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Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D.
Juno was the patron deity of Trebonianus Gallus. The epithet Martialis literally means "of or belonging to Mars" or "warlike," but the depictions of Juno Martialis on the coins are not warlike. The epithet may refer to Juno as the mother of Mars. Or perhaps she is Juno of March - her festival was on 7 March. Perhaps the title refers to her temple in the Campus Martius, the old "Field of Mars" down by the Tiber. She is sometimes equated with Juno Perusina, as Perugia was where Trebonianus Gallus came from, and as such is sometimes called Juno Martialis Perusina by modern scholars. SH66386. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC IV 110a corr. (peacock), Banti 14 corr. (same), Cohen V 50, SRCV III 9670, Hunter - (p. cv), VF, nice patina, attractive style, weight 13.008 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 251 - 253 A.D.; obverseIMP CAES C VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverse IVNONI MARTIALIS, Shrine of Juno Martialis: domed, distyle rotunda with Corinthian columns, garlands hanging below dome; statue of Juno seated facing within holding two stalks of grain in extended right; ex Triskeles Auction, lot 164, auction 2 (25 Apr 2013); $120.00 SALE PRICE $95.00
Numerian, February or March 283 - October or November 284 A.D.
The ruins of Antioch on the Orontes lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch's geographic, military and economic location, particularly the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road, benefited its occupants, and eventually it rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East and as the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch is called "the cradle of Christianity," for the pivotal early role it played in the emergence of the faith. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. Its residents are known as Antiochenes. Once a great metropolis of half a million people, it declined to insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes and a change in trade routes following the Mongol conquests, which then no longer passed through Antioch from the far east.
RA84360. Billonantoninianus, RIC V 378 (S), Cohen VI 115, Hunter IV 14 var. (9th officina), cf. SRCV III 12256 (...P F NOB C), aF, well centered, rough, encrustation, weight 3.752 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, as caesar, Nov/Dec 282 - Feb/Mar 283 A.D; obverse IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseVIRTVS AVGGG (valor of the three emperors), emperor standing right, holding scepter, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, * above, Γ in center, XXI in exergue; scarce; $28.00 SALE PRICE $25.20
Islamic, Seljuqs Sultanate of Rum, Kaykhusraw I, 1192 - 1196, 1204-1210, Brockage
Kaykhusraw I, the eleventh and youngest son of Kilij Arslan II, succeeded his father in 1192. He ruled 1192-1196 and 1205-1211, but had to fight his brothers for control of the Sultanate. He married a granddaughter of the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos. In 1207 he seized Antalya from its Frankish garrison and furnished the Seljuq state with a port on the Mediterranean. According to Niketas Choniates, he was killed in single combat by Theodore I Laskaris, the emperor of Nicaea, during the Battle of Antioch on the Meander.
ME65438. Bronze fals, cf. Album 1202, Mitchiner WOI 957, Zeno OCD 121946 (all same type, not brockages), VF, brockage, weight 3.135 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, obverse horseman right, sword in right at shoulder, star at each side of his head, ornament below; reverseincuse of obverse (normal reverse is Arabic script); $85.00 SALE PRICE $76.50
The Coinage of the Ayyubids
BW40234. The Coinage of the Ayyubids by Paul Balog, Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication Number 12, London, 1980, 334 pages, 50 plates, hardcover, dust jacket, new; $40.00 SALE PRICE $36.00
Kingdom of Sicily, Henry VI (HRE), 1194 - 1197
Henry VI was King of Germany from 1190 - 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 - 1197, and King of Sicily from 1194 - 1197. In 1197, his German soldiers mercilessly suppressed a revolt in Italy, especially in southern Sicily. In this same year, Henry prepared for a Crusade, but, on 28 September, he died of malaria (or he may have been poisoned) in Messina. His son, Frederick II, inherited both the Kingdom of Sicily and the Imperial crown. ME72172. Billondirham fraction, Biaggi 1780 (R2), Spahr 2 (RR); MIR Sicily 457 (R); MEC Italy III, 477, VF, typical tight flan, slightly off-center, weight 0.944 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Palermo mint, 1194 - 1195; obverse Arabic legend in Nashki script: Harir / quaysar / aughust (HenryCaesarAugustus); reverse + / Z REX / SICI +; rare; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00
Normans, Kingdom of Sicily, William II, 1166 - 1189 A.D.
