Octavian, Triumvir and Imperator, Augustus 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC, and between then and 27 BC was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. After 27 BC, he was named Gaius Julius CaesarAugustus. Because of the various names he bore, it is common to call him Octavius when referring to events between 63 and 44 B.C., Octavian (or Octavianus) when referring to events between 44 and 27 B.C., and Augustus when referring to events after 27 B.C. The first and possibly greatest Roman emperor, he founded the Roman Empire after defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra. As emperor, he reformed the coinage and the military, and embarked on a huge building program all across the empire. After a long reign of 41 years, from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D., he died at the age of 77. The coins below were struck before he was renamed Augustus in 27 B.C.
Roman Republic, Second Triumvirate, Mark Antony and Octavian, Spring - Early Summer 41 B.C.
The moneyer M. Barbatius was a friend of Julius Caesar. In 41 B.C. he was a quaestor pro praetore to Antony in the East.
In 41 B.C., Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony's younger brother, and Fulvia, Mark Antony's wife, anxious to get her husband back from Cleopatra, raised eight legions against Octavian. Lucius marched on Rome, drove out Lepidus, and promised the people that the triumvirate would be abolished. On the approach of Octavian, he retired to Perusia in Etruria, where he was besieged by three armies, and compelled to surrender in the winter of 41 B.C. The city was destroyed but Lucius was spared, and was sent by Octavian to Spain as governor. Nothing is known of the circumstances or date of his death.
SH58580. Silver denarius, RSC I Mark Antony and Augustus 8, BMCRR 103, Sydenham 1181, Crawford 517/2, SRCV I 1504, F, weight 3.229 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, spring - early summer 41 B.C.; obverse M ANT IMP AVGIII VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV ligate), bare head of Antony right; reverseCAESAR IMP PONTIII VIR R P C, bare beardless head of Octavian right; military mint moving with Antony, Ephesus(?); rare; $720.00 (€540.00)
Mark Antony and Octavian, Thessalonica, Macedonia, 37 B.C.
The reverseinscription abbreviates, MAPKOΣ ANTΩNIONΣ AYTOKPATΩP ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAP AYTOKPATΩP. The bust of Libertas on the obverse "refers to the grant of freedom by the Triumvirs to Thessalonica in 42 BC after the battle of Philippi (the victory which is celebrated on the reverse)." -- RPC I, p. 29
SH63716. Leaded bronze AE 31, BMC Macedonia p. 115, 63; RPC I 1551; Sear Imperators 672; SNG Cop 374; SNG ANS 823, F, weight 18.710 g, maximum diameter 31.0 mm, die axis 180o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 37 B.C.; obverse ΘEΣΣAΛONKEΩN EΛEYΘEPIAΣ, diademed and draped bust of Eleutheria (Liberty) right, E (year 5) below chin; reverse M ANT AYT Γ KAI AYT, Nike advancing left, extending wreath in right, palm frond in left; $220.00 (€165.00)
Thessalonica, Macedonia, Julius Caesar, and Augustus, c. 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. (Possibly Later)
RPC tentatively dates the type to the reign of Augustus but notes it may have been struck as late as the reign of Domitian.
RP65932. Bronze AE 22, RPC I 1555; BMC Macedonia p. 115, 60, F, weight 6.623 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 270o, Thessalonika mint, obverse ΘEOC, bare head of Julius Caesar right; reverse ΘECCAΛONI KEΩN, bare head of Augustus right; $200.00 (€150.00)
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