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From Alexander the Great's conquest until Roman domination, the city states and small nations of the region, including Judaea, were at various times either ruled or dominated by the great Seleukid or Ptolemaic Kingdoms.
Judah, Macedonian or Ptolemaic Rule, Satrap Hezekiah, c. 333 - 301 B.C.
Josephus identifies Hezekiah as the High Priest of the Jews who offered friendship to Ptolemy I after his conquest of Palestine. Josephus mentions Hezekiah was sixty years old at the time of Ptolemy. Mildenberg identifies the head right on the obverse of this type as Ptolemy I.SL89836. Silver half ma'ah, Hendin 1066; Meshorer TJC 25; Meshore AJC I 12; Mildenberg Yehud p. 189 & pl. 22, 23; HGC 10 452 (R1 - R2), NGC NGC XF, strike 2/5, surface 3/5 (4283488-002), weight 0.189 g, maximum diameter 7.2 mm, die axis 90o, Jerusalem(?) mint, c. 375 - 333 B.C.; obverse male head (Ptolemy I?) right; reverse forepart of winged and horned lynx left; Aramaic inscription lower right: YHZQYH (Hezekiah); NGC certified with photo certificate of authenticity, not in a plastic holder; rare; $800.00 (Ä704.00)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IV Philopator, 221 - 204 B.C.
Ptolemy IV's surname Philopator means father lover, ironic since according to some authorities he poisoned his father. Ptolemy IV is a major protagonist of the apocryphal 3 Maccabees, which describes events following the Battle of Raphia, in both Jerusalem and Alexandria. He was a cruel and evil monarch.GP88102. Bronze obol, Lorber CPE B546, Svoronos 1153 (4 spec.), BMC Ptolemies -; Weiser -; SNG Cop -, Noeske -, SNG Milan -, Malter -, aVF, scratches, weak reverse strike, dark patina with highlighting earthen deposits, slightly beveled obverse edge, central cavities, weight 10.556 g, maximum diameter 24.6 mm, die axis 0o, Phoenicia, Tyre mint, obverse diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (King Ptolemy), eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head left, wings closed, club left, ΣE monogram between legs; scarce; $100.00 (Ä88.00)
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus III the Great, c. 223 - 187 B.C.
This type was previously attributed to Antioch but only one has been found at Antioch and nearby excavations, but a number have been found in the Sardis excavations. Finds of Sardian elephant bronzes in Cilicia, Lebanon and Israel suggest they traveled with the army during the Asia Minor campaign of 203 and after into the theater of the Fifth Syrian War.GY89997. Bronze AE 14, Houghton-Lorber 976A(1)a, Newell WSM 1109, HGC 9 -, VF, green patina, centered on a tight flan, porous, weight 2.534 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 0o, Lydia, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 213 - 203 B.C.; obverse head of Apollo right, hair knotted in krobylos behind, long wavy locks falling loose on neck; reverse elephant walking right, BAΣIΛEΩΣ (king) above, ANTIOXOY in exergue, monogram (control) behind above tail; scarce; $80.00 (Ä70.40)