Secluded and pleasure-loving, William II, the Good, seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign was marked by an ambitious foreign policy and vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa. ME77194. Bronze follaro, MEC Italy III 432, VF, weight 2.208 g, maximum diameter 12.6 mm, die axis 0o, Messina mint, obverse facing lionhead; reverse Arabic legend "al-malik / Ghulyalim / al-thani" (King William 2nd); $65.00 SALE PRICE $58.50
Islamic, Umayyad Caliphate, Damascus, c. 680s A.D., Arab-Byzantine Coinage
While the Muslims administered the city, the population of Damascus remained mostly Christian—Eastern Orthodox and Monophysite—with a growing community of Muslims from Mecca, Medina, and the Syrian Desert. The governor assigned to the city which had been chosen as the capital of Islamic Syria was Mu'awiya I. After the death of Caliph Ali in 661, Mu'awiya was chosen as the caliph of the expanding Islamic empire. Because of the vast amounts of assets his clan, the Umayyads, owned in the city and because of its traditional economic and social links with the Hijaz as well as the Christian Arab tribes of the region, Mu'awiya established Damascus as the capital of the entire Caliphate. With the ascension of Caliph Abd al-Malik in 685, an Islamic coinage system was introduced and all of the surplus revenue of the Caliphate's provinces were forwarded to the treasury of Damascus. Arabic was also established as the official language, giving the Muslim minority of the city an advantage over the Aramaic-speaking Christians in administrative affairs. It is critical to note that, at the time Damascus was conquered by the Muslims, the majority of Arabs were either pagans or Christians. Damascus itself was predominantly Aramaic with Arab speaking people. BZ77973. Bronze fals, Walker BMC 7; SICA I 560; DOCAB 49; Album 3517.1 (S), Mitchiner WOI -, aF, rough, weight 3.450 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, Dimashq (Damascus) mint, c. 650 A.D.; obverse DAMACKOC, emperor standing facing, long crossscepter in left hand, globus cruciger in right hand, bird standing right atop T on left, ΛEO curving downward on right; reverse large M (40 nummi), rho-crossmonogram above, arc over horizontal line below, ANO downward on left, X/Y/II (frozen pseudo regnal year 17) in three lines on right, ∆AM (Damascus) in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce; $27.00 SALE PRICE $24.30
Crusaders(?), Imitative of Zangids of Syria, c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of Syria, Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, Syria), 1146 - 1173 (Spengler-Sayles 73, Album 1850). That type was itself also imitative, copying a Byzantinefollis of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 (DOC III 8, SBCV 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the crusaders, this is one. BZ77974. Bronze follis, Malloy Crusaders -; cf. Spengler-Sayles 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), Album 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the Crusaders), F, desert patina, tight flan, weight 2.798 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; obverse two Byzantinestyle imperial figures (Constantine X and Eudocia) standing facing, supporting between them labarum resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of Kuficlegend inner left; reverse Christ standing facing, nimbate, book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, IC - XC flanking head, blundered imitation of legend around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00
Islamic, Umayyad Caliphate, Damascus, c. 680s A.D., Arab-Byzantine Coinage
Damascus is the capital of Syria and is now, due to civil war fighting in Aleppo, most likely the largest city of Syria. First settled in the second millennium B.C., Damascus was the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. During Ottoman rule, the city decayed while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. Damascus today is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant. BZ77975. Bronze fals, Walker BMC 7; SICA I 560; DOCAB 49; Album 3517.1 (S), Mitchiner WOI -, Fair, porous, weight 3.449 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Dimashq (Damascus) mint, c. 650 A.D.; obverse DAMACKOC, emperor standing facing, long crossscepter in left hand, globus cruciger in right hand, bird standing right atop T on left, ΛEO curving downward on right; reverse large M (40 nummi), rho-crossmonogram above, arc over horizontal line below, ANO downward on left, X/Y/II (frozen pseudo regnal year 17) in three lines on right, ∆AM (Damascus) in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce; $30.00 SALE PRICE $27.00
Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.
The first Rome mint portrait sestertiustype, and a highly sought after reversetype. SH84794. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC I 33; BMCRE p. 152, 36; BnF II 47; Cohen I 4; SRCV I 1800, gF, excellent centering and strike, attractive portrait, patina worn and scraped on high points, bumps and scratches, weight 27.881 g, maximum diameter 35.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left; reverseAGRIPPINADRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; rare; $2520.00 SALE PRICE $2268.00
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