Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312 - 281 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Seleukos (Seleucus) founded the Seleukid Empire and the Seleukid dynasty which ruled until Pompey made it a Roman province in 63 B.C. Seleukos was never one of Alexander the Great's principal generals but he commanded the royal bodyguard during the Indian campaign. In the division of the empire after Alexander's death Seleukos did not receive a satrapy. Instead, he served under the regent Perdikkas until the latter's murder in 321 or 320. Seleukos was then appointed of . Five years later Monophthalmus (the One-eyed) forced him to flee, but he returned with support from Ptolemy. He later added and Media to his territory and defeated both and . He was succeeded by his son Antiochus I.
SL84532. Silver , I 94(6)b, 3359, 1511, 10g, NGC F, Strike 5/5, Surface 3/5 (4164845-004), 16.87 g, maximum 27.7 mm, 255o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 311 - 300 B.C.; of Herakles right, wearing scalp headdress; AΛEΞAN∆POY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Zeus seated left on throne, right leg drawn back, in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, and A (control ) left, M (control symbol) under throne; NGC certified (slabbed), from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; $350.00 (€311.50)
Armenian Kingdom, Tigranes II the Great, 95 - 56 B.C.
Tigranes was called "Tigranes the Great" by Plutarch. The "King of Kings" never appeared in public without having four kings attending him. At its height, Tigranes' empire extended from the Pontic Alps to and from the Caspian to the Mediterranean. In 83 B.C., the Syrians offered him the crown and after conquering and , he effectively ended the Seleucid Empire. His southern reached as far as Akko-Ptolemais. The first Armenian ruler to issue coins, he adopted the Seleucid tradition and struck coins at Antioch and during his occupation of from 83 to 69 B.C. In 66 B.C., Pompey advanced into with Tigranes' own son as an ally. Tigranes, now almost 75 years old, surrendered. Pompey treated him generously and returned of his kingdom in return for 6,000 talents of silver. His unfaithful son was sent back to Rome as a prisoner. Tigranes continued to rule as an ally of Rome until his death in 55 B.C.
Kingdom of Commagene, Iotape, 38 - 72 A.D.
Iotape was the daughter of Antiochus III and Iotapa, the and queen of Commagene. Her parents were full-blooded siblings and direct descendants of the Seleucid kings. Iotapa and her brother Antiochus IV were very young when their father died in 17 A.D. agreed with the citizens of Commagene to make their Kingdom a of the Roman province of . From 17 until 38, Iotapa and her brother were raised in Rome, members of the remarkable court of . was a niece of and the youngest daughter of . She was very influential and supervised her of various princes and princesses, assisting in the political preservation of the Empire’s borders, and the affairs of client states. In 38, returned Antiochus IV and Iotape to the throne of Commagene. In addition, enlarged their territory with a of bordering on the seacoast and gave them one million gold pieces, the total amount of revenue collected from Commagene during the twenty years that it had been under . The reason for his extraordinary generosity is unknown. Perhaps it was just a stroke of Caligula's well-attested eccentricity. Iotapa and Antiochus IV married and had three children. Iotapa died before Commagene was annexed by in 72. When she died, Antiochus IV founded a town called Iotapa in her (modern Aytap, Turkey).
GB84499. Bronze AE 26,
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy III , 246 - 222 BC
According to Ptolemaic bronze expert Daniel Wolf, "These coins are attributed by to Ake-Ptolemaïs (Acre), but modern finds indicate they are most likely from the near (modern) Bodrum in Turkey." Bodrum was called Halicarnassus, in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of , one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos II Kallinikos, 246 - 226 B.C.
The Seleukid Empire was under attack by when Kallinikos assumed the throne. He lost much of and coastal Anatolia to Ptolemy III. While he was fighting, his mother made his younger brother Antiochos Hierax joint ruler. Kallinikos agreed to partition the empire; however, Hierax wanted it all and Hierax and his Galatian mercenaries defeated him. Kallinikos managed to retain the lands east of the Tauros. The War of the Brothers weakened the empire, permitting regions such as to secede. Anatolia was soon lost. Kallinikos died after a fall from his horse.
GB84515. Bronze AE 16,
Kingdom of , , 305 - 281 B.C.
Although the primary references do not specify the arrangement of the , most specimens of this issue have the have the royal title on the right and Lysimachos' name in the . This variant with the title in the and his name right is very and was first described in the referenced article by Nicholas A. , published in in June 1996.
Judean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C.
John Hyrcanus was the son of Simon the Maccabee and nephew of the folk hero Judah Maccabee, the hero of the Hanukkah story. Soon after Hyrcanus assumed power, the Seleukid kingdom marched on Jerusalem. and Hyrcanus I negotiated a treaty that left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian . John Hyrcanus was the first Jewish ruler to issue coins in his own name.
Ptolemaic Kingdom, VII Thea , 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos,
, in his book The Coinage System of VII and in , assembles evidence dating this to VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references.
GP84918. Bronze 1/8
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VI Dionysus, 144 - c. 142 B.C.
After his father was deposed by Demetrius II, the general Diodotus Tryphon nominated Antiochus VI as . He gained the allegiance of most of the Seleucid domain, including , but was actually only a puppet of the general. He died after "ruling" for two years. He was likely assassinated under orders from Tryphon, who then made himself .GY84863. Bronze
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VI Dionysus, 144 - c. 142 B.C.
After his father was deposed by Demetrius II, the general Diodotus Tryphon nominated Antiochus VI as . He gained the allegiance of most of the Seleucid domain, including , but was actually only a puppet of the general. He died after "ruling" for two years. He was likely assassinated under orders from Tryphon, who then made himself .GY84865. Bronze
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