Pontic Kingdom, Mithradates VI, c. 120 - 63 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Mithradates VI (the Great) was of in northern Anatolia from about 119 to 63 B.C. He was of both Greek and Persian origin, claiming descent from both Alexander the Great and Darius I of . Mithradates is remembered as one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the most prominent generals of the late Roman Republic in the so-called Mithridatic Wars: , Lucullus, and . On this coin, minted in the name of Alexander but with his own portrait replacing that of (Alexander), Mithradates VI presents himself as Alexander's successor, the "defender" of , and the "great liberator" of the Greek world. His propaganda translated the Romans into "barbarians," as the Persian Empire was during Alexander's campaign. How many Greeks genuinely bought into this claim will never be known but it served its purpose. At least partially because of it, Mithradates VI was able to fight the First War with Rome on Greek soil, and maintain the allegiance of . His campaign for the allegiance of the Greeks was aided in no small by his enemy , who allowed his troops to sack and plunder many of the city's most famous treasures to finance his military expenses. Mithridates likely issued this during the second Mithridatic War to pay Scythian and Thracian mercenaries. After Mithradates VI was at last defeated by Pompey and in danger of capture by Rome, he attempted suicide. The poison failed because he had taken daily doses to build immunity. He then made his bodyguard and friend, Bituitus, kill him with a sword.
SH74513. Silver , p. 83, 24 (same dies), 1192, 725, 2681, -, VF, excellent portrait, dark , porous areas, marks, edge bump, 14.463 g, maximum 27.7 mm, 0o, Odessos (Varna, Bulgaria) mint, Second Mithradatic War, 83 - 81 B.C.; Mithradates VI right as in scalp headdress; BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on backless throne, in right, long vertical in left, ΛAK left, O∆H in ; $450.00 (€396.00)
Lifetime Issue.BB74172. Bronze half unit, cf. 338 ff. (various control ), 746 ff. (same), F, green , light corrosion and encrustation, 3.359 g, maximum 14.2 mm, 90o, Macedonian mint, 336 - 323 B.C.; diademed of right; AΛEΞAN∆POY, horse right, uncertain control symbol below; $40.00 (€35.20)
Kingdom of , , 305 - 281 B.C.
GS74866. Silver , 178, 365, -, aVF, rough, bumps and scratches, some corrosion, defect on top near edge, 15.601 g, maximum 28.5 mm, 0o, Herakleia Pontika (Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey) mint, c. 288 - 281 BC; diademed of the deified Alexander right, with horn of ; seated left, in her right hand crowning king's name with wreath, left arm resting on grounded round behind, transverse spear against far side, HP on throne, club left in ; $450.00 (€396.00)
Lifetime Issue.BB75455. Bronze half unit, cf. 338 ff. (various control ), 746 ff. (same), F, green , edge chips, 3.943 g, maximum 15.5 mm, 270o, Macedonian mint, 336 - 323 B.C.; diademed of right; AΛEΞAN∆POY, horse right, uncertain control symbol below; $26.49 (€23.31)
Mesembria, , c. 125 - 65 B.C., Civic Issue in the Types and Name of Alexander the Great
Mesembria, Nesebar Bulgaria today, was a Doric settlement on a Black Sea island just off mainland . Today it is a seaside resort and a man-made isthmus connects it to the coast. The city struck Alexandrine tetradrachms possibly as early as 275 B.C. It is likely Mesembria issued the very last Alexandrine tetradrachms, possibly even under Roman rule, as late as 65 B.C.GS74508. Silver , 1128; 487, gVF, double struck, die damage, edge crack, 33.92 g, maximum 16.348 mm, 0o, Mesambria (Nesebar, Bulgaria) mint, c. 125 - 65 B.C.; of right, wearing Nemean lion-scalp headdress; Zeus seated left, right leg drawn back, in extended right, long vertical behind in left, ∆IO horizontal under arm in inner left , AΛEΞAN∆POY downward on left, BAΣIΛEΩΣ downward on right, MEΣAM below; ex Pecunem Gitbud & Naumann auction 27 (4 Jan 2015), lot 110; $250.00 (€220.00)
The B A on the abbreviates BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Alexander. It may actually refer to Alexander IV, Alexander the Great's son with the Bactrian princess Roxana. After Alexander's death, the Macedonian generals made his infant son and his mentally handicapped brother, Philip III, joint kings. They were both only pawns. The generals divided the empire among themselves. Philip III was imprisoned upon his return to , and executed in 317 B.C. Alexander IV and his mother Roxana were executed in 311 B.C.GB74822. Bronze AE Unit, 782, 376, 1026, II 2146, -, -, F, green , porous, corrosion, 5.494 g, maximum 17.0 mm, 90o, , Amphipolis(?) mint, c. 325 - 310 B.C.; of right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; quiver right atop within bow with string downward, above B A, club left over thunderbolt below; $38.00 (€33.44)
Lifetime Issue.GB74824. Bronze unit, 311, 846, 727, -, -, F, green , centered, corrosion and encrustation, 5.556 g, maximum 17.1 mm, 90o, Macedonian ( ?) mint, c. 328 - c. 323 B.C.; of right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; AΛEΞAN∆POY, bow and quiver above , club over Π below; $38.00 (€33.44)
GB74826. Bronze unit, 284, 1036, 115, -, -, F, porous, 6.754 g, maximum 23.1 mm, 0o, Macedonian mint, c. 328 - 323 B.C.; of right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; AΛEΞAN∆POY, inverted triangle over bow and quiver above , club over a bunch of grapes below; $38.00 (€33.44)
, Antigonos I Monophthalmos, 320 - 306 B.C., In the Name and Types of Alexander the Great
Antigonos I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") was a nobleman and (general and governor) under Alexander the Great. Upon Alexander's death in 323 B.C., he established himself as one of the successors and declared himself in 306 B.C. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy and , answered by also proclaiming themselves kings. found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all of them. He died in battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C. Antigonus' kingdom was divided up, with Seleucus I Nicator gaining the most. His son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, took Macedon, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by Rome in 168 B.C.SH71663. Silver , 2682; Sardes Series XX 399 ff., 641 var ( ), -, -, VF, bold high-relief, centered, , light corrosion and encrustation, 4.080 g, maximum 17.4 mm, 45o, , Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, as of , c. 319 - 315 B.C.; of right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, nude to waist, around waist and legs, right leg drawn back, in extended right, long vertical behind in left, K in a wreath left, under throne; $165.00 (€145.20)
Kingdom of , , 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great
Lampsacus was known as center for worship of Priapus, who was said to have been born there.
notes that Lampsacus was Lysimachos' largest mint in , with approximately 150 known dies. Output from Lampsacus declined when Amphipolis began its extensive coinage c. 288 B.C.SH72207. Silver , 49, 2548 - 2549, 843, 1097 ( ), 399 (Sigeum), gVF, , some marks and , 16.495 g, maximum 13.4 mm, 45o, Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, 297 - 281 B.C.; diademed of deified Alexander the Great wearing the horn of ; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, enthroned left, crowning name in extended right hand, left arm rests on grounded round decorated with , transverse spear against right side, ∆/Ξ inner left , crescent horns left in ; ex Numismatics auction 11, lot 34; $990.00 (€871.20)
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