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Olympia, Elis, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 330 - 256 B.C.
Olympia, an ancient Greek sanctuary in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, was the site of the Olympic Games every four years from the 8th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D. In 394 A.D., the Roman emperor Theodosius I abolished the games because they honored the pagan gods of ancient Greece.GB85874. Bronze tetrachalkon, BCD Olympia 273; BCD Peloponnesos 654; BMC Peloponnesus p. 71, 116; SNG Cop 433; HGC 5 518 (R1), VF, nice green patina, inscriptions weak, corrosion, weight 4.669 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 270o, Olympia mint, c. 330 - 256 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse horse galloping right, F A above, ΠYP (magistrate) below; ex BCD with his tag noting, "Ex Prof. James Brindley Coll., Sotheby's, 1st Oct. 1987, lot 794 (part), the lot for £1150+15.5%."; rare; $175.00 (€148.75)
Achaean League, Pallantion, Achaia, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 88 - 30 B.C.
GS85328. Silver triobol or hemidrachm, Benner p. 86, 4; BMC Peloponnesus 124; BCD Peloponnesos 1593.2; McClean 6507; Clerk 219; SNG Cop 290; Hunterian 26; Dewing 1851; HGC 5 969 (R1), aVF, weight 2.085 g, maximum diameter 14.9 mm, die axis 225o, Pallantion (near Tripoli, Arcadia, Greece) mint, c. 88 - 30 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus left; reverse large Achaian League (AX) monogram, Π-A-Λ clockwise from left side, YE monogram and trident head upward below, all within laurel wreath; $140.00 (€119.00)
Tegea, Arkadia, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 50 - 25 B.C.
Aleos was the mythical founder of Alea and the king of Tegea. Kepheos was his son and successor as king. When Kepheos and all of his 20 sons joined Herakles on his campaign against King Hippocoon of Sparta, Athena (or Herakles in some sources) presented a lock of Medusa's hair to Kepheos' daughter Sterope. This lock made Tegea, the home of a major sanctuary of Athena, unconquerable despite the absence of its men. Kepheos and all of his sons (or 17 in some sources) were killed on the campaign against Sparta. GB85887. Bronze hemiobol, BCD Peloponnesos 1749; BMC Peloponnesus p. 202, 20; Nemea 1967, SNG Cop 314; Weber 4353; HGC 5 1056, Fair/Fine, pitting, edge chipping, weight 2.544 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 270o, Tegea (Alea, Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece) mint, c. 50 - 25 B.C.; obversehead of Aleos right, wearing tainia; reverse Kepheos standing right, holding spear and shield and extending hand to Athena standing left, holding spear and lock of Medusa's hair; between them stands Sterope, holding vessel to receive the lock; monograms in center above and below; ex J. Cohen Collection; ex J. Aiello; ex BCD Collection; ex Bruun Rasmussen auction 498 (17 Sep 1987); deacquisition (duplicate) Danish National Museum, Copenhagen; very rare; $140.00 (€119.00)
Mantinea, Arkadia, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 340 - 325 B.C.
Mantineia was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history. The First Battle of Mantinea, in 418 B.C., was the largest land battle of the Peloponnesian War. After the Athenian commander was killed, due to greater Spartan courage, the battle turned into a rout. The Second Battle of Mantinea, in 362 B.C., led to the fall of Theban hegemony. In that battle, Athens and Sparta were allied. Thebes won the battle, but its greatest general, Epaminondas, was killed in the fighting. The Macedonian kingAntigonus III Doson renamed the city Antigonia, but Mantineia's name was restored by Hadrian. GB85889. Bronze chalkous, BCD Peloponnesos 1485.1; Nemea 1949; SNG Cop 253; BMC Peloponnesus p. 186, 20; HGC 5 909 (S); Heraia undertype: BCD Peloponnesos 1360; HGC 5 838, VF, strong undertype effects on obverse, light marks, slightest porosity, weight 2.668 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 270o, Mantinea mint, c. 340 - 325 B.C.; obversehead of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet without crest; undertype: helmeted head of Athena right; reverse trident head upward, MAN upward on right; undertype: large H; ex J. Cohen Collection; ex BCD Collection with his tag noting the Heraia undertype and acquisition from "G.G., April 86, 120 Sfr."; rare; $135.00 (€114.75)
Megara, Megaris, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 370 - 275 B.C.
Megara is in westAttica, the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. Megara was a trade port, its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. Megara specialized in exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pegae, to the west on the Corinthian Gulf and Nisaea, to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea. Megara had 23,456 inhabitants at the 2011 census. GB85282. Bronze dichalkon, BCD Peloponnesos 7; SNG Cop 480; BMC Attica p. 120, 21; Kroll 643e; HGC 4 1797, gF, weight 2.435 g, maximum diameter 14.8 mm, die axis 0o, Megara mint, c. 370 - 275 B.C.; obverse prow of galley left, tripod on deck, nothing below; reverse two dolphins swimming clockwise around MEΓ, all within dotted border; ex CNG, ex BCD Collection; $130.00 (€110.50)
Megara, Megaris, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 370 - 275 B.C.
