double cornucopia, flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very rare; $400.00 (€348.00)
 


Brettian League, Bruttium, Italy, c. 211- 208 B.C., Time of Hannibal

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The success of Hannibal at Cannae proved too much for the Bruttians' fidelity; they were among the first after the battle to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general. Some towns at first remained with Rome, but Petelia and Consentia were speedily reduced by other Bruttians and a small Carthaginian force, and the more important cities of Locri and Crotona followed not long after. Rhegium alone remained firm, and was able to defy Carthage throughout the war. The region became a Carthaginian stronghold, but the Romans, though avoiding any decisive engagement, continually gained ground by the successive reduction of towns and fortresses. The ravages of war were a severe blow to Bruttium. Punishment by the Romans after the war completed their humiliation. They were deprived of most of their territory, and the whole nation was reduced to near servitude. A praetor with an army was sent annually to watch over them. Colonies were established at Tempsa, Crotona, and Hipponium (renamed Vibo Valentia). A fourth was settled at Thurii on their frontier. From this time the Bruttians as a people disappear from history. All coinage of the Brettii was issued while they were allied with Hannibal.
SH72544. Bronze quarter unit, SNG ANS 120 - 122; Scheu Bronze 50; HN Italy 1990; BMC Italy p. 332, 106 var (no controls), Choice gVF, attractive green patina, weight 1.755 g, maximum diameter 13.2 mm, die axis 180o, Bruttium mint, 211- 208; obverse head of a sea goddess (Amphitrite or Thetis) left, with crab headdress, fulmen (thunderbolt) below neck; reverse BRET/TIWN, crab, bunch of grapes (control symbol) above between claws, linear border; rare; $350.00 (€304.50)
 


Roman Republic, L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, 62 B.C.

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At the end of the Third Macedonian War (171 - 168 B.C.), King Perseus of Macedonia was decisively defeated by Rome at the Battle of Pydna. He surrendered to general Lucius Aemilius Paullus and was imprisoned in Rome with his half-brother Philippus and his son Alexander. The Antigonid kingdom was replaced with four republics, which were later dissolved and became the Roman province of Macedonia.
SH74531. Silver denarius, SRCV I 366, RSC I Aemilia 10, Crawford 415/1, Nice gVF, attractive coin, nice toning, some minor scratches and marks, small edge test cut, weight 3.901 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 150o, Rome mint, 62 B.C.; obverse PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, veiled and diademed head of Concordia right; reverse TER PAVLLVS, Paullus on right, standing left, togate, touching trophy in center; on the left, three standing bound captives: King Perseus of Macedonia, his half-brother, and his son; $300.00 (€261.00)
 


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.

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Personification of the siege of Sarmizegetusa! In 106 A.D., Trajan besieged Sarmizegetusa, the Dacian capital. With the aid of a Dacian traitor, the Romans found and destroyed water pipes supplying the city. Running out of water and food the city fell and was burned to the ground. Decebalus fled but, followed by the Roman cavalry, committed suicide rather than face capture. The river-god on the reverse is usually described as Tiber, however, the reverse likely personifies the impact of the Roman destruction of the Dacian's water supply. Dacia's own water supply has betrayed her, knocked her to the ground, and is choking her.
SH63939. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II 556, BMCRE III 793 note, Cohen II 526, aF, weight 20.524 g, maximum diameter 32.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 103 - 111 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES NERVA TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder; reverse S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI S C, River-god, cloak billowing behind, leaning left with right knee on supine Dacia, forcing her to the ground, choking her with his right hand, reeds in left; very scarce; $240.00 (€208.80)
 


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB72290. Bronze AE 17, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613 var (divided ethnic); BMC Italy p. 131, 12 var (same), VF, green patina, weight 3.570 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 225o, Arpi mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; rare; $200.00 (€174.00)
 


Carthaginians in Italy, Second Punic War, 215 - 205 B.C.

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Head of Tanit / horse head types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The style of this particular type, which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the style of Tanit on this type and Persephone on Locri bronzes.
GB72269. Bronze AE 19, cf. SNG Cop VIII 373; Robinson NC 1964, p. 53, 5(c) and pl. VII, 5 (Locri), F, green patina, scratches, weight 6.491 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 315o, Bruttium, Lokri Epizephrioi(?) mint, under Hannibal, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain; reverse horse head right, no letters or symbols; rare; $180.00 (€156.60)
 


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB73614. Bronze AE 20, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613; BMC Italy p. 131, 12, F, weight 3.792 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 270o, Arpi mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; rare; $170.00 (€147.90)
 


Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.

