Roman Republic 150 - 100 B.C.
Roman Republic, L. Furius Philus, c. 189 - 180 B.C.
In 188 B.C., through the Treaty of Apamea, the Seleucid king, Antiochus III, surrendered all his Greek and Anatolian possessions as far east as the Taurus Mountains. Rome had become master of the eastern Mediterranean. Continuing quarrels among the Greek cities and leagues increases the conviction in Rome that there will be no peace in Greece until Rome takes full control.RR65633. Bronze as, RBW Collection 641 (same obverse die), Crawford 144/1, Sydenham 300, Babelon Furia 1, BMCRR I Rome 540, SRCV I 677, aF, weight 23.822 g, maximum diameter 31.2 mm, die axis 45o, uncertain mint, c. 169 - 80 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Janus, I (mark of value) above; reverse prow right, Victory flying right holding wreath and LFP monogram (obscured) above, I (mark of value) before, ROMA below; rare; $150.00 (€130.50)
Roman Republic, L. Memmius, 109 - 108 B.C.
Crawford notes that this moneyer may have traveled to Egypt and the unusual depiction of the Dioscuri may have been based on Egyptian artwork. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. CrawfordRR90335. Silver denarius, SRCV I 181, Crawford 304/1, Sydenham 558, RSC I Memmia 1, aVF, weight 3.567 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, 109 - 108 B.C.; obverse young male head right wreathed with oak,
Roman Republic, Mn. Aemilius Lepidus, 114 - 113 B.C.
The triple-arch probably represents the Aqua Marcia, an aqueduct begun by M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior as Censors in 179 B.C.RR90750. Silver denarius, SRCV I 168, Crawford 291/1, Sydenham 554, RSC I Aemilia 7, BMC Italy 590, F, weight 3.591 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 114 - 113 B.C.; obverse laureate and draped bust of Roma right, ROMA (MA ligate) before,
Roman Republic, Anonymous, c. 135 - 100 B.C.
RR72284. Copper quadrans, McCabe Anonymous group L1.Qd.1, BMCRR I Rome 1196, F, weight 1.878 g, maximum diameter 16.5 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, c. 135 - 100 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow of galley right, three pellets before, ROMA below; $125.00 (€108.75)
Roman Republic, M. Servilius C.f., 100 B.C.
In 100 B.C., Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, a tribune, passed a law to redistribute land to military veterans. The law required all senators to swear to abide by it. Quintus Caecilus Metellus Numidicus refused and was exiled. In December, Saturninus ran for consul for the following year. After a rival candidate, Gaius Memmius, was murdered by his agents, the Senate declared Saturninus a public enemy. Marius, as consul, defeated his former ally in a battle in the Forum. Saturninus and his followers surrendered on condition that their lives would be spared, but they were stoned to death with roof tiles by renegade senators.RR71944. Silver denarius, BMCRR Rome I 1660, Crawford 327/1, Sydenham 602, RSC I Servilia 13, SRCV I 206, gF, weight 3.649 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 100 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet, ornamented with griffin's head, the visor in three pieces and peaked, wearing triple-drop earring and pearl necklace, ω (control letter) behind; reverse two dismounted horseman engaged in combat with swords and shields, their horses in background, M•SERVEILI•C•F over A (control letter) in exergue; from the Andrew McCabe collection, ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 10, lot 571; $120.00 (€104.40)
Roman Republic, L. Marcius Philippus, 113 - 112 B.C.
The moneyer, L. Marcius Philippus, became consul in 91 B.C. In that year, Marcus Livius Drusus, a tribune of the plebs, with senate support, proposed laws for the distribution of grain, assignment of public land, and founding colonies in Italy and Sicily. Philippus, in conflict with the senate, vigorously opposed the tribune. Philippus declared in the senate that he could no longer carry on the government with such a body, and that there was need of a new senate. L. Licinius Crassus responded that that man could not be his consul who refused to recognize him as senator. Violence spilled out into the forum. After Philippus was bloodied, dragged away by the throat and imprisoned, Drusus successfully passed his laws in the assemblies. Philippus later reconciled with the senate and, as an augur, convinced the senate to declare the laws of Drusus null and void because they were carried against the auspices. Nothing else is recorded of his consulship, except that he recommended the senate to lay claim to Egypt, in consequence of its having been left to them by the will of Alexander.RR71972. Bronze quadrans, Crawford 293/2, Sydenham 552, BMCRR II Italy 535, Babelon Marcia 13, RBW Collection 1133, SRCV I 1185, gF, corrosion, weight 6.918 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 113 - 112 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets (mark of value) behind, L PHILIPPVS upwards before; reverse galley prow right, cock standing right on deck above, three pellets (mark of value) before, ROMA below; from the Andrew McCabe Collection; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 8, lot 523; ex ArtCoins Roma auction 4, lot 824; rare; $115.00 (€100.05)
Roman Republic, M. Atilius Saranus, 148 B.C.
