of Chalkis, Coele , Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.
Lysanias is called Tetrarch of by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) on the throne of (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, had him executed, and gave his territory to VII.GB90942. Bronze AE 19, 11.g, 4769, 145 , 1243, -, VF, 3.505 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; veiled female right, no ; double , flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very ; $310.00 (€275.90)
Parthian Kingdom, Gotarzes II, 40 - 51 A.D.
Gotarzes II ruled as the Parthian intermittently between 40 and 51 A.D. When his brother Vardanes I succeeded to throne, Gotarzes II rebelled. He went to Hyrcania and gathered an army from Dahae nomads. War between the two kings was ended by a treaty. Gotarzes II returned to Hyrcania, but when Vardanes I was killed in about 47, Gotarzes II was acknowledged as of the whole empire. He then added to his coins the usual Parthian titles, of kings Arsaces the benefactor, the just, the illustrious ( ), and the friend of the Hellenes (Philhellenes). Gotarzes II was detested for his cruelty. Among many other murders he even slew his brother Artabanus and his whole family. His cruelty prompted a request to the Roman emperor to release from Rome an Arsacid prince, Meherdates, who lived there as a hostage. Meherdates crossed the Euphrates in 49, but was beaten and taken prisoner by Gotarzes II, who cut off his ears. Soon afterwards Gotarzes II died, according to of an illness; Josephus says that he was murdered. His last coin is dated from June 51. .SL70892. Silver , 65.14, 631, -, -, NGC , Strike 4/5, Surface 4/5 (2490208-002), 14.49 g, maximum 26.8 mm, 45o, Seleukeia mint, May 46 A.D.; bearded, diademed and left; BACIΛEWC BACIΛEWN APCAKOY EYEPΓATO ∆IKAIOY EΠIΦANOY ΦIΛEΛΛHNOΣ, enthroned left, receiving from standing left holding , HNT ( year 358) above, ∆AIΣIOΣ (Parthian month = May) below; ex (2014), ex Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection, ex CNG auction 317, lot 140; $270.00 (€240.30)
, , , Second Punic War, c. 210 - 202 B.C.
GB83568. dishekel, Viola 185; , group 3 (single-pendant earring variety), 77 - 96; cf. 44; 190; 103; 6494, VF, adjustment marks, die break on , 11.92 g, maximum 28.08 mm, 0o, mint, c. 210 - 202 B.C.; of Tanit left, hair wreathed with grain, wearing necklace and single-pendant earring; unbridled horse standing right, tree in background, no pellet; ; $250.00 (€222.50)
, , Pyrrhos, 278 - 276 B.C.
In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in . Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his , he famously replied: "Another such and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrrhic , a achieved at ruinous cost.
GB84500. Bronze hemilitron, p. 333, 187/3; BMC p. 113, 33 ( ); 99 ( ); 842 var. (obv owl behind); 620 var. (same, ), VF, nice , 4.355 g, maximum 18.1 mm, 180o, mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; of left, in crested Corinthian helmet; grain ear, BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΠYPPOY above and below, all within oak ; ex (2014); $190.00 (€169.10)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB72290. Bronze AE 17, 650; 46; 613 var. (divided ); p. 131, 12 var. (same), VF, green , 3.570 g, maximum 17.1 mm, 225o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; ; $160.00 (€142.40)
, Italy, The Brettian League, Allies of Hannibal, c. 216 - 203 B.C.
All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied with Hannibal. The Brettii joined Hannibal after his at Cannae. Hannibal's last base in Italy was Hannibalis, in . The ravages of war inflicted a severe blow to the prosperity of . Roman punishment for their rebellion completed their humiliation. They lost most of their territory and the whole nation reduced to a state bordering on servitude. They were not admitted like the other nations of Italy to rank as allies but were pronounced incapable of military service, and were only employed by Rome for menial .