Megara is in westAttica, the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. Megara was a trade port, its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. Megara specialized in exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pegae, to the west on the Corinthian Gulf and Nisaea, to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea. Megara had 23,456 inhabitants at the 2011 census. GB85880. Bronze dichalkon, cf. BCD Peloponnesos 9.2 ff. (various symbols below); BMC Attica p. 120, 26 (dolphin below); HGC 4 1797; SNG Cop -, VF, weight 2.829 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 0o, Megara mint, c. 370 - 275 B.C.; obverse prow of galley left, uncertain symbol (cuttlefish, prawn, dolphin, or club?) below; reverse two dolphins swimming clockwise around MEΓ, all within dotted border; ex J. Cohen Collection; $115.00 (€97.75)
Pheneos, Arkadia, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 360 - 340 B.C.
Feneos lies at the foot of Mount Cyllene, mythical birthplace of the god Hermes. It therefore was an important cult center for the god, notably during the annual festival of the Hermaea. Catullus (Poem 68) mentions the seasonal flooding of the plain and says it was drained by an underground channel dug by Hercules during his Twelve Labors. According to Herodotus the river Styx originates near Feneos. In the Aeneid, Evander's fond memories of a visit by Aeneas' father Anchises to Feneos are one factor in his decision to ally his Arcadian colonists to the Trojans. GB85885. Bronze dichalkon, BCD Peloponnesos 1611; BMC Peloponnesus p. 193, 8; Traité III 893; SNG Cop -; Weber II -, VF, attractive green patina, tight flan, light marks and corrosion, weight 3.452 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 45o, Pheneos (Feneos, Greece) mint, c. 370 - 340 B.C.; obversehead of young Hermes right, cloak tied tied around neck and petasos suspended by cord behind; reverse ΦENEΩN, ram standing right, ΣI below ram; ex J. Cohen Collection; very rare; $110.00 (€93.50)
Megara, Megaris, Peloponnesos, Greece, Late 3rd - Early 2nd Century B.C.
Megara is in westAttica, the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. Megara was a trade port, its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. Megara specialized in exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pegae, to the west on the Corinthian Gulf and Nisaea, to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea. GB85881. Bronze tetrachalkon, cf. SNG Cop 470; BMC Attica p. 119, 12; BCD Peloponnesos 31; HGC 4 1791 (S-R1), F, near black patina, marks, porosity, reverse a little off center, weight 6.518 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, Megara mint, late 3rd - early 2nd century B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reversekithara (lyre), MEΓA/PEΩN in two flanking downward lines, the first on the right; ex J. Cohen Collection; ex BCD Collection with his tag, noting "AHB, May 1974, £2.-"; ex A.H. Baldwin, London; scarce; $100.00 (€85.00)
Achaean League, Tegea, 191 - 146 B.C.
The obverse probably depicts temple-statue of Zeus Homagyrius or Homarius, in whose temple the assembly of the Achaeans met. GB85899. Bronze tetrachalkon, cf. BCD Peloponnesos 1325, BMC Peloponnesus p. 15, 171 ff., Clerk 89 ff., SNG Cop 347 ff., aF/VF, weight 4.511 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 90o, Tegea (Alea, Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece) mint, 191 -146 B.C.; obverse Zeus Amarios standing left, nude, Nike in right hand, long vertical scepter in left hand, obscure magistrates name downward behind; reverse AXAIΩN - TEΓEA-TΩN, Achaia seated left, wreath in her right hand, long scepter vertical in her left hand; ex Gitbud & Naumann auction 23 (5 Oct 2014), lot 254; rare; $100.00 (€85.00)
Aegira, Achaea, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 369 - 330 B.C.
The symbol of Aegira is the goat. The city supposedly adopted the symbol and its name after goats saved it from an attack. When the Sikyonian army was about to invade, the inhabitants gathered goats. They tied torches to their horns and at night lit the torches and released the herd. The invaders believed the city was receiving an allied force and turned back. In 370, the inhabitants of Aegae left their city and most settled in Aegira. GB85811. Bronze AE 14, BCD Peloponnesos 394; BMC Peloponnesus p. 17, 2; Traite 829 & pl. CCXXIII, 1, F, near black patina, scrapes, marks, weight 1.556 g, maximum diameter 13.8 mm, die axis 180o, Aegira mint, c. 369 - 330 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse forepart of goat right, AIΓI around, all within laurel wreath bound above; ex CNG, ex BCD Collection with his round tag; $90.00 (€76.50)
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