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The head on this type is often identified as the female goddess Tanit. It is apparently a male head (Carthaginian men wore earrings). The style of the type varies, perhaps indicating different mints, and some of the heads do look feminine.
GB68302. Bronze AE 16, Viola CNP 126, SNG Cop VIII 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), SNG München 1626 ff., SNG Morcom 897, Alexandropoulos 15, Choice gVF, nice green patina, weight 4.058 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 135.0o, Carthage or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; obverse male head left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; reverse free horse prancing right, short exergual line below rear hooves, linear border; $150.00 (€130.50)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, 221 - 210 B.C.

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The Second Punic War, 218 - 201 B.C., is most remembered for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, followed by his crushing victories over Rome in the battle of the Trebia, at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. After these defeats, many Roman allies joined Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. More capable in siege-craft, the Romans recaptured all the major cities that had defected. The Romans defeated an attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus and, in Iberia, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the Battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa where Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, resulting in the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.Hannibal's route of invasion
GB90106. Bronze AE 21, Viola CNP 106e; Alexandropoulos pl. 4, 90; SNG Cop 309 ff. var (different Punic letter); SGCV II 6518 var (same), gF, weight 6.816 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, 221 - 210 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed in grain; reverse horse standing right, head turned back, right foreleg raised, Punic letter gimel below; During the period this coin was struck Rome fought two major wars simultaneously: the First Macedonian War against Philip V and the Second Punic War against Hannibal. Rome would later be victorious in both conflicts and emerge as the sole superpower in the Mediterranean.; $125.00 (€108.75)
 


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

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This type refers to Severus' victories over Parthia. Severus assumed the title "Parthicus Maximus," greatest of Parthian conquerors.
RS75004. Silver denarius, RIC IV 176, RSC III 370, BMCRE V 256, cf. SRCV II 6323 (TR P X COS III, 202 A.D.), gVF, nice portrait, attractive toning, excellent centering, some reverse die wear, weight 3.404 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, Rome mint, 201 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PART MAX P M TR P VIIII, trophy of captured arms, flanked by two captives seated facing outward and wearing pointed caps; $125.00 (€108.75)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, c. 350 B.C.

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By the 4th Century B.C., Sicily had become an obsession for Carthage. For sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 B.C., Carthage had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.
GB49127. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 121, F, weight 3.177 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 45o, Sicilian? mint, c. 350 B.C.; obverse youthful male head left between two stalks of grain; reverse horse galloping to right; overstruck on a Carthaginian bronze with head of Tanit / horse with palm behind; $95.00 (€82.65)
 


Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.

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Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to Sidon, and then to Carthage, before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or Sidon, but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.
GB65641. Bronze AE 16, Viola CNP 126, SNG Cop VIII 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), SNG München 1626 ff., SNG Morcom 897, Alexandropoulos 15, aVF, rough, nice green patina, weight 5.015 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 270o, Carthage or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; obverse male head left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; reverse free horse prancing right, short exergual line below rear hooves, linear border; $85.00 (€73.95)
 


Athens, Attica, Greece, c. 87 - 86 B.C., Mithradatic War Issue

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In 87 B.C., Mithridates moved his forces into Greece and established Aristion as a tyrant in Athens. Sulla landed in Epirus and marched through Boeotia into Attica. Most cities declared their allegiance to Rome, foremost among them Thebes. Athens, however, remained loyal to Mithridates. After a long and brutal siege, Sulla's rough battle hardened legions, veterans of the Social War, took Athens on the Kalends of March 86 B.C. They looted and burned temples and structures built in the city by various Hellenistic kings to honor themselves and gain prestige. Months later, only after they ran out of water, Aristion surrendered the Akropolis. Athens was looted and punished severely. Roman vengeance ensured Greece would remain docile during later civil wars and Mithridatic wars.
GB69776. Bronze chalkous, SNG Cop 307, BMC Attica p. 81, 554; Kroll 97; Svoronos Athens pl. 84, 45 - 48, F, flan crack, weight 7.255 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Athens mint, Mithradates VI of Pontos & Aristion, 87 - 86 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; reverse Zeus advancing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right, left extended, A/Q-E flanking below arms, star between two crescents (one above and one below) in lower right field; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce; $70.00 (€60.90)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, N. Africa, c. 350 - 320 B.C.

