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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Crisis and Decline ▸ SaloninaView Options:  |  |  | 

Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D., Wife of Gallienus

Salonina was the wife of emperor Gallienus. A very beautiful and intelligent woman, she was extremely loyal to her husband. Opinion is divided as to whether she was murdered in the purge of Gallienus family after his murder, or if she survived.


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The empire is history but Rome is still today, the Eternal City.

During the Early Middle Ages, the population fell to a mere 20,000, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation.
RS65819. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1605c (7 spec.), RIC V 67; RSC IV 103, SRCV III 10651 var. (star or wreath above, uncertain Syrian mint), Hunter IV 35 ff. var. (same), VF, centered, toned, porous, weight 4.017 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, crescent behind shoulders; reverse ROMAE AETERNAE (to eternal Rome), emperor on left standing right, receiving Victory from Roma, seated left, spear vertical behind in her left hand, grounded shield behind against her near side; $35.00 (€29.75)
 


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The animal appears to have the beard of a goat but on some examples branched antlers are clear. It is an odd deer.
RA84359. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 725cc, Hunter IV S21, RSC IV 70, RIC V S16, SRCV III 10643, VF, well centered on a tight flan, porosity, weight 4.111 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse COR SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back and top of head, thin crescent behind shoulders; reverse IVNONI CONS AVG (to Juno protector of the Empress), hind walking left, ∆ in exergue; $80.00 (€68.00)
 


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Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.
RA77905. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1671, RIC V S86, RSC III 113, Hunter IV 33, SRCV III 10654, Choice VF, excellent centering, toned, earthen encrustation, weight 4.282 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, bust resting on thin crescent; reverse VENVS AVG, Venus standing left, helmet in right hand, transverse spear in left hand, shield at side behind her, PXV (= TR P XV) in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $36.00 (€30.60)
 


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The epithet Genetrix identifies Venus as the goddess of motherhood and domesticity. Venus is shown consulting with Cupid, her partner in her better known role as the goddess of love.
RS65800. Silvered antoninianus, Göbl MIR 245b, Cunetio 993 (91 spec.), RIC V S30 corr. (holds helmet or apple), RSC IV 121a (same), SRCV V 10657 (same), Hunter IV - (p. lxxii), gF, white metal, edge cracks, marks, porous, weight 2.973 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 45o, 6th officina, Rome mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, thin crescent behind shoulders; reverse VENVS GENETRIX (Mother Venus), Venus standing left, child in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, a second child at feet on left standing right reaching up to her, VI right; $27.00 (€22.95)
 


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RS65803. Silvered antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1302r, RIC V S61 (Milan), RSC IV 51, Hunter III S22 var. (PVBLICA), SRCV III 10635,, F, full circles centering, struck with a worn reverse die, weight 3.786 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 262 - 263 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse FELICIT PVBL, Felicitas standing slightly left, head left, legs crossed, short caduceus in right hand, leaning with left arm on column; $20.00 (€17.00)
 


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It was Sulla who in a dream first saw Venus as Venus Victrix (victorious Venus), with the weapons of Mars. He made her to his personal patroness. Pompey was inaugurating the cult of Venus Victrix in Rome. In the night before the battle of Pharsalus 48 B.C. Pompey was dreaming of Venus Victrix - seemingly a lucky sign -, whereas Caesar was sacrificing to Venus Genetrix, but issued as watchword 'Venus Victrix', and defeated Pompey!
BB65805. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1313r, RSC IV 127, Hunter IV - (p. lxxiiii), cf. RIC V S67 (MS in ex.), SRCV III 10659 (same), Cunetio 1768 (same), EF, nice portrait, toned, tight flan, porous, weight 3.055 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, c. 265 - 267 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse VENVS VICT (victorious Venus), Venus standing half left, helmet in right hand, transverse spear in left hand, left elbow resting on grounded shield beside her; not in RIC; $40.00 (€34.00)
 


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Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Moneta, Juno Sospita, and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Regina, "Juno the Queen." Juno is usually shown holding a patera, scepter or a statuette of Athena, and is often accompanied by a peacock.
RS65807. Billon antoninianus, RIC V p. 200, 92; RSC IV 67b; SRCV III 10641; Göbl MIR 1619m var. (crescent vice star), VF, well centered, porous, reverse legend weak, weight 3.145 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 263 - 264 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, bust resting on thin crescent; reverse IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, patera in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, peacock left at feet on left, star upper left; $40.00 (€34.00)
 


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This type was struck during Salonina's lifetime, so the unusual reverse legend was not struck in memorial. There has been some fanciful speculation that "IN PACE," meaning "in peace," was a Christian phrase indicating the empress had converted to Christianity.
RB65809. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1377e, RIC V S58, RSC IV 17, SRCV III 10626 var. (mint mark), Hunter IV S27 var. (obv. legend), aVF, slightly ragged flan, weight 3.539 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 266 - 268 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse AVG IN PACE, Salonina seated left, olive-branch downward in right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand, MS in exergue; $60.00 (€51.00)
 


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This type was struck during Salonina's lifetime, so the unusual reverse legend was not struck in memorial. There has been some fanciful speculation that "IN PACE," meaning "in peace," was a Christian phrase indicating the empress had converted to Christianity.
RB65814. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1377e, RIC V S58, RSC IV 17, SRCV III 10626 var. (mint mark), Hunter IV S27 var. (obv. legend), gF, much silvering, weight 3.008 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 266 - 268 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse AVG IN PACE, Salonina seated left, olive-branch downward in right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand, MS in exergue; $40.00 (€34.00)
 


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This type was struck during Salonina's lifetime, so the unusual reverse legend was not struck in memorial. There has been some fanciful speculation that "IN PACE," meaning "in peace," was a Christian phrase indicating the empress had converted to Christianity.
RS65817. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1231a, RIC V S60, RSC IV 20, Hunter III 25, Cunetio 1535, SRCV III 10626, gF, toned white metal, green encrustations, weight 2.153 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 266 - 267 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse AVGVSTA IN PACE (Augusta in peace), Pax seated left on throne without back, olive branch downward in right, long transverse scepter in right; rare; $70.00 (€59.50)
 










OBVERSE LEGENDS

CORNELIASALONINAAVGVSTA
CORNELIASALONINAAVG
CORNELSALONINAAVG
CORNSALONINAAVG
CORSALONINA
CORSALONINAAVG
SALONINAAVG


REFERENCES

Banti, A. and L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Besly, E. and R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941).
Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., Sydenham and Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Seaby, H.A. & D.R. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Schaad, D. & J. Lafaurie. Le trésor d'Eauze. (Toulouse, 1992). Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Thursday, December 14, 2017.
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Roman Coins of Salonina