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Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire

Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

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In 244 A.D., Philip negotiated peace with the Persia in order to deal with the troubles on the Rhine and Danube border. In 245 A.D., he campaigned against and made peace with several Germanic tribes.
RS86650. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 49b, RSC IV 227, Hunter III 16, SRCV III 8969, VF, nice portrait, dark toning, some bumps and scratches, slight porosity, obverse slightly off center, weight 3.756 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA AVG (the victory of the Emperor), Victory advancing right, wreath in right hand, palm frond over left shoulder in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $95.00 (€80.75)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

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The reverse may commemorate Gallienus' victory over the Alemanni at Milan in 259 A.D.
RS86651. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 872d, RIC V-1 J18 (Lugdunum), RSC IV 308 (Lugdunum), SRCV III 10225, Choice VF, excellent portrait, well centered and struck, toned, some die wear, flan edge slightly ragged, weight 4.302 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, c. 259 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GERMANICVS MAX V, two captives seated back-to-back flanking the foot of a trophy of captured arms, their arms tied behind their backs; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; scarce; $90.00 (€76.50)


Otacilia Severa, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

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Juno (Hera) was the wife and older sister of Jupiter (Zeus). She was a goddess of women and marriage. The cow and the peacock were sacred to her.
RS86656. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV Philip I 127 (S), RSC IV 20, Hunter III 6, SRCV III 9152, gVF, well centered, toned, worn dies, edge split, weight 2.978 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 245 - 247 A.D.; obverse M OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust right set on crescent; reverse IVNO CONSERVAT (Juno the protectress), Juno standing left, patera in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; scarce; $85.00 (€72.25)


Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - Late May 238 A.D.

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In 236, Pope Fabian succeeded Pope Anterus as the twentieth pope; he separated Rome into seven deaconships, and sent seven missionaries to Gaul to evangelize in the large cities.
RS86676. Silver denarius, RIC IV 19, RSC III 37, BMCRE VI 146, Hunter III 18, cf. SRCV III 8310 (obverse legend), EF, well centered, excellent portrait, slight porosity, small edge splits, die wear, weight 2.925 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, late 236 - Apr 238 A.D.; obverse MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax standing half left, raising olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex Dorotheum Auctions, Vienna (c. 1998); $150.00 (€127.50)


Philip II, July or August 247 - Late 249 A.D.

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When Philip visited Antioch, Saint Babylas refused to let him enter the gathering of Christians at the Easter vigil (Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica, VI, 34). Later legend elaborates, stating that Babylas demanded that he do penance for his part in the murder of the young Gordian III before he would allow Philip to celebrate Easter. Saint Babylas died in prison in 253 during the Decian persecution. He asked to be buried in his chains.
RS86485. Silver antoninianus, Bland 61 (32 spec.), Óvári 7B, SRCV IV 9258, Cohen V 1; RIC IV-3 240a (R) var. (notes Cohen as AVG, in error); RSC IV 1 var. (same), Hunter III -, Choice EF, well centered, slightly weak centers, edge cracks, tiny encrustations, light marks, weight 3.872 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 2nd issue, mid 247 - end of 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse AEQVITAS AVG (equity of the emperor), Aequitas standing half left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; scarce; $150.00 (€127.50)


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

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This ironic reverse utterly failed to foresee Valerian's fate. In 260 A.D., after four years of great losses in battle and to plague, Valerian arranged for talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sasanian (Parthian) Emperor Shapur but was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown. In Rome, it was rumored that Shapur used his stuffed body as a footstool.
RA87017. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1700l(3) (Samosata), RSC IV 190a (Antioch), RIC V-1 287 var. (no officina mark, Antioch), SRCV III 9967 var. (same, uncertain Syrian), VF, well centered on a broad flan, porous, edge cracks, weight 3.331 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, uncertain Syrian mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, two pellets below; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS (to the restorer of the East), turreted female (Oriens) standing right, presenting wreath to Valerian, standing left, wearing military attire, spear vertical in left hand, pellet within wreath above; scarce with officina mark •• on obverse; $30.00 (€25.50)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

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Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RA79726. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1684m (Samosata), RIC V-1 J447 (Asia), SRCV III 10312 (uncertain Syrian), F, well centered, porous, weight 3.155 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, Syrian mint, 256 - 258 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronting each other, facing center, sacrificing at flaming altar in center, togate, on left holding eagle-tipped scepter, on right holding parazonium; $.99 (€.84)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

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In 256 A.D., the cities in the Roman Empire begin to build walls as the defense of the frontiers collapsed. The Goths invaded Asia Minor, Dacia was lost, and they appeared at the walls of Thessalonica. The Franks crossed the Rhine. The Alamanni penetrated to Milan. In Africa, the Berbers massacred Roman colonists. King Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia and Syria and plundered Antioch, Zeugma, and Dura-Europos.
RA79727. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1703m (Samosata), RIC V-1 456 (Antioch), F, well centered on a broad flan, porous, earthen encrustations, weight 3.172 g, maximum diameter 22.65 mm, die axis 0o, Syrian mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronted; Valerian on left, scepter in right hand, globe in left hand; Gallienus on right offering Victory to Valerian, transverse spear in left hand; $30.00 (€25.50)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
In 256 A.D., the cities in the Roman Empire begin to build walls as the defense of the frontiers collapsed. The Goths invaded Asia Minor, Dacia was lost, and they appeared at the walls of Thessalonica. The Franks crossed the Rhine. The Alamanni penetrated to Milan. In Africa, the Berbers massacred Roman colonists. King Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia and Syria and plundered Antioch, Zeugma, and Dura-Europos.
RA87012. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1699m (Samosata), RIC V-1 S447 (Asia), RSC IV 792a, SRCV III 10312 (uncertain Syrian), VF, well centered on a broad flan, porous, light pitting, weight 3.985 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 180o, Syrian mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PIETAS AVGG (to the piety of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronted, sacrificing over altar between them, each togate and holding short scepter, pellet in wreath above; $40.00 (€34.00)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
In 256 A.D., the cities in the Roman Empire begin to build walls as the defense of the frontiers collapsed. The Goths invaded Asia Minor, Dacia was lost, and they appeared at the walls of Thessalonica. The Franks crossed the Rhine. The Alamanni penetrated to Milan. In Africa, the Berbers massacred Roman colonists. King Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia and Syria and plundered Antioch, Zeugma, and Dura-Europos.
RA87016. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1703m (Samosata), RIC V-1 456 (Antioch), F, broad flan, porous, earthen deposits, weight 3.036 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 0o, Syrian mint, 255 - 256 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Valerian and Gallienus standing confronted; Valerian on left, scepter in right hand, globe in left hand; Gallienus on right offering Victory to Valerian, transverse spear in left hand; $25.00 (€21.25)











Catalog current as of Tuesday, April 24, 2018.
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Crisis and Decline