Kings of , Pylaimenes , c. 140 - 89 B.C.
In Greek mythology, Pylaemenes was the of the Eneti tribe of (a much earlier , not the named on this coin). He claimed to be related to Priam through Phineus, as the latter's daughter Olizone was married to Dardanus. He led his Paphlagonian forces to the Trojan War, as a Trojan ally. Pylaemenes was killed in battle by Menelaus of Sparta. He had a son named Harpalion who was killed by Meriones, son of Molus.
The Pylaemenes named on this coin may have been Pylaimenes II (ruled c. 140 - 130 B.C.), who bequeathed his kingdom to , or Pylaimenes III (ruled c. 108 - 89 B.C.), a son of Nicomedes III, of . The symbolized peace and and perhaps indicated that Pylaimenes III desired close relations with .GB77131. Bronze AE 18,
Kings of , Deiotaros, c. 64 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Tolistobogii tribe in western and became of . He was a faithful ally of against of , for which he was rewarded by Pompey. pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, , for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by , Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of and Cassius, but after the Battle of in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age.GB84653. Bronze AE 18,
Kingdom of Commagene, and Callinicus, 72 A.D.
In 72 A.D., only two years after Antiochus IV, of Commagene, sent troops, commanded by his son , to aid in the siege of Jerusalem, he was accused by the governor of of conspiring with against . After a reign of thirty-four years from his first appointment by , Antiochus was deprived of his kingdom. He retired first to Sparta, and then to , where he passed the remainder of his life and was treated with great respect. Antiochus' sons, and Callinicus briefly ruled the kingdom but after an encounter with Roman troops, fled to . They later joined their father in .SH90336. Bronze AE 21,
Kingdom of Commagene, Iotape, 38 - 72 A.D.
Iotape was the daughter of Antiochus III and Iotapa, the and queen of Commagene. Her parents were full-blooded siblings and direct descendants of the Seleucid kings. Iotapa and her brother Antiochus IV were very young when their father died in 17 A.D. agreed with the citizens of Commagene to make their Kingdom a of the Roman province of . From 17 until 38, Iotapa and her brother were raised in , members of the remarkable court of . was a niece of and the youngest daughter of . She was very influential and supervised her of various princes and princesses, assisting in the political preservation of the Empireís borders, and the affairs of client states. In 38, returned Antiochus IV and Iotape to the throne of Commagene. In addition, enlarged their territory with a of bordering on the seacoast and gave them one million gold pieces, the total amount of revenue collected from Commagene during the twenty years that it had been under . The reason for his extraordinary generosity is unknown. Perhaps it was just a stroke of Caligula's well-attested eccentricity. Iotapa and Antiochus IV married and had three children. Iotapa died before Commagene was annexed by in 72. When she died, Antiochus IV founded a town called Iotapa in her (modern Aytap, Turkey).GB84499. Bronze AE 26,
Kingdom of , Massinissa 203 - 148 B.C., or Micipsa 148 - 118 B.C.
was an Ancient Berber kingdom in what is now Algeria and a smaller of Tunisia, in . It was bordered by the kingdoms of (modern-day Morocco) to the , the Roman province of (modern-day Tunisia) to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the , and the Sahara Desert to the south. The long-lived Masinissa ruled c. 203 -148 B.C. He was succeeded by his son Micipsa. When Micipsa died in 118, he was succeeded by his two sons Hiempsal I and Adherbal, and by his illegitimate grandson, . had Hiempsal killed, which led to war with Adherbal. declared war after killed some Roman businessmen aiding Adherbal. surrendered and received a highly favorable peace treaty, which raised suspicions of bribery. The Roman commander was summoned to to corruption charges. was also forced to come to to testify, where he was completely discredited. War broke out again and several legions were dispatched to . The war dragged out into a seemingly endless campaign. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Gaius returned to to seek election as Consul. was elected, and then returned to take control of the war. He sent his Cornelius to neighboring to eliminate their support for . With the of I of , captured . In 104 B.C., after being paraded through the streets of in Marius' Triumph, was executed.SL84534. Bronze AE 27,
Kings of , Tarkondimotos, c. 39 - 31 B.C.
Tarkondimotos was made dynast by Pompey and crowned by Marc Antony. He died at the Battle of . The , frequently used in an earlier era by Seleukid kings, is almost certainly post-Actium, perhaps from Antioch.GB75283. Bronze AE 22,
Anatolia, Unknown , 2nd Century B.C. - 1st Century A.D.
, p. 536, notes that this crab , struck in three denominations is traditionally attributed to Amyntas, of , 39 - 25 B.C., but omits the coins from the catalog because, "It is hard to see that this is really a version of the king's name." RPC then discusses other possible attributions and dismisses them all. We agree Amyntas is surely wrong.SH65879. Bronze AE 16,
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