In June 36 B.C., Mark Antony launched a major offensive against the Parthians with about 100,000 Roman and allied troops, including 10 legions and 10,000 cavalry. The campaign was a disaster. He was defeated, abandoned by his allies, and lost more than a quarter of his men, many to disease and starvation during his winter retreat to Egypt. Meanwhile, Octavian had forced Lepidus resign and had swayed the traditional Republican aristocracy against Antony. Antony was condemned as a man of low morals who had ?gone native? and abandoned his faithful wife and children in Rome to be with the promiscuous queen of Egypt. Several times Antony was summoned to Rome, but he remained in Alexandria with Cleopatra. The Triumvirate was no more. In Rome, Octavian ruled alone.
RP71397. Bronze AE 23, RPC I 4467; Baramki AUB 192, pl. XV, 10, F, green patina, weight 7.498 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Aradus mint, 36 - 35 B.C.; obversebare head right; reverse bull leaping left, CK∆ (year 224 of Arados) above, MH (48 nummi?) below; extremely rare; $450.00 (€337.50)
Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XVI
This may have been a legion disbanded by Augustus. The legion XVI Gallica probably fought for Octavian.
SH71003. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/31, Sydenham 1236, BMCRR 211, RSC I 48, F, banker's marks, weight 3.461 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 45o, Patrae(?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, border of dots; reverse LEG - XVI, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards, border of dots; ex Pecunem Gitbud & Naumann auction 16, lot 811; $280.00 (€210.00) ON RESERVE
In 38 B.C. Mark Antony, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus and MarcusLepidus signed the Treaty of Tarentum, extending the Second Triumvirate until 33 BC.
SH69319. Silver denarius, SRCV I 1474, Crawford 533/2, Sear Imperators 267, Sydenham 1199, RSC I 13, BMCRR East 141, aF, weight 3.299 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 135o, Athens mint, summer 38 B.C.; obverse M ANTONINVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TERT, Mark Antony standing right, as priest, holding lituus; reverseIII VIR R P CCOS DESIGITER ET TERT, radiate head of Sol right; $250.00 (€187.50)
Aegium, Achaea, Greece, c. 37 - 31 B.C., Under Antony and Cleopatra
Kroll connected the types with Antony and Cleopatra, who controlled Achaea when this coin was struck. Dionysos refers to Antony, who called himself the "new Dionysos," and the typically Ptolemaic eagle symbolizes Cleopatra.
GB67910. Bronze tetrachalkon, BCD Peloponnesos 438 - 439, BMC Peloponnesus 6 - 7, Kroll Bronze 3, Weber 3954, F, weight 3.916 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 0o, Aegium mint, Theoxios and Kletaios, magistrates, c. 37 - 31 B.C; obverse AIΓIEΩN, head of young Dionysos right, wreathed in ivy; reverse ΘEOΞIOΣ KAHTAIOΣ, eagle standing left, head left, wings closed; rare; $225.00 (€168.75)
Mark Antony and Octavian, Thessalonica, Macedonia, 37 B.C.
The reverseinscription abbreviates, MAPKOΣ ANTΩNIONΣ AYTOKPATΩP ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAP AYTOKPATΩP. The bust of Libertas on the obverse "refers to the grant of freedom by the Triumvirs to Thessalonica in 42 BC after the battle of Philippi (the victory which is celebrated on the reverse)." -- RPC I, p. 29
SH70575. Leaded bronze AE 31, BMC Macedonia p. 115, 63; RPC I 1551; Sear Imperators 672; SNG Cop 374; SNG ANS 823, F, scratch, weight 18.788 g, maximum diameter 27.9 mm, die axis 0o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 37 B.C.; obverse ΘEΣΣAΛONKEΩN EΛEYΘEPIAΣ, diademed and draped bust of Eleutheria (Liberty) right, E (year 5) below chin; reverse M ANT AYT Γ KAI AYT, Nike advancing left, extending wreath in right, palm frond in left; $220.00 (€165.00)
Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XVII
Another type identifies the name of Antony's LEG XVII as CLASSICAE. No legion named Classicae is known from the imperial period. The old Caesarean legion XVII was destroyed with Scribonius Curio in Africa in 49 B.C., restored by Augustus, and destroyed again in Germany under Q. Varus in 9 A.D.
RR71001. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/32, Sydenham 1237, BMCRR 212, RSC I 49, F, well centered, weight 3.265 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 180o, Patrae(?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANT•AVG / III•VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, border of dots; reverse LEG - XVII, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards, border of dots; $170.00 (€127.50) ON RESERVE
Antioch, Syria, 41 - 40 B.C., Time of Marc Antony, Labienus and Pacorus
About the time this coin was minted, the Parthians led by Quintus Labienus and Pacorus I attacked Syria, which was under Marc Antony's authority. Quintus Labienus was the son of Caesar's general TitusLabienus. He served under Brutus and Cassius, and after the battle at Philipi fled to Parthia, where he had visited before as an ambassador. After several battles against Antony's governor, Saxa, they occupied the entire province and later Asia Minor and Palestine. In Judea, Pacorus deposed King John Hyrcanus II and appointed his nephew Antigonus as king in his place. Labienus was killed during a Roman counter attack in 39 B.C. The territory was recovered for Rome. Pacorus retreated to Parthia but died one year later in an attack on a Roman camp.
RP69599. Bronze AE 27, McAlee 56; RPC I 4223; SNG Cop 81; BMC Galatia p. 154, 25; Cohen DCA 382, VF, deep punch on obverse, weight 11.991 g, maximum diameter 25.1 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch mint, 41 - 40 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse ANTIOXEΩN MHTPOΠO THΣ IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY, Zeus seated left, Nike in right, long scepter vertical behind in left, pileus surmounted by star before, date BOΣ (Seleukid year 272) in exergue; $150.00 (€112.50)
Banti, A. and L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Firenze, 1972-1979). Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l’Empire Romain. (Paris, 1880). Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974). Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910). Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001). Seaby, Sear, and Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989). Sear, D. R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. (London, 1998). Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000). Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).
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