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Caria

Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there.


Plarasa and Aphrodisias, Caria, 1st Century B.C.

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During the middle of the second century B.C., the neighboring towns of Plarasa and Aphrodisias united, forming a single community. The union was undoubtedly approved and probably encouraged by Rome to improve their security. The order of the names indicates Plarasa was the dominant community when the agreement was made. At that time Aphrodisias may have been little more than a small village with a sanctuary to Aphrodite. By the middle of the first century B.C., however, Aphrodisias was the prominent partner. Sometime during the reign of Augustus, the name Plarasa was dropped. The weight standard is apparently that of a late Roman Republican denarius.
GS84797. Silver drachm, Macdonald Coinage Type 2 (O2/R3), SNG Keckman I 13 (same dies), SNGva 2434 (different dies), cf. BMC Caria p. 27 (illegible), SNG Cop -, aVF, die break behind head on obv., scratches, polished, almost all of reverse legend is off flan or unstruck, weight 3.478 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 0o, Aphrodisias-Plarasa mint, pseudo-automomous, 1st century B.C.; obverse bust of Aphrodite right, veiled and draped, wearing stephane, earring and necklace; reverse ΠΛAPAΣEΩN KAI AΦPO∆EIΣEIΩN (or similar, none known with end of legend legible), eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head right, wings open, MY/ΩN in two lines in left field, ΞE/NO/KPA/THΣ / ME/NAN/∆PO/Y (magistrate Xenokrates Menandrou) in nine lines in right field; extremely rare; $600.00 (€534.00)


Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Pixodaros, c. 340 - 335 B.C.

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Pixodarus was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively ruled. To secure the friendship of Philip II, king of Macedonia, Pixodarus offered his eldest daughter in marriage to his Philip's son Arrhidaeus. Arrhidaeus' ambitious younger brother, Alexander (later Alexander the Great) offered himself instead. Pixodarus eagerly agreed but Philip put an end to the scheme. Pixodarus died, apparently a natural death, before Alexander landed in Asia in 334 B.C. and was succeeded by his Persian son-in-law Orontobates.
SH63582. Silver didrachm, SNG Cop 597; SNGvA 2375; SNG Keckman 280; SNG Kayhan 891; SNG Lockett 2913; BMC Caria p. 185, 5 ff.; Weber 6608; SGCV II 4966, aVF, porous, weight 6.541 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa (Milas, Turkey) mint, c. 340 - 335 B.C.; obverse head of Apollo facing slightly right; reverse ΠIΞΩ∆APOY, Zeus Labraundos standing right, labrys (double-headed axe) over shoulder in right, lotus-tipped scepter vertical in left; $400.00 (€356.00)


Rhodes, Carian Islands, c. Mid 4th Century B.C.

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This may be a fraction of the Pseudo-Rhodian "solar disk drachm" that Ashton suggests may be from Lampsakos under Memnon of Rhodes. Bronzes of a similar style are now known.
GS84169. Silver tetartemorion, Other than the two previous auction listings for this coin, apparently unpublished, VF, edge chip, weight 0.128 g, maximum diameter 6.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rhodos (Rhodes, Greece) mint, c. mid 4th century B.C.; obverse facing radiate head of Helios, delicate linear ring around; reverse rose bloom; ex CNG e-auction 377 (29 Jun 2016), lot 130; ex Numismatik Naumann Auction 39 (3 Jan 2016), lot 386; unique(?); $280.00 (€249.20)


Rhodos, Carian Islands, c. 188 - 170 B.C.

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Helios was the ancient Greek personification of the sun. Each day he drove the chariot of the sun across the sky. The Colossus of Rhodes, the sixth of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was a huge statue of Helios measuring 32 meters (100 feet) high, built at Rhodes in 280 B.C. The c. 3 gram drachm standard on which this coin is struck, used by Rhodes and other Carian cities, is called 'Plinthophoric' for the square incuse around the reverse type (plinthos = brick or ingot). The archaized incuse reverse revived a characteristic more typical of the 5th century B.C.
GS84891. Silver drachm, Jenkins Rhodian, group A, 2; HGC 6 1457 (C); SNG Keckman -; SNG Cop -; BMC Caria -, gVF, toned, darker areas, porous, light marks and scratches, weight 2.578 g, maximum diameter 15.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rhodos (Rhodes, Greece) mint, magistrate Aetion, c. 188 - 170 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Helios right; reverse rose with bud right, a bunch of grapes (control symbol) lower left, P - O across fields, ANTAIOΣ (magistrate) above, all within a shallow incuse square; ex Roma Numismatics e-sale 27 (28 May 2016), lot 245; $160.00 (€142.40)


Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Kos, Carian Islands

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"In the suburb [of the town of Kos] is the Asklepieion (Temple of Asklepios), a temple exceedingly famous and full of numerous votive offerings." -- Strabo, Geography 14. 2. 19

Herakles was traveling by sea when Hera, who hated him, sent a storm, sinking his boats. Hercules and only a few friends survived, swimming to Kos. Once ashore they asked a shepherd for food and shelter. The shepherd refused and insulted Hercules and they fought. People from nearby Antimachia joined the fight against Hercules. Hercules and his friends slipped into a house, disguised as women, and escaped. Another town welcomed Hercules and declared war on Antimachia. Hercules killed the king of Antimachia and married the newly elected king's sister, Halkiopi. Their son, Thessalos, would later be the king of Kos and Nisyros.
RP84595. Bronze AE 17, RPC I 2739 (27 spec.); BMC Caria p. 217, 226; SNG Cop 699; SNG Munchen 548; SNG Tubingen 3539; Lindgren-Kovacs 684; Weber III 6670, aVF, toned brassy surfaces, tight flan, reverse a little off center, some corrosion, weight 3.087 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 0o, Kos, Carian Islands mint, 16 Jan 27 B.C. - 19 Aug 14 A.D.; obverse ΣEBAΣTOΣ, bare head right; reverse KΩIΩN downward between snake coiled staff of Asklepios on left and club of Herakles on right, ΣOΦOKΛHΣ (magistrate Sophokles) curving downward on right; very scarce; $150.00 (€133.50)


Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Hekatomnos, c. 392 - 377 B.C.

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Hecatomnus was a native of Mylasa, which he made his capital and the seat of his government. His coins often depict Zeus Labrandenos from the celebrated temple of that name near Mylasa. The Persian emperor appointed Hecatomnus to command naval forces in the war against Evagoras of Cyprus, but he not only took no part in support of the Emperor, but secretly supplied Evagoras with money for mercenaries. The disorganized Persian monarchy took no action against Hecatomnus and he continued to rule Caria until his death. He left three sons, Mausolus, Idrieus and Pixodarus - all of whom - in their turn, succeeded him in the sovereignty.
GS76809. Silver tetartemorion, Troxell Carians 2c, SNG Keckman 848 ff., SNG Kayhan 837 ff., SNG Tub 3312 ff., Klein 507, Traite II -, SNG Cop -, gVF, area of flat strike on male head, toned, weight 0.172 g, maximum diameter 5.9 mm, die axis 0o, Mylasa (Milas, Turkey) mint, c. 390 - 380 B.C.; obverse forepart of lion right, head turned back left, tongue protruding; reverse male head (Apollo?) facing slightly left, with long hair, no inscriptions or symbols, all within a round incuse; $120.00 (€106.80)


Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Most references attribute the type to Myus. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.
GB69183. Bronze chalkous, SNG Munchen 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tub 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), VF, pitting, weight 1.910 g, maximum diameter 11.0 mm, die axis 270o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reverse dolphin right, MY above, trident right below; rare; $110.00 (€97.90)


Caria, Uncertain City (probably Mylasa), c. 420 - 390 B.C.

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Among the smallest coins ever minted.
GA76794. Silver tetartemorion, SNG Kayhan 940 - 943, SNG Keckman I 926, VF, weight 0.150 g, maximum diameter 5.7 mm, die axis 165o, Carian mint, c. 420 - 390 B.C.; obverse forepart of lion right, head turned back left; reverse bird standing left within incuse square; $100.00 (€89.00)


Mygissos, Caria, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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Many Greek cities had names beginning MY, and this type has been attributed to many of them. Mygissos is most likely correct because nearby Nisyros issued coins with a very similar reverse with NI above the dolphin.
GB67788. Bronze chalkous, SNG Munchen 335 (MY...), SNG Cop 1022 (Myus), SNGvA 2114 (Myus), SNG Tub 3115 (Myus), SNG Keckman 235 (Myndos?), SNG Kayhan 847 (Myndos), F, weight 1.655 g, maximum diameter 11.1 mm, die axis 0o, Mygissos mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Poseidon right; reverse dolphin right, MY above, trident right below; very rare; $90.00 (€80.10)


Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy III Euergetes, 246 - 222 BC

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According to Ptolemaic bronze expert Daniel Wolf, "These coins are attributed by Svoronos to Ake-Ptolemaïs (Acre), but modern finds indicate they are most likely from the area near (modern) Bodrum in Turkey." Bodrum was called Halicarnassus, Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
GP84507. Bronze dichalkon, Svoronos 793 (Ptolemy II, Ake-Ptolemais), Weiser 80 (Ptolemy III), BMC Ptolemies -, SNG Cop -, SNG Milan -, Noeske -, Malter -, Hosking -, F, green patina, earthen deposits, edge cracks, minor edge chipping, porosity, centration dimples, weight 3.405 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 0o, Caria (Halicarnassus?) mint, 246 - 222 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Zeus Ammon right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠTOΛEMAIOY, eagle standing half left atop fulmen, head left, wings closed, tripod in left field; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; $90.00 (€80.10)










REFERENCES

Akarca, A. Les Monnaies Grecques de Mylasa. (Paris, 1959).
Ashton, R. "Rhodian Bronze Coinage and the Earthquake of 229-226 BC" in NC 1986.
Ashton, R. "Rhodian Bronze Coinage and the Siege of Mithradates VI" in NC 2001.
Ashton, R. "Rhodian Coinage and the Colossus" in RN 144 (1988).
Ashton, R. "Rhodian coinage in the early imperial period (CH 3: no. 82)" in Recent Turkish Coin Hoards and Numismatic Studies.
Ashton, R. "Rhodian Plinthophoroi-a Sketch" in Kraay-Mørkholm Essays.
Ashton, R. "Rhodian-Type Silver Coinages from Crete" in SM 146 (May 1987).
Ashton, R. "The Coinage of Rhodes 408-c. 190 BC" in Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World. (Oxford, 2001).
Ashton, R. "The Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms of Mylasa" in NC 1992.
Ashton, R. & G. Reger. "The Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms of Mylasa Revisited" in Studies Kroll.
Ashton, R. & A.P. Weiss. "The Post-Plinthophoric Silver Drachms of Rhodes" in NC 1997.
Ashton, R., et al. "The Pixodarus Hoard" in Coin Hoards IX (2002).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ). Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. III, Part 1. (London, 1926).
Göktürk, M.T. "A Hoard of Hellenistic Silver Coins of Myndos, Halikarnassos, and Knidos" in Studies in Ancient Coinage from Turkey. (London, 1996).
Head, B.V. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Caria, Cos, Rhodes, etc. (London, 1897).
Hurter. S. "Lions and lionesses, eagles and a few heads: a new uncertain mint in Caria" in Essays Hersh.
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Kleinasiatische Münzen. (Vienna, 1901-2).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Zur griechischen und römischen Münkunde. (Vienna, 1908).
Jenkins, G. K. "Rhodian Plinthophoroi" in Kraay-Mørkholm Essays.
Klein, Dieter. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen, Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Konuk, K. "The Early Coinage of Kaunos" in Essays Price, pp. 197 - 224 and pls. 47 - 50.
Meadows, A.R. "Stratonikeia in Caria: the Hellenistic City and its Coinage" in NC 2002.
Mionnet, T.E. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines, Vol 3: Aeolis - Cyprus. (Paris, 1808).
Numismatik Lanz, Auktion 13: Sammlung Karl, Münzen von Karien. (27 Nov 2006).
Price, M.J. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 5: Karien und Lydien. (Berlin, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part 1: Karia. (Helsinki, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain VI, Corpus Christi College Cambridge, The Lewis Collection II: The Greek Imperial Coins. (1992).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey I: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey VIII: Mugla Museum, Vol. 1: Caria. (Istanbul, 2012).
Troxell, H.A. "Carians in Miniature" in Studies Mildenberg.
Troxell, H.A. "Winged Carians" in Essays Thompson.
Yarkin, U. "The Coinage of Syangela in Caria" in NC 1975.
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen. (New York, 1983).

Catalog current as of Friday, July 28, 2017.
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Caria