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Octavian, Triumvir and Imperator, c. 38 B.C., Julius Caesar Reverse
In 38 B.C., Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus signed the Treaty of Tarentum extending the Second Triumvirate until 33 B.C.
On 17 January 38 B.C., Octavian married Livia while she was pregnant from her recently broken marriage. Octavian gained permission from the College of Pontiffs to wed her while she was still pregnant from another husband. Three months after the wedding she gave birth to her second son, Nero Claudius Drusus. The baby and his elder brother, the four-year-old Tiberius, lived in Octavian's household. RB92629. Bronze AE 31, RPC I online 620 (64 spec.), Crawford 535/1, Sydenham 1335, BMCRR Gaul 106, SRCV I 1569, aF, dark mottled green and red patina, flan adjustment marks, a little off center, weight 15.640 g, maximum diameter 31.4 mm, die axis 270o, uncertain Italian mint, c. 38 B.C.; obverse CAESAR DIVI F, bare head of Octavian right with slight beard; reverse DIVOS IVLIVS, laureate head of divus Julius Caesar right; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $700.00 SALE |PRICE| $630.00
Luceria, Apulia, Italy, c. 211 - 200 B.C.
In 321 B.C., the Romans, deceived into thinking Lucera was under siege by the Samnites, walked into an ambush and were defeated. The town threw out the Samnites, sought Roman protection, and in 320 B.C. was granted the status of Colonia Togata, which meant it was ruled by the Roman Senate. To strengthen ties, 2,500 Romans moved to Lucera. Roman culture merged with the native one slowly, probably accompanied by cross-cultural marriages, but Lucera was a steadfast supporter of Rome. By the 2nd century B.C., the rustic town was transformed into a proper Roman city with houses, public buildings, paved roads, sidewalks and services for travelers, accommodation for livestock with running water, and warehouses for storing goods.GB86125. Bronze uncia, SNG ANS 709; SNG Cop 663; SNG BnF 1368; SNG Munchen 504; HN Italy 682; BMC Italy p. 141, 62; Hunterian -, VF, rough, weight 4.084 g, maximum diameter 14.9 mm, die axis 0o, Luceria mint, c. 211 - 200 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, bow and quiver at shoulder, pellet behind; reverse LOVC-ERI, toad seen from above; very rare; $380.00 SALE |PRICE| $342.00
Roman Republic, C. Iunius C.f., 149 B.C.
On the Italian peninsula, six temples dedicated to Roma have been proven - Latium built two, one of them privately funded. During the reign of Tiberius, Ostia built a grand municipal temple to Roma and Augustus. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity. RR95249. Silver denarius, Crawford 210/1, Sydenham 392, RSC I Junia 1, BMCRR I Rome 660, RBW Collection 893, SRCV I 87, Choice gVF, attractive style, well centered, mild die wear, areas with slight porosity, weight 3.818 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 149 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet, crest with griffin head, peaked visor in three pieces, triple drop earring and necklace, X behind; reverse the Dioscuri riding right, C•IVNI•C•F below, ROMA in linear frame in exergue; ex Forum (2019); $300.00 SALE |PRICE| $270.00
Roman Republic, Marcus Furius L.f. Philus, c. 119 B.C.
This type commemorates the victory by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and Q. Fabius Maximus over the Allobrogoges and the Averni in Gaul in 121 B.C. RR95252. Silver denarius, Crawford 281/1, Sydenham 529, BMCRR Italy 555, RSC I Furia 18, RBW Collection 1105, SRCV I 156, VF, toned, a few scratches, weight 3.861 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, c. 119 B.C.; obverse M•FOVRI•L•F, bearded, laureate head of Janus, I above center (a vestigial mark of value copied from Janus on the Roman as); reverse Roma standing left, helmeted and draped, transverse long scepter in left hand, with right hand placing wreath on trophy of captured Gallic arms with carnyx and shield on each side, star above, ROMA upward on right, PHILI (PHI ligate) in exergue; ex Forum (2012); $250.00 (€225.00)
Roman Republic, Anonymous, 86 B.C.
This type is from a late, massive, and intriguing anonymous issue undoubtedly struck by the moneyer triumvirate of Gargonius, Ogulnius and Vergilius. Their signed coins (SRCV I 263 - 265) have identical types and are scarce or rare.RR91806. Silver denarius, Crawford 350a/2, Sydenham 723, RSC I 226, BMCRR I Rome 2622, RBW Collection 1333, SRCV I 266, VF, light golden toning, some die wear, light graffito obverse right field, weight 4.014 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 86 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, thunderbolt below neck truncation; reverse Jupiter in quadriga right, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, brandishing thunderbolt in right hand, reins in left hand; ex Savoca Numismatik auction 31 (10 Mar 2019), lot 375; $150.00 SALE |PRICE| $135.00
The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49-27 B.C.
