Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs less then 1/3 the of the even the lightest official Class B has handled. to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME73353. Bronze follaro, apparently unpublished, imitative of Class B ( 1823, Constantinople, 1028 - 1041); -, MIR -, -, F, 2.163 g, maximum 23.3 mm, 180o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 1060 - 1080 A.D.; facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; IS - XS / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (Jesus Christ of Kings, mostly off ), on three steps, dividing ; from a California collector; $195.00 (€173.55)
Normans, Kingdom of , Roger II, 1105 - 1154 A.D.
Roger II was of , son of Roger I of and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of in 1105, became Duke of and in 1127, and then of in 1130. Roger II is remembered for having united all of the Norman conquests in Italy under one strong central government. He was also the grandfather of Frederick II.ME70465. Bronze follaro, 135 (R2), 227, F, both sides off-center, 1.120 g, maximum 14.9 mm, 180o, Messina mint, 1150 - 1151 A.D.; MP − ΘY (Greek abbreviation: Mother of God), half-length of the Virgin facing; Arabic arranged as a : umila five hundred forty five (struck in 545 AH), four dots arranged in a square in each quarter; very ; $160.00 (€142.40)
, County of Tripoli, II, 1137-1152 A.D.
II considered the Syrian Christians of Tripoli responsible for treachery which led to his father's defeat and death in a battle with . After the battle, he took many of them prisoner, and as William of Tyre wrote, "he visited upon them diverse tortures in the presence of the people, and, in just proportion to the enormity of the crime which they had committed, he caused them to suffer death in its most cruel forms." This act was praised by the Latin Christians as "the first proofs of valor which were given by the young count, whereby he won the affection of all his people and universal approval." In 1142 donated Krak des Chevaliers, an enormous fortress on the road from Homs to the Mediterranean, as well as other smaller castles, to the Knights Hospitallers. The Hospitallers were virtually independent in the county, for which they protected Tripoli's borders from frequent raids by the forces of and Zanki, the Turkish atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.ME76426. Bronze pougeoise, 1, 194 - 199; 5; 513; VI 5, VF, octagonal , light corrosion, earthen deposits, 1.017 g, maximum 16.9 mm, Tripoli mint, c. 1145 - 1149; + RAIMVNDVS ( at the bottom, starts at 7:00, ), eight pointed , pellet between each ray, shallow crescent with horns up below, all within inner ; with three annulets at the end of each arm, crossed by smaller with crescent horns inward pellet and annulet at the end of each arm; very ; $140.00 (€124.60)
, County of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1252
Bohemond V was Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1233 to his death in January 1252. Bohemond V was the son of Bohemund IV of Antioch and Plaisance of Gibelet. Like his father before him, Bohemond had a notorious dislike for the Knights Hospitaller and the neighboring Kingdom of , preferring an with the Knights Templar. Peace with was assured only shortly before his death, with the mediation of Louis IX of France.ME76428. denier, 5, 75 - 127; 19; 547 - 550; IV 17, VF, , , 0.609 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 315o, Tripoli mint, 1233 - 1251; + BAMVND' COMS, , three pellets in upper right quarter, beaded borders; + TRIPOL, eight pointed , annulets between the rays, beaded borders; ; $140.00 (€124.60)
(?), Imitative of Zangids of , c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an fals of the Zangids of , Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, ), 1146 - 1173 ( 73, 1850). That was itself also imitative, copying a of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 ( 8, 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the , this is one.BZ77974. Bronze , -; cf. 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the ), F, desert , , 2.798 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; two imperial figures (Constantine X and ) standing facing, supporting between them resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of inner left; Christ standing facing, , book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, flanking , blundered imitation of around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $140.00 (€124.60)
Kingdom of , VI (HRE), 1194 - 1197
