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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Crisis and Decline ▸ SaloninaView Options:  |  |  | 

Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D., Wife of Gallienus

Salonina was the wife of emperor Gallienus. A very beautiful and intelligent woman, she was extremely loyal to her husband. Opinion is divided as to whether she was murdered in the purge of Gallienus family after his murder, or if she survived.


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The animal appears to have the beard of a goat but on some examples branched antlers are clear. It is an odd deer.
RA84359. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 725cc, Hunter IV S21, RSC IV 70, RIC V S16, SRCV III 10643, VF, well centered on a tight flan, porosity, weight 4.111 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse COR SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back and top of head, thin crescent behind shoulders; reverse IVNONI CONS AVG (to Juno protector of the Empress), hind walking left, ∆ in exergue; $90.00 (€80.10)
 


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Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.
RA77905. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1671, RIC V S86, RSC III 113, Hunter IV 33, SRCV III 10654, Choice VF, excellent centering, toned, earthen encrustation, weight 4.282 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, bust resting on thin crescent; reverse VENVS AVG, Venus standing left, helmet in right hand, transverse spear in left hand, shield at side behind her, PXV (= TR P XV) in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€35.60)
 


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RA79887. Fouree silver plated antoninianus, cf. Göbl MIR 903c, RIC V J6 (Lugdunum), Hunter IV J22, SRCV III 10636, RSC IV 50 var. (obv. leg., Lugdunum) (billon, official, Cologne mint, 257-259), F, plated, corrosion, edge crack, weight 2.561 g, maximum diameter 20..4 mm, die axis 0o, criminal counterfeiter's mint, c. 257 - 265 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas seated left, caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $16.00 (€14.24)
 


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Although many coin references classify Fecunditas as a personification of fertility rather than as an actual deity, Fecunditas was recognized as a Roman divinity by Nero, who erected a statue to her. Tacitus notes that upon the birth of Claudia Neronis, the senate decreed the construction of a temple of Fertility to be built at Antium. Fecunditas is always portrayed as a female figure holding a child, or children and often a scepter, cornucopia, palm branch or caduceus. Sometimes the children are depicted standing at her feet. Coins portraying her usually advertise the fertility of the imperial family.
RS65788. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 935t (Mediolanum), RIC V J26 (Rome), RSC IV 44, Hunter III J8 (Rome), SRCV III 10634 var. (Rome, officina ∆), F, well centered, reverse struck with a very worn die, weight 3.011 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Mediolanum (Milan) or Rome mint, c. 258 - 260 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse FECVNDITAS AVG, Fecunditas standing facing, head right, reaching down with right hand to child at her feet, infant in left hand; $25.00 (€22.25)
 


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Venus (Aphrodite) started the Trojan War with a golden apple. When she failed to receive a wedding invitation, she maliciously deposited a golden apple inscribed "For the fairest" on the banquet table. The goddesses argued who deserved this prize. It was determined the most handsome mortal in the world, a noble Trojan youth named Paris, would decide. Each of the three finalists offered Paris a bribe. Hera promised he would rule the world. Athena said she would make him victorious in battle. Aphrodite guaranteed the love of the most beautiful woman in the world. This was Helen, who was married to the king of Sparta. Paris awarded the golden apple to Aphrodite. Aphrodite enabled Paris to elope with Helen, Helen of Troy. Helen's husband raised a Greek army to retrieve his wife, starting the Trojan War.
RS65792. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 904c, RSC IV 134 (Lyon), Hunter III S19 (Rome), Cunetio 735 (64 spec.), Elmer 98, SRCV III 10662, RIC V -, VF, toned, tight ragged flan, flan cracks, small encrustations, weight 3.028 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 45o, Cologne mint, 257 - 259 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse VENVS VICTRIX (victorious Venus), Venus standing right, viewed from behind, nude but for drapery at hips, buttocks exposed, leaning with left elbow on column, apple (or helmet?) in exerguetended right hand, transverse palm on far side in left; not in RIC; $75.00 (€66.75)
 