In Roman mythology, Janus (or Ianus) was the god of gates, doors, doorways, and of beginnings and endings. Janus is believed to be one of the few major deities in Roman mythology that does not have a Greek origin or counterpart.RR71952. Bronze as, Crawford 214/2a, Sydenham 399, BMCRR I Rome 692, SRCV I 727, gF, weight 28.832 g, maximum diameter 33.6 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 148 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Janus, I (mark of value) above; reverse galley prow right, M•ATILI above, I (mark of value) right, ROMA below; from the Andrew McCabe Collection, ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 10, 547; $110.00 (€95.70)
Roman Republic, Ti. Minucius c.f. Augurinus, 134 B.C.
Saturn was an ancient Roman god of fertility, especially of agriculture and usually carries a sickle as his symbol. Saturday is named for Saturn. Romans celebrated the Feast of Saturnalia at the Winter Solstice. Homes were decorated with greenery. Friends visited and exchanged gifts. Slaves and masters ate at the same table. War and executions were postponed. Aspects of Saturnalia survive today in Christmas celebrations and carnival festivals around the world. RR69081. Bronze semis, Crawford 243/2, Sydenham 495 (R4), SRCV I 870, F, some corrosion, weight 7.740 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 134 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Saturn right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse galley prow right, lituus over TI·AVGVR above, S (mark of value) on right, ROMA below; from the Andrew McCabe Collection .; rare; $105.00 (€91.35)
Roman Republic, Mn. Marcius M. f., 134 B.C.
In 134 B.C., Hipparchus discovered the precession of the equinoxes, the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's axis of rotation, which, similar to a wobbling top, traces out a pair of cones joined at their apices in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years. Virtually all of the writings of Hipparchus are lost, including his work on precession. They are mentioned by Ptolemy, who explains precession as the rotation of the celestial sphere around a motionless Earth. It is reasonable to presume that Hipparchus, similarly to Ptolemy, thought of precession in geocentric terms as a motion of the heavens, rather than of the Earth.RR71974. Bronze triens, Crawford 245/2, Sydenham 501, BMCRR I Rome 1014, Babelon Marcia 9, RBW Collection 1010, SRCV I 1012, gF, corrosion, weight 6.639 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 134 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets (mark of value) above; reverse prow of galley right, M•MARCI / MN F (MAR and MNF ligate) in two lines above, four pellets (mark of value) before, ROMA below; from the Andrew McCabe Collection, ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 8, lot 507; very rare; $100.00 (€87.00)
Roman Republic, C. Minucius Augurinus, 135 B.C.
In 135 B.C., the First Servile War began. After the Second Punic war, an over-abundance of slaves caused them to be ill-fed by their masters, and they soon began to provide for themselves by robbery. Several decades of increasing tension finally broke out into war. The rebel leader was Eunus, a slave whose master had hired him out as a magician for parties. Eunus would humorously tell his audiences that he was a prophet, that someday he would be king, the classes would be reversed, and aristocrats would killed or enslaved - except for those that tipped him for the show. During the revolt he did spare the lives of at least some aristocrats who had tipped him. The war lasted until 132 B.C. Eunus was captured, but he died before he could be punished. This was the first of three slave revolts against the Roman Republic; the last and the most famous was led by Spartacus.RR69085. Bronze quadrans, Crawford 243/4, Sydenham 495b, BMCRR Rome 956, SRCV I 1148, VF, small flan, weight 4.810 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 135 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, in Nemean Lion's scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow of galley right, C•AVG above, three pellets before, ROMA below; scarce; $95.00 (€82.65)
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