VI was of Germany from 1190 - 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 - 1197, and of from 1194 - 1197. In 1197, his German soldiers mercilessly suppressed a revolt in Italy, especially in southern . In this same year, prepared for a Crusade, but, on 28 September, he died of malaria (or he may have been poisoned) in Messina. His son, Frederick II, inherited both the Kingdom of and the Imperial crown.ME72172. fraction, 1780 (R2), 2 (RR); 457 (R); , 477, VF, typical , slightly off-center, 0.944 g, maximum 10.1 mm, 0o, Palermo mint, 1194 - 1195; Arabic in Nashki script: Harir / quaysar / aughust ( ); + / Z REX / SICI +; ; $130.00 (€115.70)
, Frankish , Principality of Achaea, Mahaut (Maud) of Hainaut, 1316 - 1318
In 1313, of Taranto granted Achaea to Matilda. The principality was, however, possessed by another claimant, Ferdinand of Majorca. At the Battle of Manolada on 5 July 1316, Ferdinand was vanquished and killed and Maud's husband, Louis of Burgundy, took control of Elis. He was, however, poisoned soon after, leaving a twice-widowed 23-year-old in charge. Rule was soon disputed by varying claimants and Maud was solidly dispossessed of her fief by 1318, in which year John, Duke of Durazzo, an Angevin, abducted the princess and forced her to marry him. She did not give him children, however, and he repudiated her in 1321. Maud married yet again to Hugh de La Palice and retired to , where she died in 1331.ME85303. , , MA1b, 999 - 1002; 36 var. (pellets flanking ), VF, , golden , 0.810 g, maximum 19.0 mm, 180o, Glarentza mint, 1316 - 1318; + MAhAVTA P Ach, ; + DE CLARENCIA, castle tournois, annulet at end of , annulet left, (barbed arrowhead) pointed down (or three branched ) below; ex C. (Wichita, 6 May 1974); $130.00 (€115.70)
, Frankish , Principality of Achaea, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1289
Charles II succeeded his father, Charles I, in Achaea as well as (now reduced to the Kingdom of Naples), but he was a prisoner in Aragonese . In the interim, the rule of Achaea devolved upon a series of baillis chosen from the Morean . Not long after his release and coronation in 1289, he granted the Principality to Isabelle of Villehardouin upon her marriage with Florent of Hainaut, in to redress the greedy application of the Treaty of Viterbo at William's death. However, he retained feudal overlordship over the Principality, and his grant provided that neither Isabelle nor any daughter who was her heir might marry without his consent.ME85308. , 12; pl. 39, 942; KA101; XII 17, VF, , ,, 0.779 g, maximum 18.4 mm, 90o, Clarentza mint, 1285 -1289; + • K•R• ACh•, ; + : DE: CLARENCIA (colons indicate double x stops), castle tournois; old anonymous dealer or collector envelop priced $20,00 and notes, "Ex: Carl Subak (Chicago, Sep 1975)" and "select hoard piece"; ; $130.00 (€115.70)
, Athens, Frankish , Guy II de La Roche, 1287 - 1308
Guy II de la Roche was the Duke of Athens from 1287, the last duke of his family. He succeeded as a minor on the death of his father, William I, at a time when the duchy of Athens had exceeded the Principality of Achaea in wealth, power, and importance. Guy was originally under the tutorship and regency of his mother, Angelina Komnene, who was forced to make submission to Isabella of Villehardouin. In 1299, Guy was engaged to Matilda, daughter of Isabella and and her husband, Florent of Hainaut. Charles objected, as his permission had not been sought, but Pope Boniface intervened on the young couple's behalf. In 1307, Guy was made bailli of Achaea by its new prince, of Taranto. He governed well, but for barely a year. He died, 5 October 1308, at the age of twenty-eight, but was respected and renowned for his chivalry and manners, typical of the Frankish courts kept in .ME85309. , 85, Variety 1c and pl. 42, 1067; XXXIX 14, VF, , , areas of weak , tiny edge cracks, 0.783 g, maximum 18.2 mm, 45o, Athens mint, majority, 1294 - 1308 A.D.; + GVI DVX ATENES (trefoils flanking , trefoil stops), ; + ThEBANI.CIVIS (trefoils flanking ), castle tournois, double pellet at beginning and end of ; ex C. Subak (Chicago, Sep 1975); $130.00 (€115.70)
Normans, Southern Italy, Anonymous, Dukes of or Counts of & , c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.
This coin is certainly imitative, as it weighs about 1/3 the normal of an official Class J . to the Normans in Italy is based on the reputed find location and some similarity to other imitatives issued by the Normans in Southern Italy and .ME68381. Bronze , apparently unpublished, imitative of class J ( 1900, Constantinople, 1081 - 1118); -, -, -, aF, on a very small thin compared to proto-types, 2.200 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 180o, uncertain S. Italy mint, c. 1081 - 1087 A.D.; of Christ facing, behind, wears and colbium, raising right in , Gospels in left, crescents above, flanking, facing of Christ, wearing , , and , holding book of Gospels; with globule and two pellets at each extremity, large crescent below, four globules around each surrounded by pellets; from an American collection; very ; $125.00 (€111.25)
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