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Caria

Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there.


Persian Empire, Carian Satrapy, Pixodaros, c. 340 - 335 B.C.

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Pixodarus was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively ruled. To secure the friendship of Philip II, king of Macedonia, Pixodarus offered his eldest daughter in marriage to his Philip's son Arrhidaeus. Arrhidaeus' ambitious younger brother, Alexander (later Alexander the Great) offered himself instead. Pixodarus eagerly agreed but Philip put an end to the scheme. Pixodarus died, apparently a natural death, before Alexander landed in Asia in 334 B.C. and was succeeded by his Persian son-in-law Orontobates.
SH90963. Silver didrachm, SNG Cop 597; SNGvA 2375; SNG Keckman 280; SNG Kayhan 891; SNG Lockett 2913; BMC Caria p. 185, 5 ff.; Weber 6608; SGCV II 4966, gVF, some nicks or flan flaws, some pitting, toned, weight 7.000 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa mint, c. 340 - 335 B.C.; obverse head of Apollo facing slightly right; reverse ΠIΞΩ∆APOY, Zeus Labraundos standing right, labrys (double-headed axe) over shoulder in right, lotus-tipped scepter vertical in left; $870.00 (€756.90)


Persian Empire, Carian Satrapy, Pixodaros, c. 340 - 335 B.C.

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Pixodarus was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively ruled. To secure the friendship of Philip II, king of Macedonia, Pixodarus offered his eldest daughter in marriage to his Philip's son Arrhidaeus. Arrhidaeus' ambitious younger brother, Alexander (later Alexander the Great) offered himself instead. Pixodarus eagerly agreed but Philip put an end to the scheme. Pixodarus died, apparently a natural death, before Alexander landed in Asia in 334 B.C. and was succeeded by his Persian son-in-law Orontobates.
SH63582. Silver didrachm, SNG Cop 597; SNGvA 2375; SNG Keckman 280; SNG Kayhan 891; SNG Lockett 2913; BMC Caria p. 185, 5 ff.; Weber 6608; SGCV II 4966, aVF, porous, weight 6.541 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa mint, c. 340 - 335 B.C.; obverse head of Apollo facing slightly right; reverse ΠIΞΩ∆APOY, Zeus Labraundos standing right, labrys (double-headed axe) over shoulder in right, lotus-tipped scepter vertical in left; $680.00 (€591.60)


Mylasa(?), Caria, c. 560 - 545 B.C.

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Under Achaemenid Persian rule, Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. The Persian satrap (governor) ruled the city in varying degrees of allegiance to the emperor. Mylasa was a regionally prominent member of the Delian League, 460 - 450 B.C., but Persian rule was restored towards the end of the century.
SH73588. Electrum 1/48 stater, Weidauer 168, Rosen 302, Mitchiner ATEC 215 (Ephesus, 560 - 545 B.C.), SNG Kayhan -, VF, weight 0.292 g, maximum diameter 4.9 mm, Mylasa(?) mint, c. 560 - 545 B.C.; obverse lion paw; reverse scorpion within incuse square; very rare; $390.00 (€339.30)


Mylasa, Caria, c. 560 - 545 B.C.

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Under Achaemenid Persian rule, Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. The Persian satrap (governor) ruled the city in varying degrees of allegiance to the emperor. Mylasa was a regionally prominent member of the Delian League, 460 - 450 B.C., but Persian rule was restored towards the end of the century.
SH74014. Electrum 1/48 stater, Weidauer 166 - 167, SNG Kayhan 925 - 927, SNGvA 1804, SNG Keckman 918, Traité I 94, VF, weight 0.212 g, maximum diameter 4.9 mm, die axis 180o, Mylasa mint, c. 560 - 545 B.C.; obverse lion head facing, seen from above; reverse scorpion within incuse square; $350.00 (€304.50)


Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Most references attribute the type to Myus. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.
GB69183. Bronze chalkous, SNG München 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tüb 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), VF, pitting, weight 1.910 g, maximum diameter 11.0 mm, die axis 270o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reverse dolphin right, MY above, trident right below; rare; $160.00 (€139.20)


Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.
GB67788. Bronze chalkous, SNG München 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tüb 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), F, weight 1.655 g, maximum diameter 11.1 mm, die axis 0o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reverse dolphin right, MY above, trident right below; very rare; $155.00 (€134.85)


SNG Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part I, Karia

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SNG Keckman I

The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part I, Karia

Richard Ashton, editor.