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At the height of its prominence, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Rivalry with Rome led to a series of conflicts, the Punic Wars. The Third Punic War ended in the complete destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population.
GB59455. Bronze AE 18, Calciati III p. 381, 9 ff.; Alexandropoulos 20; SNG Cop 102 ff., F, flaked patina (stable), weight 6.288 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 135o, Sicilian(?) mint, c. 350 - 320 B.C.; obverse palm tree; reverse head of horse right; scarce; $50.00 (€43.50)
 


Celt-Iberian, Bolskan, Iberia, 80 - 72 B.C.

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Bolskan (modern Huesca, Spain) was the capital of the Iberian Vescetani tribe, located in Hispania Tarraconensis, about 65 km north of the Ebro River, on the road from Tarraco (modern Tarragona) and Ilerda (modern Lleida) to Caesaraugusta (modern Zaragoza). For six years Bolskan was the capital of Quintus Sertorius, the renegade Roman general and Iberian hero who took control of Spain, defeating all the Roman armies sent to remove him, until he was assassinated in 72 B.C. In 37 B.C., the city was refounded as a Roman colony, Urbs Victrix Osca.
CE90117. Bronze AE 23, Villaronga-Benages 1424 (R4), SNG BM 734 ff., SNG Lorichs 814 ff., Alvarez-Burgos 1918, F, punch on obverse, slightly irregular flan, weight 6.511 g, maximum diameter 23.90 mm, Bolskan (Huesca, Spain) mint, 80 - 72 B.C.; obverse bearded male head right, curly hair, dotted collar, dolphin head down behind; reverse horseman galloping right, spear in right hand, reins in left, star above, Iberian legend "BoLSCaN" above ground line below; ex Ancient Imports; $50.00 (€43.50)
 


Sardinia, Punic Rule, 264 - 241 B.C.

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Head of Tanit / horse head types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The style of this particular type, which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the style of Tanit on this type and Persephone on Locri bronzes.
GB72291. Bronze AE 15, Alexandropoulos 60 (Sardinia); SNG Cop 224 (Africa); Müller Africa 274, Fair/Fine, small flan, weight 1.612 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 0o, Sardinia mint, 264 - 241 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain; reverse horse head right; scarce; $50.00 (€43.50)
 


The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D., Irregular Issue

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By 68, Jewish resistance in the north had been crushed. Vespasian made Caesarea Maritima his headquarters and methodically proceeded to clear the coast.
JD59019. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1360b, F, soft strike, weight 1.679 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse amphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around; $45.00 (€39.15)
 


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

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This type refers to Severus' victories over Parthia. Severus assumed the title "Parthicus Maximus," greatest of Parthian conquerors.
RS74210. Silver denarius, RIC IV 185; RSC III 373; BMCRE V p. 232, 385; Hunter III 48; SRCV II 6323, VF, frosty surfaces, edge cracks, weight 2.540 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 202 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PART MAX IMP TR P X COS III P P, trophy of captured arms, flanked by two Parthian captives seated facing outward and wearing pointed caps; $45.00 (€39.15)
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Perseus, 179 - 168 B.C.

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Perseus of Macedonia was the last king of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in Macedonia created after the death of Alexander the Great. After losing the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., Macedonia came under Roman rule.

The hero Perseus, the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths in the cult of the Twelve Olympians. Perseus was the hero who killed Medusa and claimed Andromeda, having rescued her from a sea monster.
GB51106. Bronze AE 19, SNG München 1274 ff., SNG Cop 1275, SNG Alpha Bank 1142 cor., SNG Dreer -, gF, weight 5.789 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 0o, Pella or Amphipolis mint, c. 179 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of hero Perseus right, wearing winged helmet peaked with griffin head, harpa across shoulder; reverse eagle standing half-left on thunderbolt, head right, wings open, B - A over Π−E flanking across field, stAR in exergue; $40.00 (€34.80)
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.

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This rare type was imitated by Danubian Celts in the Serdi region of Moesia.
GB46696. Copper AE 20, SNG Cop 1299, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG München, F, weight 8.666 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, obverse head of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; reverse MAKE ∆ONΩN, ornamented trident head, monograms below; scarce; $36.00 (€31.32)
 







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Enemies of Rome