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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ History ▸ Enemies of RomeView Options:  |  |  | 

Enemies of Rome

Carthaginians in Sicily, 300 - 289 B.C.

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At the height of its prominence, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Rivalry with Rome led to a series of conflicts, the Punic Wars. The Third Punic War ended in the complete destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population.
SL84036. Silver tetradrachm, Jenkins Punic 394 (O120/R322); SNG Cop VIII 91; Dewing 983; SGCV II 6438; HGC 2 295, NGC Choice VF, strike 4/5, surface 5/5 (3819620-001), weight 17.03 g, maximum diameter 23 mm, die axis 225o, Sicilian mint, 300 - 289 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, clad in lion's scalp; reverse horse's head left, palm tree behind, Punic inscription MHSBM (paymasters) below; NGC certified (slabbed); $1260.00 (€1121.40)
 


Tetrarchy of Chalkis, Coele Syria, Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.

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Lysanias is called Tetrarch of Abila by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian satrap Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) Antigonus on the throne of Judaea (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support Antigonus against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, Mark Antony had him executed, and gave his territory to Cleopatra VII.
GB90942. Bronze AE 19, Herman 11.g, RPC I 4769, HGC 9 145 corr., Lindgren III 1243, BMC Galatia -, VF, weight 3.505 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse veiled female bust right, no inscription; reverse double cornucopia, flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very rare; $310.00 (€275.90)
 


Parthian Kingdom, Gotarzes II, 40 - 51 A.D.

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Gotarzes II ruled as the Parthian king intermittently between 40 and 51 A.D. When his brother Vardanes I succeeded to throne, Gotarzes II rebelled. He went to Hyrcania and gathered an army from Dahae nomads. War between the two kings was ended by a treaty. Gotarzes II returned to Hyrcania, but when Vardanes I was killed in about 47, Gotarzes II was acknowledged as king of the whole empire. He then added to his coins the usual Parthian titles, king of kings Arsaces the benefactor, the just, the illustrious (Epiphanes), and the friend of the Hellenes (Philhellenes). Gotarzes II was detested for his cruelty. Among many other murders he even slew his brother Artabanus and his whole family. His cruelty prompted a request to the Roman emperor Claudius to release from Rome an Arsacid prince, Meherdates, who lived there as a hostage. Meherdates crossed the Euphrates in 49, but was beaten and taken prisoner by Gotarzes II, who cut off his ears. Soon afterwards Gotarzes II died, according to Tacitus of an illness; Josephus says that he was murdered. His last coin is dated from June 51. .
SL70892. Silver tetradrachm, Sellwood 65.14, Cohen DCA 631, Shore -, Sunrise -, NGC Ch VF, Strike 4/5, Surface 4/5 (2490208-002), weight 14.49 g, maximum diameter 26.8 mm, die axis 45o, Seleukeia mint, May 46 A.D.; obverse bearded, diademed and cuirassed bust left; reverse BACIΛEWC BACIΛEWN APCAKOY EYEPΓATO ∆IKAIOY EΠIΦANOY ΦIΛEΛΛHNOΣ, king enthroned left, receiving wreath from Tyche standing left holding cornucopia, HNT (Seleucid Era year 358) above, ∆AIΣIOΣ (Parthian month = May) below; ex Forum (2014), ex Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection, ex CNG auction 317, lot 140; $270.00 (€240.30)
 


Bruttium, Italy, The Brettian League, c. 216 - 214 B.C.

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All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied themselves with Hannibal.
GB79276. Bronze drachm, Pfeiler p. 22, 1; SNG ANS 44; SNG Cop 1663; HN Italy 1942, VF, dark green patina, some spots of hard green encrustation, weight 9.084 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 270o, c. 216 - 214 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, stalk of grain behind; reverse BPETTIΩN, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, cornucopia left; ex CNG e-auction 385, lot 5; $210.00 (€186.90)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Second Punic War, c. 215 - 205 B.C.