Often called SNG Keckman or SNG Helsinki. This volume, one of two for the Keckman Collection, is a primary reference for the coins of Karia. It is difficult to obtain but essential for dealers and specialist collectors.
BKBKARIA. SNG Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part I, Karia, 32 plates, 926 coins; $140.00 (€121.80)


Halikarnassos(?), Caria, c. 400 - 340 B.C.

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In Kadmos 37 (1998), K. Konuk identifies Halikarnassos as a possible reading of the ethnic Carian reverse legend. The ram head may be a symbol of Apollo as the god of flocks and herds.
GA72261. Silver hemiobol, SNG Keckman 873 (uncertain mint), SNG Kayhan 996, Klein 496, SNG Tübingen 3316, SNG München -, SNG Cop -, VF, weight 0.507 g, maximum diameter 8.6 mm, die axis 270o, Carian mint, c. 400 - 340 B.C; obverse head of ram right; reverse young male head right, retrograde ethnic legend (resembles reversed S-A) across lower fields; $125.00 (€108.75)


Caria, Uncertain Satrap, c. 400 - 350 B.C.

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GS70805. Silver tetartemorion, Troxell Carians 4, SNG Keckman 862, Klein 503, cf. SNG Kayhan 990 (no inscription), SNG Turkey VIII -, SNG Cop -, F, toned, weight 0.430 g, maximum diameter 8.2 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, obverse head and neck of a lion left, head turned slightly facing; reverse head and neck of a bull left, head turned facing, Karian inscription (resembles MV-H-Φ, clockwise from above), all within a round incuse; rare; $120.00 (€104.40)


Mylasa, Caria, c. 2nd Century B.C.

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Mylasa (Milas, Turkey today) was often mentioned by ancient writers. The first mention is from early 7th century B.C., when Arselis, a Carian leader from Mylasa, helped Gyges in his fight for the Lydian throne. Under Persia, Mylasa was the chief city of Caria. Mylasa joined the Delian League c. 455 B.C., but Persian rule was restored by 400. Mylasa was the hometown and first capital of the Hecatomnid dynasty, nominally Persian satraps, but practically kings of Caria and the surrounding region, 377 - 352 B.C. In the Hellenistic era, the city was contested by Alexander's successors, but prospered. Mylasa was severely damaged in the Roman Civil War in 40 B.C., but again regained prosperity under Roman rule.
GB67789. Bronze AE 13, Akarca 34; SNG Cop 422; SNG Keckman 226; BMC Caria p. 129, 11; Weber 6528; SGCV II 4911, VF, light corrosion, weight 1.915 g, maximum diameter 12.5 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa mint, 2nd century B.C.; obverse free horse trotting right; reverse ornamented trident head, M−Y flanking shaft; $110.00 (€95.70)










REFERENCES

Ashton, R. “The Solar Disk Drachms of Caria” in NC 1990.
Ashton, R., et al. “The Pixodarus Hoard” in Coin Hoards IX (2002).
Göktürk, M.T. “A Hoard of Hellenistic Silver Coins of Myndos, Halikarnassos, and Knidos” in Studies in Ancient Coinage from Turkey. (London, 1996).
Head, B.V. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Caria, Cos, Rhodes, etc. (London, 1897).
Hurter. S. “Lions and lionesses, eagles and a few heads: a new uncertain mint in Caria” in Essays Hersh.
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Kleinasiatische Münzen. (Vienna, 1901-2).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Zur griechischen und römischen Münkunde. (Vienna, 1908).
Klein, Dieter. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen, Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Konuk, K. “Influences et Eléments Achéménides dans le monnayage de la Carie” in MIMAA.
Konuk, K. “The Early Coinage of Kaunos” in Essays Price, pp. 197 - 224 and pls. 47 - 50.
Meadows, A.R. "Stratonikeia in Caria: the Hellenistic City and its Coinage" in NC 2002.
Numismatik Lanz, Auktion 13: Sammlung Karl, Münzen von Karien. (27 Nov 2006).
Price, M.J. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 5: Karien und Lydien. (Berlin, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part 1: Karia. (Helsinki, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain VI, Corpus Christi College Cambridge, The Lewis Collection II: The Greek Imperial Coins. (1992).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey I: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey VIII: Mugla Museum, Vol. 1: Caria. (Istanbul, 2012).
Troxell, H.A. “Carians in Miniature” in Studies Mildenberg.
Troxell, H.A. “Winged Carians” in Essays Thompson.
Yarkin, U. “The Coinage of Syangela in Caria” in NC 1975.
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).

Catalog current as of Wednesday, August 05, 2015.
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- Caria Greek Coins