Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there.
Persian Empire, Carian Satraps, Hekatomnos, c. 395 - 377 B.C.
Hecatomnus was a native of Mylasa, which he made his capital and the seat of his government. His coins depict Zeus Labrandenos from the celebrated temple of that name near Mylasa. The Persian emperor appointed Hecatomnus to command naval forces in the war against Evagoras of Cyprus, but he not only took no part in support of the Emperor, but secretly supplied Evagoras with money for mercenaries. The disorganized Persian monarchy took no action against Hecatomnus and he continued to rule Caria until his death. He left three sons, Mausolus, Idrieus and Pixodarus - all of whom - in their turn, succeeded him in the sovereignty.
SH63978. Silver tetradrachm, SNG Kayhan 868 - 869, SNGvA 2354, Traité II 83, SNG Cop -, VF, minor scratches, weight 14.383 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 90o, Mylasa mint, c. 390 - 385 A.D.; obverseZeus Labraundos marching right, wearing chiton and himation, labrys in right, spear in left; reverseEKATOMNW, lion crouching right; ex Heritage Long Beach Signature Sale 3020 (6 Sep 2012, est. $2,000 - 3,000, unsold); $1000.00 (€770.00)
Persian Empire, Carian Satraps, Pixodaros, c. 340 - 335 B.C.
Pixodarus was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively ruled. To secure the friendship of Philip II, king of Macedonia, Pixodarus offered his eldest daughter in marriage to his Philip's son Arrhidaeus. Arrhidaeus' ambitious younger brother, Alexander (later Alexander the Great) offered himself instead. Pixodarus eagerly agreed but Philip put an end to the scheme. Pixodarus died, apparently a natural death, before Alexander landed in Asia in 334 B.C. and was succeeded by his Persian son-in-law Orontobates.
SH63582. Silver didrachm, SNGvA 2375, SNG Cop 597, SNG Keckman 280, SNG Kayhan 891, SNG Lockett 2913, SGCV II 4966, aVF, porous, weight 6.541 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, obverse head of Apollo facing slightly right; reversePIXWDAROU, Zeus Labraundos standing right, labrys (double-headed axe) over shoulder in right, lotus-tipped scepter vertical in left; $850.00 (€654.50)
Persian Empire, Uncertain Satrap, Mylasa(?), Caria, c. 350 - 341 B.C.
The Pixodarus Hoard included only examples, similar to our coin, without symbols or letters in the fields, thus dating the earliest of the type to c. 350 B.C. and dating those with symbols to after the deposit date, 341 B.C. In that period, many possible Satraps could have been the issuer.
The type may have been issued by Memnon, the famous and worthy adversary of Alexander. As a Carian, Greek-style issue, the type was likely issued for the hire of Greek mercenaries. Memnon co-commanded local forces before the defeat at the Granicus and afterwards was in charge of all forces in Western Asia Minor. At Granicus he was joined on the left wing (where Alexander charged) by Orontobates, the son-in-law of Pixodaros. Memnon was a 'rebel' Greek (actually Rhodian) commander and a very competent one at that. He sailed away from the siege at Halicaranassos and became a thorn in Alexander's side, threatening his lines of communication and more than once capturing the coastal towns and islands as the conqueror moved South. He fell ill and died before he could more greatly affect the invasion, a great loss to the faltering Persian Empire.
Another possible issuer is Orontobates, the Satrap of Caria after the death of Pixodaros. Orontobates assisted in the defence of Halicarnassos, and was later at Gaugemela, afterward he is not heard of again and we presume he died.
SH63536. Silver tetradrachm, Konuk Influences, Group 2, p. 178, pl. XXX, 10; Pixodarus Hoard pp. 210-212; SNG Cop -, SNG Kayhan -, F, weight 14.195 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa(?) mint, c. 350 - 341 B.C.; obverse Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow, quiver on shoulder; reverse Persian satrap on horseback charging right, thrusting downward with spear; rare; $700.00 (€539.00)
Kaunos, Caria, c. 490 - 470 B.C.
Caria was made a Persian satrapy in 545 B.C. The area rebelled along with Ionia c. 497 B.C. but was subdued by 493 B.C. After Xerxes defeats, the Persians withdrew from the western Anatolian coast and Kaunos joined the Delian League, founded in 477 B.C. This type, among the earliest from Kaunos, was struck during this tumultuous period or shortly after.
In 387 B.C. Kaunos again fell under Persian rule. It was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon in 334 B.C.
The baetyl, a stone cult object, was found in Kaunos, broken in two parts, in the ruins of a round building near the harbor. Made of limestone, over 4 meters high and 1.5 meters wide, it appears the stone was originally worshipped in the open. The temple was built around it in the 4th century B.C.
SH59841. Silver stater, Konuk 11 (O9/R8); Troxell Winged 6 (same dies), SNG Keckman 810 (same obv die); Asyut 684 (same); BMC Cilicia p. 95, 3; SNGvA 2344; Rosen 622, VF, weight 11.766 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 180o, Kaunos mint, c. 490 - 470 B.C.; obverse Iris running-kneeling right, open curved wings, arms extended, head turned back left, wearing long chiton and winged shoes, two scrolls curling from top of her head; reverse conical baetyl within a crude square incuse; $525.00 (€404.25)
After Geta's murder, Caracalla damned his memory, Damnatio Memoriae, requiring the destruction of every reference to his younger brother. Both Geta's portrait and legend were intentionally erased from this coin. The countermark shows an older Caracalla.