THE HISTORY AND COINAGE OF THE ROMAN IMPERATORS 49-27 BC by David Sear
The brief period covered in this book witnessed the violent transition of the Roman state from a republican constitution, presided over by the Senate, to a full military autocracy under the control of one man, the Emperor Augustus. In reality, the events of these years were merely the culmination of a movement which had been gathering strength over the preceding half-century, since the rise of men such as Marius and Sulla. Caesar had put events into motion by his invasion of Italy and his challenge to Pompey's dominant position in Roman politics. With his assassination on the Ides of March, 44 B.C., Caesar's role was inherited by his youthful great-nephew Octavian who, against seemingly hopeless odds, succeeded in eliminating his rivals for supreme power, notably Mark Antony and his ambitious consort Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. This book traces in detail the unfolding of this drama. Each of its six chapters includes a comprehensive catalogue listing of all the relevant coin types and varieties, each with a full discussion of its significance in the interpretation of the events of the period. Information on the rarity of each type, including estimates of current value, is presented in a separate table. The numerous, though less precisely understood, local coinages of the Imperatorial period are listed in an extensive appendix. Whilst providing a comprehensive numismatic reference work for the age of transition from Republic to Empire the author has also aimed to heighten the historian's awareness of the vital role which may be played by the numismatic evidence in the detailed chronicling of event.BK43171. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49-27 B.C. by David R. Sear, a detailed survey including valuations for collectors, 1998, 360 pages, illustrated throughout, hardback; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
Roman Republic, L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, 62 B.C.
At the end of the Third Macedonian War (171 - 168 B.C.), King Perseus of Macedonia was decisively defeated by Rome at the Battle of Pydna. He surrendered to general Lucius Aemilius Paullus and was imprisoned in Rome with his half-brother Philippus and his son Alexander. The Antigonid kingdom was replaced with four republics, which were later dissolved and became the Roman province of Macedonia.RR92948. Silver denarius, RSC I Aemilia 10, Crawford 415/1, Sydenham 926, RBW Collection 1497, BMCRR I Rome 3373, SRCV I 366, Choice F, well centered, round punch on obverse, toned, light marks and scratches, weight 3.754 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 62 B.C.; obverse PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, veiled and diademed head of Concordia right; reverse Paullus on right, standing left, togate, with right hand touching trophy of captured arms in center; on the left, three standing bound captives: King Perseus of Macedonia, his half-brother, and his son, TER above PAVLLVS in exergue; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
Roman Republic, Anonymous, 211 - 206 B.C.
Janus (or Ianus) was the god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings and endings. He is most often depicted as having two faces or heads, facing in opposite directions. Janus is believed to be one of the few major deities in Roman mythology that does not have a Greek origin or counterpart.RR88221. Bronze as, Crawford 56/2, Sydenham 143, BMCRR Rome 373 ff., SRCV I 627, F, green patina, crack, porous, weight 29.386 g, maximum diameter 33.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 211 - 206 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Janus, I (mark of value) above, countermark: head right in round punch; reverse war galley prow right, I (mark of value) above, ROMA in exergue; ex Moneta Numismatic Services; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00
Roman Republic, Unofficial, c. 169 - 91 B.C.
Crawford notes, "The very common quadrantes with M • and N• (as Milan 351) are clearly unofficial."RR79715. Copper quadrans, cf. Milan 351 (from Crawford appendix p. 309 unofficial issues of bronze coins), Sydenham -, VF, centered on a tight flan, light marks,, weight 4.182 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 135o, unofficial mint, c. 169 - 91 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow right, ROMA below, three pellets before, M• above; ex Forum (2006), ex Goodman collection; $125.00 SALE |PRICE| $113.00
Roman Republic, Cn. Gellius, c. 138 B.C.
In 138 B.C., Tautalus, chieftain of the proto-Celtic Lusitanian tribe from western Hispania, surrendered to the Romans. An Iberian town by the river Turia was refounded as the Roman colony Valentia Edetanorum and about two thousand Roman colonists settled there.RR92994. Bronze quadrans, Crawford 232/4, Sydenham 435b (very scarce), BMCRR I Rome 923, RBW Collection 966, SRCV I 1139, gF, tight flan, earthen deposits, scratches, weight 5.334 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 138 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, wearing Nemean lion-skin headdress, three pellets (mark of value) behind; reverse prow right, CN. GEL above, ROMA in exergue; very scarce; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Haeberlin, E. J. Aes Grave. Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens. (Frankfurt, 1910).
Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Seaby, H.A., D. Sear, & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989).
Sear, D. R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. (London, 1998).
Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Stannard, C. The local coinages of Central Italy in the late Roman Republic: provisional catalogue, Oct 2007.
Sydenham, E. Aes Grave, a Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. (London, 1926).
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