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Caria

Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there.


Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Pixodaros, c. 340 - 335 B.C.

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Pixodarus was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively ruled. To secure the friendship of Philip II, king of Macedonia, Pixodarus offered his eldest daughter in marriage to his Philip's son Arrhidaeus. Arrhidaeus' ambitious younger brother, Alexander (later Alexander the Great) offered himself instead. Pixodarus eagerly agreed but Philip put an end to the scheme. Pixodarus died, apparently a natural death, before Alexander landed in Asia in 334 B.C. and was succeeded by his Persian son-in-law Orontobates.
SH63582. Silver didrachm, SNG Cop 597; SNGvA 2375; SNG Keckman 280; SNG Kayhan 891; SNG Lockett 2913; BMC Caria p. 185, 5 ff.; Weber 6608; SGCV II 4966, aVF, porous, weight 6.541 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa (Milas, Turkey) mint, c. 340 - 335 B.C.; obverse head of Apollo facing slightly right; reverse ΠIΞΩ∆APOY, Zeus Labraundos standing right, labrys (double-headed axe) over shoulder in right, lotus-tipped scepter vertical in left; $500.00 (€445.00)


Gaius Caesar, Antiochia ad Maeandrum, Caria, 1 B.C. - 4 A.D.

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The bare-headed young portrait is Gaius Julius Caesar, not Augustus. In this period, Augustus would be expected to wear a wreath, as he does on the other coins from this city. The youthful image better fits the younger man, who was both his grandson and adoptive son. Many cities issued coins for Gaius after he was made army commander in the East in 1 B.C. The winged caduceus commemorates the peace treaty he made that year with Phraates V. Attribution to Antioch on the Meander is likely but not entirely certain.
SH77422. Bronze AE 15, RPC I Supp. S-5478 (corr., 1 spec., head of Augustus, caduceus on a prow); Solidus Numismatik, auction 6, lot 209, VF, over-cleaned, porous, flan crack, weight 2.129 g, maximum diameter 14.9 mm, Antioch on the Meander mint, 1 B.C. - 21 Feb 4 A.D.; obverse ANTIOXEΩN, bare head (Gaius Caesar?) right with slender neck and curved bust line; reverse winged caduceus in laurel wreath; extremely rare, only the 3rd known; $270.00 (€240.30)


Rhodos, Carian Islands, c. 275 - 250 B.C.

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Rhodes was an important slave-trading center, best known for The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The giant statue of Helios was finished in 280 B.C., but destroyed by an earthquake later in that century. It inspired later sculptures including the Statue of Liberty.
GS76080. Silver hemidrachm, Ashton Rhodes 195 (8 spec.), SNG Keckman 489, BMC Caria -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG München -, VF, nice style, light toning, light marks and corrosion, die wear, obverse a little off-center, weight 1.558 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rhodos mint, c. 275 - 250 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Helios facing slightly to right, hair loose; reverse rose with bud on stem to the right, APIΣTONOMOΣ (magistrate) arching above, galley prow (control symbol) left, P lower left, O inner right, convex field; rare; $180.00 (€160.20)


Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Hekatomnos, c. 392 - 377 B.C.

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Hecatomnus was a native of Mylasa, which he made his capital and the seat of his government. His coins often depict Zeus Labrandenos from the celebrated temple of that name near Mylasa. The Persian emperor appointed Hecatomnus to command naval forces in the war against Evagoras of Cyprus, but he not only took no part in support of the Emperor, but secretly supplied Evagoras with money for mercenaries. The disorganized Persian monarchy took no action against Hecatomnus and he continued to rule Caria until his death. He left three sons, Mausolus, Idrieus and Pixodarus - all of whom - in their turn, succeeded him in the sovereignty.
GS76809. Silver tetartemorion, Troxell Carians 2c, SNG Keckman 848 ff., SNG Kayhan 837 ff., SNG Tüb 3312 ff., Klein 507, Traite II -, SNG Cop -, gVF, area of flat strike on male head, toned, weight 0.172 g, maximum diameter 5.9 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa (Milas, Turkey) mint, c. 390 - 380 B.C.; obverse forepart of lion right, head turned back left, tongue protruding; reverse male head (Apollo?) facing slightly left, with long hair, no inscriptions or symbols, all within a round incuse; $155.00 (€137.95)


Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Most references attribute the type to Myus. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.
GB69183. Bronze chalkous, SNG München 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tüb 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), VF, pitting, weight 1.910 g, maximum diameter 11.0 mm, die axis 270o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reverse dolphin right, MY above, trident right below; rare; $140.00 (€124.60)


Rhodos, Carian Islands, c. 88 - 84 B.C.

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Rhodes was an important slave-trading center, best known for The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The giant statue of Helios was finished in 280 B.C., but destroyed by an earthquake later in that century. It inspired later sculptures including the Statue of Liberty.
GS76079. Silver hemidrachm, Jenkins Rhodian 39; SNG Keckman I 647; BMC Caria p. 257, 299, VF, nice style, well centered, light toning, porosity, weight 1.232 g, maximum diameter 12.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rhodos mint, c. 88 - 84 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Helios facing slightly right; reverse ∆EΞAΓOPAΣ, rose with bud to right, P-O across fields, grapes lower left, all in shallow incuse; $135.00 (€120.15)


Caria, Uncertain City (probably Mylasa), c. 420 - 390 B.C.

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Among the smallest coins ever minted.
GA76794. Silver tetartemorion, SNG Kayhan 940 - 943, SNG Keckman I 926, VF, weight 0.150 g, maximum diameter 5.7 mm, die axis 165o, Carian mint, c. 420 - 390 B.C.; obverse forepart of lion right, head turned back left; reverse bird standing left within incuse square; $130.00 (€115.70)


Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.
GB67788. Bronze chalkous, SNG München 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tüb 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), F, weight 1.655 g, maximum diameter 11.1 mm, die axis 0o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reverse dolphin right, MY above, trident right below; very rare; $120.00 (€106.80)


Halikarnassos(?), Caria, c. 400 - 340 B.C.

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In Kadmos 37 (1998), K. Konuk identifies Halikarnassos as a possible reading of the ethnic Carian reverse legend. The ram head may be a symbol of Apollo as the god of flocks and herds.
GA72261. Silver hemiobol, SNG Keckman 873 (uncertain mint), SNG Kayhan 996, Klein 496, SNG Tübingen 3316, SNG München -, SNG Cop -, VF, weight 0.507 g, maximum diameter 8.6 mm, die axis 270o, Carian mint, c. 400 - 340 B.C; obverse head of ram right; reverse young male head right, retrograde ethnic legend (resembles reversed S-A) across lower fields; $110.00 (€97.90)


Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Hecatomnids, c. 392 - 353 B.C.

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The Hecatomnid dynasty or Hecatomnids were the rulers of Caria and surrounding areas from about 392 - 334 B.C. They were nominally satraps (governors) under the Persian Achaeminid Empire, but ruled with considerable autonomy, and established a hereditary dynasty. The dynasty was founded by Hecatomnus and originally had its seat in Mylasa; Mausolus moved it to Halicarnassus. Hecatomnus' five children succeeded him in succession. The dynasty engaged in sibling marriage to presumably preserve royal power within the family. The dynasty ended with the conquests of Alexander the Great. Ada adopted him as her son, so that he would succeed to the rule of Caria. The best-known monument of the dynasty is the Mausoleum that Artemisia II built in honor of her husband and brother Mausolus.
Hecatomnus, ruled c. 392–377 B.C.
Mausolus, son of Hecatomnus, ruled c. 377–353 B.C.
• Artemisia II, daughter of Hecatomnus, wife of Mausolus, ruled c. 353–351 B.C.
• Idrieus, son of Hecatomnus, ruled c. 351–344 B.C.
• Ada, daughter of Hecatomnus, wife of Idrieus, ruled c. 344–340 B.C. and c. 334–326 B.C. (under Alexander the Great)
• Pixodarus, son of Hecatomnus, ruled c. 340–335 B.C.
GS70805. Silver tetartemorion, Troxell Carians 4, SNG Keckman 862, Klein 503, cf. SNG Kayhan 990 (no inscription), SNG Turkey VIII -, SNG Cop -, F, toned, weight 0.430 g, maximum diameter 8.2 mm, die axis 180o, Caria (Mylasia? or Halicarnassus?) mint, early to mid 4th century B.C.; obverse head and neck of a lion left, head turned slightly facing; reverse head and neck of a bull left, head turned facing, Karian inscription (resembles MV-H-Φ, clockwise from above), all within a round incuse; rare; $100.00 (€89.00)