SH60677. Bronze AE 37, SNGvA 2687, SNG Cop -; countermark: Howgego 84, aF, flan crack, weight 19.254 g, maximum diameter 36.4 mm, die axis 0o, Stratonicea mint, 198 - 212 A.D.; obverse [MAR ANTWNINON CE...], confronted laureate and draped busts of Caracalla and Geta [the bust of Geta erased]; countermark: laureate bearded bust of Caracalla right in round punch; reverse[EPI EPITUNCANONTOS TOU FILWNOS STRATONIKEN], Hekate standing facing, head left, patera in right, torch in left, altar at feet left; rare; $260.00 (€200.20)
SNG Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part I, Karia
SNG Keckman I
The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part I, Karia
Richard Ashton, editor.
Often called SNG Keckman or SNG Helsinki. This volume, one of two for the Keckman Collection, is a primary reference for the coins of Karia. It is difficult to obtain but essential for dealers and specialist collectors.
BKBKARIA. SNG Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part I, Karia, 32 plates, 926 coins; $140.00 (€107.80)
Stratonikeia, Caria, c. 140 - 120 B.C.
The c. 3 gram drachm standard on which this coin is struck, used by Rhodes and other Carian cities, is called 'plinthophoric' for the square incuse around the reversetype (plinthos = brick or ingot). The archaizedincusereverse revived a characteristic more typical of the 5th century B.C.
GS49694. Silver hemidrachm, Meadows Group 2, 40a (same dies); SNGvA 8149; BMC Caria -; SNG Keckman -; SNG Cop - (BMC etc. list the type but not this magistrate), VF, weight 1.408 g, maximum diameter 12.1 mm, die axis 0o, Caria, Stratonikeia mint, obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reversePAMFIL[OS], eagle standing right, S - T flanking eagle, dolphin below right, all within square incuse; $95.00 (€73.15)
Caria, Uncertain City (Probably Mylasa), c. 420 - 390 B.C.
GA82196. Silver tetartemorion, Rosen 408, Klein 432 (Miletos, Ionia 525 - 494 B.C.), SNG Kayhan -, SNG Keckman -, VF, weight 0.310 g, maximum diameter 7.1 mm, die axis 180o, obverselion head right; reverse bird standing left, two pellets, all in incuse square; rare; $85.00 (€65.45)
Kaunos, Caria, c. 5th Century B.C.
Caria was made a Persian satrapy in 545 B.C. The area rebelled along with Ionia c. 497 B.C. but was subdued by 493 B.C. After Xerxes defeats, the Persians withdrew from the western Anatolian coast and Kaunos joined the Delian League, founded in 477 B.C. In 387 B.C. Kaunos again fell under Persian rule. It was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon in 334 B.C.
GA49297. Silver obol, Künker 89, 1391; SNG Keckman 65 var (diobol); SNGvA 2338-9 var (same); Klein -; SNG Cop -, aVF, weight 1.098 g, maximum diameter 8.7 mm, Kaunos mint, obverse forepart of lion left; reverseincuse square; rare; $85.00 (€65.45)
Halikarnassos(?), Caria, c. 400 - 340 B.C.
K. Konuk identifies Halikarnassos as a possible reading of the ethnic Carian reverselegend in Kadmos 37 (1998).
GS63007. Silver hemiobol, SNG Keckman 883 ff., SNG Kayhan 993 ff., Klein 496-7, noted in Troxell Carians, aVF, toned, weight 0.396 g, maximum diameter 7.8 mm, die axis 90o, Carian mint, c. 400 - 340 B.C; obverse head of ram right; reverse young male head right, ethniclegend (resembles A-S) across lower fields; $80.00 (€61.60)
Ashton, R., et al. “The Pixodarus Hoard” in Coin Hoards IX (2002). Head, B.V. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Caria, Cos, Rhodes, etc. (London, 1897). Klein, Dieter. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen, Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999). Konuk, K. “Influences et Eléments Achéménides dans le monnayage de la Carie” in MIMAA. Konuk, K. “The Early Coinage of Kaunos” in Essays Price, pp. 197 - 224 and pls. 47 - 50. Meadows, A.R. "Stratonikeia in Caria: the Hellenistic City and its Coinage" in NC 2002. Numismatik Lanz, Auktion 13: Sammlung Karl, Münzen von Karien. (27 Nov 2006). Price, M.J. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975). Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 5: Karien und Lydien. (Berlin, 1994). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part 1: Karia. (Helsinki, 1994). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain VI, Corpus Christi College Cambridge, The Lewis Collection II: The Greek Imperial Coins. (1992). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002). Troxell, H.A. “Carians in Miniature” in Studies Mildenberg. Troxell, H.A. “Winged Carians” in Essays Thompson. Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).
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