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The Second Punic War, 218 - 201 B.C., is most remembered for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, followed by his crushing victories over Rome in the battle of the Trebia, at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. After these defeats, many Roman allies joined Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. More capable in siegecraft, the Romans recaptured all the major cities that had defected. The Romans defeated an attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the Battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa where Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, resulting in the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.The Battle of Cannae 215 B.C.
SH78057. Billon tridrachm, Coin Hoards IX, group 4 (flan cast in a double-sided mold), 97 - 239; cf. Alexandropoulos 44; SNG Cop 190, Müller Afrique 104, SGCV II 6494, VF/F, porous, reverse double struck, weight 8.514 g, maximum diameter 26.2 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, triple-pendant earring, and necklace with many pendants; reverse unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce; $170.00 (€151.30)
 


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB72290. Bronze AE 17, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613 var. (divided ethnic); BMC Italy p. 131, 12 var. (same), VF, green patina, weight 3.570 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 225o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; rare; $160.00 (€142.40)
 


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB73614. Bronze AE 20, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613; BMC Italy p. 131, 12, F, weight 3.792 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; rare; $150.00 (€133.50)
 


Syracuse, Sicily, Pyrrhus of Epirus, 278 - 276 B.C.

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In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in Apulia. Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his victory, he famously replied: "Another such victory and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrric victory, a victory achieved at ruinous cost.
GI75171. Bronze litra, Calciati II p. 321, 176; SNG Cop 813, SNG ANS 852; SGCV I 1214; HGC 2, 1451, VF/F, weight 11.494 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 270o, Syracuse mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles left, clad in Nemean Lion scalp head-dress; reverse ΣYPA−KOΣIΩN, Athena Promachos advancing right, hurling thunderbolt with right, shield in left; $95.00 (€84.55)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Early 3rd Century B.C.

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Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, died in 289 B.C. He restored the Syracusan democracy on his death bed, stating that he did not want his sons to succeed him as king. The following year, some of his disbanded mercenaries, calling themselves Mamertines (Sons of Mars), seized Messana in northeast Sicily. The city became a base from which they ravaged the Sicilian countryside. Syracuse was weakened by his loss and Carthage began a renewal of their power in Sicily.
GB76852. Bronze AE 17, Viola CNP 94, Alexandropoulos 22, HGC 2 1674 (S), Müller Afrique 315, Weber III 8486, SNG Cop VIII 126, SGCV II 6530, BMC Sicily -, F, well centered, green patina, areas of corrosion, weight 3.626 g, maximum diameter 16.6 mm, die axis 90o, Carthage or uncertain Sicilian mint, early 3rd century B.C.; obverse date palm tree with two bunches of hanging fruit, no legend, symbols or monogram; reverse unbridled horse standing right, head turned back looking left, no legend, symbols or monogram; scarce; $90.00 (€80.10)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, c. 350 B.C.

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By the 4th Century B.C., Sicily had become an obsession for Carthage. For sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 B.C., Carthage had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.
GB49127. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 121, F, weight 3.177 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 45o, Sicilian? mint, c. 350 B.C.; obverse youthful male head left between two stalks of grain; reverse horse galloping to right; overstruck on a Carthaginian bronze with head of Tanit / horse with palm behind; $75.00 (€66.75)
 


Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.

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Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to Sidon, and then to Carthage, before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or Sidon, but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.
GB65641. Bronze half unit, Viola CNP 126, SNG Cop VIII 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), SNG München 1626 ff., SNG Morcom 897, Alexandropoulos 15, aVF, rough, nice green patina, weight 5.015 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 270o, Carthage or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; obverse male head left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; reverse free horse prancing right, short exergual line below rear hooves, linear border; $75.00 (€66.75)
 


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, c. 200 - 146 B.C.

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At its height, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Continual war with the Sicilian Greeks, and then Rome, ended with the complete destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire population of the city in 146 B.C.
GI90317. Bronze trishekel, Viola CNP 63g; Müller Afrique 244; SNG Cop 412; Alexandropoulos MAA 105i, F, weight 18.051 g, maximum diameter 27.4 mm, die axis 315o, Carthage mint, c. 200 - 146 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, long hair, wreathed in grain, earring with one pendant; reverse horse striding right, Punic letter bet above pellet below; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins; rare ; $65.00 (€57.85)
 


Sardinia, Punic Rule, 264 - 241 B.C.

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Head of Tanit / horse head types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The style of this particular type, which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the style of Tanit on this type and Persephone on Locri bronzes.
GB72291. Bronze AE 15, Alexandropoulos 60 (Sardinia); SNG Cop 224 (Africa); Müller Africa 274, Fair/Fine, small flan, weight 1.612 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 0o, Sardinia mint, 264 - 241 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain; reverse horse head right; scarce; $40.00 (€35.60)
 







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Catalog current as of Wednesday, September 28, 2016.
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Enemies of Rome