REFERENCES

Akarca, A. Les Monnaies Grecques de Mylasa. (Paris, 1959).
Ashton, R. "Rhodian Bronze Coinage and the Earthquake of 229-226 BC" in NC 1986.
Ashton, R. "Rhodian Bronze Coinage and the Siege of Mithradates VI" in NC 2001.
Ashton, R. "Rhodian Coinage and the Colossus" in RN 144 (1988).
Ashton, R. "Rhodian coinage in the early imperial period (CH 3: no. 82)" in Recent Turkish Coin Hoards and Numismatic Studies.
Ashton, R. "Rhodian Plinthophoroi-a Sketch" in Kraay-Mørkholm Essays.
Ashton, R. "Rhodian-Type Silver Coinages from Crete" in SM 146 (May 1987).
Ashton, R. "The Coinage of Rhodes 408-c. 190 BC" in Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World. (Oxford, 2001).
Ashton, R. "The Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms of Mylasa" in NC 1992.
Ashton, R. & G. Reger. "The Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms of Mylasa Revisited" in Studies Kroll.
Ashton, R. & A.P. Weiss. "The Post-Plinthophoric Silver Drachms of Rhodes" in NC 1997.
Ashton, R., et al. "The Pixodarus Hoard" in Coin Hoards IX (2002).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ). Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. III, Part 1. (London, 1926).
Göktürk, M.T. "A Hoard of Hellenistic Silver Coins of Myndos, Halikarnassos, and Knidos" in Studies in Ancient Coinage from Turkey. (London, 1996).
Head, B.V. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Caria, Cos, Rhodes, etc. (London, 1897).
Hurter. S. "Lions and lionesses, eagles and a few heads: a new uncertain mint in Caria" in Essays Hersh.
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Kleinasiatische Münzen. (Vienna, 1901-2).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Zur griechischen und römischen Münkunde. (Vienna, 1908).
Jenkins, G. K. "Rhodian Plinthophoroi" in Kraay-Mørkholm Essays.
Klein, Dieter. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen, Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Konuk, K. "The Early Coinage of Kaunos" in Essays Price, pp. 197 - 224 and pls. 47 - 50.
Meadows, A.R. "Stratonikeia in Caria: the Hellenistic City and its Coinage" in NC 2002.
Mionnet, T.E. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines, Vol 3: Aeolis - Cyprus. (Paris, 1808).
Numismatik Lanz, Auktion 13: Sammlung Karl, Münzen von Karien. (27 Nov 2006).
Price, M.J. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 5: Karien und Lydien. (Berlin, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part 1: Karia. (Helsinki, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain VI, Corpus Christi College Cambridge, The Lewis Collection II: The Greek Imperial Coins. (1992).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey I: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey VIII: Mugla Museum, Vol. 1: Caria. (Istanbul, 2012).
Troxell, H.A. "Carians in Miniature" in Studies Mildenberg.
Troxell, H.A. "Winged Carians" in Essays Thompson.
Yarkin, U. "The Coinage of Syangela in Caria" in NC 1975.
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen. (New York, 1983).

Catalog current as of Saturday, December 03, 2016.
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Caria