Octavian, Triumvir and Imperator, Augustus 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC, and between then and 27 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. After 27 BC, he was named Gaius Julius CaesarAugustus. Because of the various names he bore, it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 B.C., Octavian (or Octavianus) when referring to events between 44 and 27 B.C., and Augustus when referring to events after 27 B.C. The first and possibly greatest Roman emperor, he founded the Roman Empire after defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra. As emperor, he reformed the coinage and the military, and embarked on a huge building program all across the empire. After a long reign of 41 years, from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D., he died at the age of 77. The coins below were struck before he was renamed Augustus in 27 B.C.
Roman Republic, Second Triumvirate, Mark Antony and Octavian, Spring - Early Summer 41 B.C.
The moneyer M. Barbatius was a friend of Julius Caesar. In 41 B.C. he was a quaestor pro praetore to Antony in the East.
In 41 B.C., Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony's younger brother, and Fulvia, Mark Antony's wife, anxious to get her husband back from Cleopatra, raised eight legions against Octavian. Lucius marched on Rome, drove out Lepidus, and promised the people that the triumvirate would be abolished. On the approach of Octavian, he retired to Perusia in Etruria, where he was besieged by three armies, and compelled to surrender in the winter of 41 B.C. The city was destroyed but Lucius was spared, and was sent by Octavian to Spain as governor. Nothing is known of the circumstances or date of his death.
SH58580. Silver denarius, RSC I Mark Antony and Augustus 8, BMCRR 103, Sydenham 1181, Crawford 517/2, SRCV I 1504, F, weight 3.229 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, spring - early summer 41 B.C.; obverse M ANT IMP AVGIII VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV ligate), bare head of Antony right; reverseCAESAR IMP PONTIII VIR R P C, bare beardless head of Octavian right; military mint moving with Antony, Ephesus(?); rare; $720.00 (€540.00)
Octavian, Consul and Triumvir, 37 B.C.
In 37 B.C., Gaius Julius CaesarOctavian engineered the "Second Pact of Tarentum" which renewed the Triumvirate for an additional five years. Mark Antony exchanged 120 ships, for service against Sextus Pompeius. OctavianCaesar gave 1,000 troops from the Praetorian Guard and 20,000 legionaries for the Parthian campaign in Syria. The reverselegend indicates Octavian is Consul a second time, and has elected for a third time.
SH67474. Silver denarius, SRCV I 1544, RSC I 91, BMCRR Gaul 116, Crawford 538/1, VF, bankers' marks, nice style, weight 3.226 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 90o, Italian mint, Summer 37 B.C.; obverse IMP CAESARDIVI F III VIR ITER R P C, bare head of Octavian right; reverseCOS ITER ET TER DESIG, emblems of the augurate and pontificate (simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus); $375.00 (€281.25)
Thessalonica, Macedonia, Julius Caesar, and Augustus, c. 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. (Possibly Later)
RPC tentatively dates the type to the reign of Augustus but notes it may have been struck as late as the reign of Domitian.
RP65932. Bronze AE 22, RPC I 1555; BMC Macedonia p. 115, 60, F, weight 6.623 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 270o, Thessalonica mint, obverse ΘEOC, bare head of Julius Caesar right; reverse ΘECCAΛONI KEΩN, bare head of Augustus right; $225.00 (€168.75)
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