was the Roman personification of Hope. In art is normally depicted carrying flowers or a , but on coins she is almost invariably depicted holding a flower in her extended right hand, while the left is raising a fold of her dress. She was also named "ultima dea" - for Hope is the last resort of men. On this coin, the , , the designated successor of the emperor, is identified as the hope for the future of the Roman people.RA85488. , 1707u (Samosata), 36 (Antioch), 95a (Antioch), 10775 (uncertain Syrian), - (p. liii), VF/F, , portrait, , porous, rough, 3.449 g, maximum 21.2 mm, 180o, uncertain Syrian mint, as , Jan - summer 260 A.D.; SALON VALERIANVS , , draped, and right; (the hope of the public), on left, raising skirt, presenting flower to prince, above; $160.00 (€142.40)
In Roman religion, was the goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony. The cult of Augusta ("Majestic Harmony") was of special importance to the imperial household. She is usually depicted wearing a long cloak and holding a (sacrificial ), a (symbol of prosperity), or a (symbol of peace).RS65808.
, 1691p (Samosata), 10630 (uncertain Syrian mint), 63 (Antioch), 31, F, porous, both sides just slightly off-center, 4.162 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 180o, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.; AVG, diademed and draped right, crescent behind; (harmony between the two emperors), emperor and empress standing , clasping ; $21.00 (€18.69)
The empire is history but is today, the Eternal City.
During the Early Middle Ages, the population fell to a mere 20,000, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation.RS65819. , 1605c (7 spec.), 67; 103, 10651 var. ( or above, uncertain Syrian mint), 35 ff. var. (same), VF, centered, , porous, 4.017 g, maximum 21.8 mm, 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; AVG, diademed and draped right, crescent behind shoulders; (to eternal ), emperor on left standing right, receiving from , seated left, spear vertical behind in her left hand, grounded behind against her near side; $40.00 (€35.60)
The animal appears to have the beard of a goat but on some examples branched antlers are clear. It is an odd deer.RA84359. , 725cc, S21, 70, S16, 10643, VF, on a , , 4.111 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 180o, 4th , mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; COR AVG, draped right, wearing , hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back and top of , thin crescent behind shoulders; (to protector of the Empress), hind walking left, ∆ in ; $90.00 (€80.10)
was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.RA77905. , 1671, S86, 113, 33, 10654, VF, excellent centering, , earthen encrustation, 4.282 g, maximum 20.8 mm, 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 267 A.D.; AVG, draped right, wearing , hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of , resting on thin crescent; , standing left, helmet in right hand, transverse spear in left hand, at side behind her, PXV (= TR P XV) in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $40.00 (€35.60)
Although many coin references classify as a personification of fertility rather than as an actual deity, was recognized as a Roman divinity by , who erected a statue to her. notes that upon the birth of Neronis, the senate decreed the construction of a temple of Fertility to be built at . is always portrayed as a female figure holding a child, or children and often a , , branch or . Sometimes the children are depicted standing at her feet. Coins portraying her usually advertise the fertility of the imperial family. RS65788. , 935t (Mediolanum), J26 ( ), 44, J8 ( ), 10634 var. ( , ∆), F, , struck with a very worn die, 3.011 g, maximum 22.4 mm, 180o, Mediolanum ( ) or mint, c. 258 - 260 A.D.; AVG, draped right, wearing , hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of , crescent behind shoulders; , standing facing, right, reaching down with right hand to child at her feet, infant in left hand; $25.00 (€22.25)
(Aphrodite) started the Trojan War with a golden . When she failed to receive a wedding invitation, she maliciously deposited a golden inscribed "For the fairest" on the banquet table. The goddesses argued who deserved this prize. It was determined the most handsome mortal in the world, a noble Trojan youth named , would decide. Each of the three finalists offered a bribe. promised he would rule the world. said she would make him victorious in battle. Aphrodite guaranteed the love of the most beautiful woman in the world. This was Helen, who was married to the of Sparta. awarded the golden to Aphrodite. Aphrodite enabled to elope with Helen, Helen of Troy. Helen's husband raised a Greek army to retrieve his wife, starting the Trojan War.RS65792. Silver , 904c, 134 ( ), S19 ( ), 735 (64 spec.), 98, 10662, -, VF, , tight , , small encrustations, 3.028 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 45o, mint, 257 - 259 A.D.; AVG, draped right, wearing , hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of , crescent behind shoulders; (victorious ), standing right, viewed from behind, nude but for drapery at hips, buttocks exposed, leaning with left elbow on column, (or helmet?) in exerguetended right hand, transverse on far side in left; ; $75.00 (€66.75)
The epithet identifies as the goddess of motherhood and domesticity. is shown consulting with , her partner in her better known role as the goddess of love.RS65800. , 245b, 993 (91 spec.), S30 (holds helmet or ), 121a (same), 10657 (same), - (p. ), gF, white metal, edge cracks, marks, porous, 2.973 g, maximum 22.1 mm, 45o, 6th , mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; AVG, draped right, wearing , hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of , thin crescent behind shoulders; (Mother ), standing left, child in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, a second child at feet on left standing right reaching up to her, VI right; $30.00 (€26.70)
was the goddess or personification of luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.RS65803. , 1302r, S61 ( ), 51, S22 var. ( ), 10635,, F, full circles centering, struck with a worn die, 3.786 g, maximum 22.6 mm, 0o, Agrippinensis ( , Germany) mint, 262 - 263 A.D.; AVG, draped right, wearing , hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of , crescent behind shoulders; FELICIT PVBL, standing slightly left, left, legs crossed, short in right hand, leaning with left arm on column; $25.00 (€22.25)
It was who in a dream first saw as (victorious ), with the weapons of . He made her to his personal patroness. Pompey was inaugurating the cult of in . In the night before the battle of 48 B.C. Pompey was dreaming of - seemingly a lucky sign -, whereas was sacrificing to , but issued as watchword 'Venus Victrix', and defeated Pompey!BB65805. , 1313r, 127, - (p. lxxiiii), cf. S67 (MS .), 10659 (same), 1768 (same), EF, nice portrait, , , porous, 3.055 g, maximum 19.5 mm, 180o, 1st , Mediolanum ( , Italy) mint, c. 265 - 267 A.D.; AVG, draped right, wearing , hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of , crescent behind shoulders; (victorious ), standing half left, helmet in right hand, transverse spear in left hand, left elbow resting on grounded beside her; ; $50.00 (€44.50)
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