GI84160. Bronze , 19 ( ); 1672; 57; 1284; 351; p. 328, 76; 1978, VF, lacking due to off center and , 7.834 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 90o, (Crotone, Calbria, Italy) mint, c. 214 - 208 B.C.; laureate of Zeus right, ear of grain (control symbol) behind; BPET−TIΩN (clockwise from upper right), standing left on thunderbolt, (control symbol) left; ; $160.00 (€142.40)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20, 650; 46; 613; p. 131, 12, F, 3.792 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; ; $150.00 (€133.50)
, , , Second Punic War, c. 210 - 202 B.C.
SH78057. dishekel, Viola 185a, , group 4 ( cast in double-sided mold), 97 - 239; cf. 44; 190, 104, 6494, VF/F, porous, double struck, 8.514 g, maximum 26.2 mm, 0o, mint, c. 210 - 202 B.C.; of Tanit left, wearing barley , triple-pendant earring, and necklace with many pendants; unbridled horse standing right, tree in background; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $150.00 (€133.50)
, , Pyrrhus of , 278 - 276 B.C.
In 279 B.C., Pyrrhus' forces, supporting the Greek cities of southern Italy, met and defeated the Romans at the battle of Asculum in . Pyrrhus, however, lost many men, several close associates, and all of his baggage. When one of his soldiers congratulated him on his , he famously replied: "Another such and we are ruined!" From this we have the term Pyrric , a achieved at ruinous cost.GI75171. Bronze , II p. 321, 176; 813, 852; 1214; , 1451, VF/F, 11.494 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 270o, mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; of Herakles left, clad in scalp headdress; ΣYPA−KOΣIΩN, Promachos advancing right, hurling thunderbolt with right, in left; $90.00 (€80.10)
, , , Early 3rd Century B.C.
Agathocles, the tyrant of , died in 289 B.C. He the Syracusan democracy on his death bed, stating that he did not want his sons to succeed him as . The following year, some of his disbanded mercenaries, calling themselves (Sons of ), seized Messana in northeast . The city became a base from which they ravaged the Sicilian countryside. was weakened by his loss and began a renewal of their power in .GB76852. Bronze AE 17, 94, 22, 1674 (S), 315, III 8486, 126, 6530, -, F, , green , areas of corrosion, 3.626 g, maximum 16.6 mm, 90o, or uncertain Sicilian mint, early 3rd century B.C.; date tree with two bunches of hanging fruit, no , or ; unbridled horse standing right, turned back looking left, no , or ; ; $90.00 (€80.10)
, , , c. 350 B.C.
By the 4th Century B.C., had become an obsession for . For sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. By 340 B.C., had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island, and an uneasy peace reigned over the island.GB49127. Bronze AE 17, 121, F, 3.177 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 45o, Sicilian? mint, c. 350 B.C.; youthful male left between two stalks of grain; horse galloping to right; on a Carthaginian bronze with of Tanit / horse with behind; $75.00 (€66.75)
Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to , and then to , before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or , but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.GB65641. Bronze half unit, 126, 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), 1626 ff., 897, 15, aVF, rough, nice green , 5.015 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 270o, or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; male left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; free horse prancing right, short below rear hooves, linear ; $70.00 (€62.30)
, , , c. 200 - 146 B.C.
At its height, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Continual war with the Sicilian Greeks, and then Rome, ended with the destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire population of the city in 146 B.C.GI90317. Bronze trishekel,
63g; 244; 412; MAA 105i, F, 18.051 g, maximum 27.4 mm, 315o, mint, c. 200 - 146 B.C.; of Tanit left, long hair, wreathed in grain, earring with one pendant; horse striding right, Punic letter bet above pellet below; ex Frascatius ; ;
Sardinia, Punic Rule, 264 - 241 B.C.
of Tanit / horse types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The of this particular , which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the of Tanit on this and on Locri bronzes.GB72291. Bronze AE 15, 60 (Sardinia); 224 ( ); 274, Fair/Fine, small , 1.612 g, maximum 14.5 mm, 0o, Sardinia mint, 264 - 241 B.C.; of Tanit left, wearing of grain; horse right; ; $40.00 (€35.60)
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