A sum of Greek numerals E (5) and ∆ (4) is used to indicate the 9th in order to avoid using Θ (9). Because they sound alike, theta (Θ) was associated with Thanatos, the daemon personification of death. Theta used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times. It survives on potsherds used by Athenians voting for the death penalty. Also, after a funeral "Nine Days of Sorrow," were solemnly observed by the family. Romans avoided the use of theta, as we avoid the use of the number 13 today.RL84211. , , 2, 325; 184; 12362; VI/2, p. 52; -, gVF, much , and struck on a , 3.684 g, maximum 20.3 mm, 180o, 9th , Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 4th emission, May - June 284 A.D.; IMP C CARINVS , and right, slight drapery on far shoulder; (valor of the two emperors), Emperor standing right, short in left hand, facing (or ) on right, standing left, with right hand offering on globe, long vertical behind in left hand, E∆ in lower center, XXI in ; $100.00 (€89.00)
, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D., Roman Provincial
was the Greek personification of Hope. According the Hesiod's famous story, was the last to escape the Pandora's box. It can be debated whether she was really about "hope" as we understand it, or rather mere "expectation." In art, is normally depicted carrying flowers or a , but on coins she is almost invariably depicted holding a flower in her extended right hand, and raising a fold of her dress with her left hand. Elpis' Roman equivalent was . She was also named "ultima dea" - the last resort of men.
RX77915. , 4721, 1919, 3180, 954, 4779, VF, , little off-center and struck with a broken die, corrosion, 7.725 g, maximum 21.5 mm, 15o, mint, 29 Aug 283 - 28 Aug 284 A.D.; A K M A KAPINOC CEB, laureate and right, from the front; standing left, flower in right hand, raising drapery with left hand, upper right, L - B (year 2) flanking across ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex , ex Numismatics; ; $40.00 (€35.60)
When this coin was struck in 282, was the Prince of Youth, full of promise. Later he would be remembered as one of the worst . This infamy is, however, likely fiction, supported by himself. For example, the (unreliable) Augusta has marrying nine wives, while neglecting to mention his only real wife, , by whom he had a son, Nigrinianus. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as . His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions.RS71588. , IV 390 (LV 4227); , 2, 182; 97; 71; , p. 28; 12302, EF, most remains, and struck, nice portrait, some , 4.627 g, maximum 23.0 mm, 0o, 4th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 2nd issue as , 282 - 283 A.D.; CARINVS , , draped, and right; (to the Prince of Youth), standing left, globe in extended right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand, bound captive seated left at feet on left, QXXI in ; $180.00 (€160.20)
In Roman mythology, was the minor goddess of trade and honest merchants. was also the personification of the virtues equity and fairness of the emperor ( ). The , a natural emblem of equity, express righteousness. The signifies the prosperity which results from and . RA73892. , 212, 533, p. 22, 8, 12339, gVF, nice portrait, well struck, some , 3.774 g, maximum 22.7 mm, 0o, ( , France) mint, 283 A.D.; IMP C CARINVS AVG, , draped, and right; AEQVITAS (equity of the two emperors), standing slightly left, in right hand, in left hand, A (1st ) right; ex J. ; $95.00 (€84.55)
The Roman poet Ovid tells the story of the : 'Most beings spring from other individuals; but there is a certain kind which reproduces itself. The Assyrians call it the . It does not live on fruit or flowers, but on frankincense and odoriferous gums. When it has lived five hundred years, it builds itself a nest in the branches of an oak, or on the top of a tree. In this it collects cinnamon and spikenard, and myrrh, and of these materials builds a pile on which it deposits itself, and dying, breathes out its last breath amidst odors. From the body of the parent bird, a young issues forth, destined to live as long a life as its predecessor. When this has grown up and gained sufficient strength, it lifts its nest from the tree (its own cradle and its parent's sepulcher), and carries it to the city of in , and deposits it in the temple of the Sun.'RB50696. , , 2, 244; 10; , pp. 38 - 39; 12340; -, aVF, 3.089 g, maximum 21.9 mm, 180o, 3rd , mint, 5th emission, 284 - 285 A.D.; IMP CARINVS , and right; AETERNIT AVG, standing left, on globe in right hand, raising robe with left, KAΓ in ; $36.00 (€32.04)
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