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The epithet Genetrix identifies Venus as the goddess of motherhood and domesticity. Venus is shown consulting with Cupid, her partner in her better known role as the goddess of love.
RS65800. Silvered antoninianus, Göbl MIR 245b, Cunetio 993 (91 spec.), RIC V S30 corr. (holds helmet or apple), RSC IV 121a (same), SRCV V 10657 (same), Hunter IV - (p. lxxii), gF, white metal, edge cracks, marks, porous, weight 2.973 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 45o, 6th officina, Rome mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, thin crescent behind shoulders; reverse VENVS GENETRIX (Mother Venus), Venus standing left, child in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, a second child at feet on left standing right reaching up to her, VI right; $30.00 (€26.70)
 


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RS65803. Silvered antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1302r, RIC V S61 (Milan), RSC IV 51, Hunter III S22 var. (PVBLICA), SRCV III 10635,, F, full circles centering, struck with a worn reverse die, weight 3.786 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 262 - 263 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse FELICIT PVBL, Felicitas standing slightly left, head left, legs crossed, short caduceus in right hand, leaning with left arm on column; $25.00 (€22.25)
 


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It was Sulla who in a dream first saw Venus as Venus Victrix (victorious Venus), with the weapons of Mars. He made her to his personal patroness. Pompey was inaugurating the cult of Venus Victrix in Rome. In the night before the battle of Pharsalus 48 B.C. Pompey was dreaming of Venus Victrix - seemingly a lucky sign -, whereas Caesar was sacrificing to Venus Genetrix, but issued as watchword 'Venus Victrix', and defeated Pompey!
BB65805. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1313r, RSC IV 127, Hunter IV - (p. lxxiiii), cf. RIC V S67 (MS in ex.), SRCV III 10659 (same), Cunetio 1768 (same), EF, nice portrait, toned, tight flan, porous, weight 3.055 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, c. 265 - 267 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse VENVS VICT (victorious Venus), Venus standing half left, helmet in right hand, transverse spear in left hand, left elbow resting on grounded shield beside her; not in RIC; $50.00 (€44.50)
 


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Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Moneta, Juno Sospita and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Regina, "Juno the Queen." Juno is usually shown holding a patera, scepter or a statuette of Athena, and is often accompanied by a peacock.
RS65807. Billon antoninianus, RIC V p. 200, 92; RSC IV 67b; SRCV III 10641; Göbl MIR 1619m var. (crescent vice star), VF, well centered, porous, reverse legend weak, weight 3.145 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 263 - 264 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, bust resting on thin crescent; reverse IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, patera in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, peacock left at feet on left, star upper left; $45.00 (€40.05)
 


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This type was struck during Salonina's lifetime, so the unusual reverse legend was not struck in memorial. There has been some fanciful speculation that "IN PACE," meaning "in peace," was a Christian phrase indicating the empress had converted to Christianity.
RB65809. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1377e, RIC V S58, RSC IV 17, SRCV III 10626 var. (mint mark), Hunter IV S27 var. (obv. legend), aVF, slightly ragged flan, weight 3.539 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 266 - 268 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse AVG IN PACE, Salonina seated left, olive-branch downward in right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand, MS in exergue; $70.00 (€62.30)
 










OBVERSE LEGENDS

CORNELIASALONINAAVGVSTA
CORNELIASALONINAAVG
CORNELSALONINAAVG
CORNSALONINAAVG
CORSALONINA
CORSALONINAAVG
SALONINAAVG


REFERENCES

Banti, A. and L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Besly, E. and R. Bland. The Cunetio Treasure: Roman Coinage of the Third Century AD. (London, 1983).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Volume 5: Gordian I to Valerian II. (Paris, 1885).
Elmer, G. "Die Münzprägung der gallischen Kaiser von Postumus bis Tetricus in Köln, Trier und Mailand." in Bonner Jahrbücher 146 (1941).
Göbl, R. et al. Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I/Gallienus/Saloninus (253/268), Regalianus (260) un Macrianus/Quietus (260/262). (Vienna, 2000).
Mattingly, H., Sydenham and Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, Part I, Valerian to Florian. (London, 1927).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Seaby, H.A. & D.R. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume IV, Gordian III to Postumus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Schaad, D. & J. Lafaurie. Le trésor d'Eauze. (Toulouse, 1992). Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Wednesday, February 22, 2017.
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Roman Coins of Salonina