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The Empire of Romania, more commonly known as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261. The Latin Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as the titular Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first Latin emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204. The Latin Empire failed to attain political or economic dominance over the other Latin powers, especially Venice, and after a short initial period of military successes it went into a steady decline. Weakened by constant warfare with the Bulgarians and the unconquered sections of the empire, it eventually fell when Byzantines recaptured Constantinople under Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261. The last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century.
For 57 years after the crusader armies sacked the city, Constantinople was ruled by Latin princes.BZ66600. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, CLBC I 11.22.1; Lianta p. 99, 95; DOC IV 23; Sommer 68.20.1; SBCV 2043; Wroth -; Ratto -; Hendy -; Grierson -, gVF, scyphate, obverse double struck, weight 1.885 g, maximum diameter 26.8 mm, die axis 0o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 1235 - 1240; obverse large cross on base, IC - X in upper quarters, NI-K in lower quarters; reverse emperor standing facing, wearing stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, spear vertical in right hand, globus cruciger in left hand, obscure blundered legend on right; SOLD
In Hebrew, Michael means "who is like God." Archangel Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel, once as a "great prince who stands up for the children of your people." The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the Book of Revelation, Michael leads God's armies and defeats Satan's forces. Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil. By the 6th century, devotions to Archangel Michael were widespread both in the Eastern and Western Churches.BZ76983. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, CLBC I 11.15.1; DOC IV-1 16; Hendy, type P, pl. 27, 3; Sommer 68.15; Grierson 1256; SBCV 2036, gVF, scyphate, well centered, well centered and struck, short open flan crack, exceptionally nice for the type, weight 1.679 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 1225 - 1235; obverse nimbate bust of Christ facing, right hand raised in Benediction scroll in left; reverse archangel Michael, standing facing, nimbate, wearing a short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, jeweled trifid scepter in right, globus cruciger in his left, X/A left, X/M right; SOLD
BZ36611. Billon aspron trachy nomisma, DOC IV-1 25; SBCV 2044; Sommer 68.21.1; CLBC I 11.1.3, Lianta 12; Sommer 68.21.1, gVF, scyphate, weight 2.767 g, maximum diameter 25.6 mm, die axis 180o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, c. 1204 - 1224; obverse IC - XC (Greek abbreviation: Jesus Christ), on left O/EM/A, facing bust of Christ Emmanuel, nimbate, bearded, wearing tunic and kolobion, scroll in left; reverse TWKOMN, full-length figure of the emperor, wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys, labarum headed scepter in right, globus cruciger in left; SOLD
1204 - 1205..... BALDWIN I 1206 - 1216..... HENRY 1216 - 1217..... PETER 1217 - 1219..... YOLANDA (REGENT) 1219 - 1228..... ROBERT I 1228 - 1237..... JOHN OF BRIENNE (REGENT) 1237 - 1261..... BALDWIN II
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Grierson, P. Byzantine Coins. (London, 1982).
Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969).
Lianta, E. Late Byzantine Coins, 1204 - 1453, in the Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford. (London, 2009).
Marchev, V. & R. Wachter. Catalogue of the Late Byzantine Coins, Vol. I, 1082 - 1261 AD. (Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, 2011).
Morrisson, C. Catalogue des Monnaies Byzantines de la Bibliothèque Nationale. (Paris, 1970).
Sabatier, J. Description générale des monnaies Byzantines. (Paris, 1863).
Sear, D. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987).
Sommer, A. Die Münzen des Byzantinischen Reiches 491-1453. Mit einem Anhang: Die Münzen des Kaiserreichs von Trapezunt. (Regenstauf, 2010).
Ratto, R. Monnaies Byzantines et d'autre Pays contemporaines à l'époque byzantine. (Lugano, 1930).
Tolstoi, I. Monnaies byzantines. (St. Petersburg, 1913 - 14).
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Wroth, W. Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1908).
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