of Chalkis, Coele , Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.
Lysanias is called Tetrarch of by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) on the throne of (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, had him executed, and gave his territory to VII.GB90942. Bronze AE 19,
Brettian League, , Italy, c. 211- 208 B.C., Time of Hannibal
The success of Hannibal at Cannae proved too much for the Bruttians' fidelity; they were among the first after the battle to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general. Some towns at first remained with Rome, but Petelia and Consentia were speedily reduced by other Bruttians and a small Carthaginian force, and the more important cities of Locri and Crotona followed not long after. Rhegium alone remained firm, and was able to defy throughout the war. The region became a Carthaginian stronghold, but the Romans, though avoiding any decisive engagement, continually gained ground by the successive reduction of towns and fortresses. The ravages of war were a severe blow to . Punishment by the Romans after the war completed their humiliation. They were deprived of most of their territory, and the whole nation was reduced to near servitude. A with an army was sent annually to watch over them. Colonies were established at Tempsa, Crotona, and Hipponium (renamed Vibo ). A fourth was settled at Thurii on their frontier. From this time the Bruttians as a people disappear from history. All coinage of the Brettii was issued while they were allied with Hannibal.SH72544. Bronze quarter unit,
Roman Republic, L. Aemilius Paullus, 62 B.C.
At the end of the Third Macedonian War (171 - 168 B.C.), Perseus of was decisively defeated by Rome at the Battle of Pydna. He surrendered to general Aemilius Paullus and was imprisoned in Rome with his half-brother Philippus and his son Alexander. The Antigonid kingdom was replaced with four republics, which were later dissolved and became the Roman province of .SH74531. Silver
, 366, 10, 415/1, Nice gVF, attractive coin, nice , some minor scratches and marks, small edge test cut, 3.901 g, maximum 19.4 mm, 150o, Rome mint, 62 B.C.; LEPIDVS , veiled and diademed of right; , Paullus on right, standing left, togate, touching in center; on the left, three standing bound captives: Perseus of , his half-brother, and his son;
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB72290. Bronze AE 17,
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20,
Carthaginians in Italy, Second Punic War, 215 - 205 B.C.
of Tanit / horse types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The of this particular , which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the of Tanit on this and on Locri bronzes.GB72269. Bronze AE 19, cf.
, , 221 - 210 B.C.
GB90106. Bronze AE 21,
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
This refers to Severus' victories over . Severus assumed the title "Parthicus ," greatest of Parthian conquerors.RS75004. Silver
, , Pyrrhus of , 278 - 276 B.C.
In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in . Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his , he famously replied: "Another such and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrric , a achieved at ruinous cost.GI75171. Bronze
, , , c. 350 B.C.
By the 4th Century B.C., had become an obsession for . For sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 B.C., had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.GB49127. Bronze AE 17,
Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to , and then to , before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or , but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.GB65641. Bronze half unit,
, , , c. 200 - 146 B.C.
At its height, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Continual war with the Sicilian Greeks, and then Rome, ended with the destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire population of the city in 146 B.C.GI90317. Bronze trishekel,
Athens, , , c. 87 - 86 B.C., Mithradatic War Issue
In 87 B.C., Mithridates moved his forces into and established Aristion as a tyrant in Athens. landed in and marched through into . Most cities declared their allegiance to Rome, foremost among them Thebes. Athens, however, remained loyal to Mithridates. After a long and brutal siege, Sulla's rough battle hardened legions, veterans of the , took Athens on the Kalends of March 86 B.C. They looted and burned temples and structures built in the city by various Hellenistic kings to themselves and gain prestige. Months later, only after they ran out of water, Aristion surrendered the Akropolis. Athens was looted and punished severely. Roman vengeance ensured would remain docile during later civil wars and Mithridatic wars.GB69776. Bronze
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
This refers to Severus' victories over . Severus assumed the title "Parthicus ," greatest of Parthian conquerors.RS74210. Silver ON RESERVE, 185; 373; p. 232, 385; 48; 6323, VF, frosty surfaces, edge cracks, 2.540 g, maximum 19.5 mm, 45o, Rome mint, 202 A.D.; SEVERVS AVG, laureate right; X P P, of captured arms, flanked by two Parthian captives seated facing outward and wearing pointed caps; $47.00 (€41.36)
Sardinia, Punic Rule, 264 - 241 B.C.
of Tanit / horse types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The of this particular , which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the of Tanit on this and on Locri bronzes.GB72291. Bronze AE 15,
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.
Discontent and inept rule led to open rebellion in 66 A.D. The Romans, distracted by the Civil Wars following the death of , were unable to put a speedy end to the revolt. But in 70 A.D., captured and sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the temple.
BB76626. Bronze , 1363, 204, , 2.480 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 0o, Jerusalem mint, year 3, 68 - 69 A.D.; with broad rim and two handles, year 3 (in Hebrew) around; vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around; $38.00 (€33.44)
, Perseus, 179 - 168 B.C.
Perseus of was the last of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in created after the death of Alexander the Great. After losing the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., came under Roman rule.
The hero Perseus, the legendary founder of and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths in the cult of the Twelve . Perseus was the hero who killed and claimed Andromeda, having rescued her from a sea monster. GB51106. Bronze AE 19,
, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.
This was imitated by in the region of .GB46696. Copper AE 20, ON RESERVE 1299, -, , F, 8.666 g, maximum 18.1 mm, 180o, Amphipolis mint, of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; MAKE ∆ONΩN, ornamented trident , below; ; $8.50 (€7.48)
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D., Irregular Issue
By 68, Jewish resistance in the had been crushed. made Maritima his headquarters and methodically proceeded to clear the coast.JD59019. Bronze , 1360b, F, , 1.679 g, maximum 17.0 mm, 180o, Jerusalem mint, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around; $5.00 (€4.40)
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