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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Crisis and DeclineView Options:  |  |  | 

Roman Coins of the 3rd Century Crisis and Decline of the Roman Empire

Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

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In 257, Valerian recovered Antioch in Syria from the Persian king Shapur I.
RS90004. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9976, RIC V 256, RSC IV 204, Cunetio 74, Eauze 1448, aF, well centered on a cracked and, weight 2.563 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) or Treveri (Trier) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse IMP VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from front; reverse SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing slightly left, legs crossed, long scepter vertical in right, left arm rests on a column; scarce; $25.00 (€22.25)


Gordian III and Tranquillina, May 241 - 25 February 244 A.D., Anchialus, Thrace

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Anchialus (Pomorie, Bulgaria today) was 15 km north of Apollonia on the opposite coast of the Gulf of Burgas. Ovid wrote of the fortified walls of Anchialus in 9 A.D., enroute to Tomis. Anchialos thrived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries serving as the most important import and export station of Thrace and acquired the appearance of a Roman city under the Severan Dynasty.
RP84550. Bronze AE 25, Varbanov 672 (R4); AMNG II 665; BMC Thrace -; SNG Cop -, VF, green patina, tight flan, centration dimples, areas of light corrosion, weight 9.670 g, maximum diameter 25.2 mm, die axis 0o, Anchialus (Pomorie, Bulgaria) mint, May 241 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse AYT K M ANT ΓOR∆IANOC AYΓ CAB, TPANKUΛΛ/INA (ending in two lines below), confronted busts of Gordian III, on left, laureate, draped, and cuirassed, and Tranquillina, on right, draped and wearing stephane; reverse OYΛΠIANΩN AΓXIAΛEΩN, Asklepios standing facing, head left, snake entwined staff in right hand, himation over left shoulder and around hips and legs; ex-CNG e-auction 37 (2 Apr 2016), lot 2536; $100.00 (€89.00)


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

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When Augustus ruled Rome, he was not called emperor or king, he was the Princeps, the "first of men." In the empire, the designated successors to the emperor were named caesar and also given the title Princeps Juventutis, the "first of youths." This is the origin of the English word prince, meaning the son of a monarch.
RS64691. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1562a, RIC V 218 (S, Viminacium), RSC IV 145 (Viminacium), SRCV III 9953, Hunter IV - (p. xxxviii), VF, tight flan, uneven strike, light corrosion, edge cracks, weight 3.331 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 254 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right, seen from front; reverse PACATORI ORBIS (to the pacifier of the world), Jupiter seated left, patera in extended right hand, scepter in left hand, eagle at feet; scarce; $40.00 (€35.60)


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

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Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.
RS83692. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 824c, RIC V 254 (Mediolanum), RSC IV 196, SRCV III 9974, Hunter IV - (p. xxxvii), Cunetio -, F, well centered, die wear, scratch on reverse, encrusted, edge cracks, weight 3.577 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 0o, Viminacium (Stari Kostolac, Serbia) mint, 2nd issue, 253 - 255 A.D.; obverse IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS AVGG (the health of the two emperors), Salus standing slightly left, head left, from patera in right hand, feeding snake rising from altar at feet on left, long scepter vertical in left hand; scarce; $25.00 (€22.25)


Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D.

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The animal appears to have the beard of a goat but on some examples branched antlers are clear. It is an odd deer.
RA84359. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 725cc, Hunter IV S21, RSC IV 70, RIC V S16, SRCV III 10643, VF, well centered on a tight flan, porosity, weight 4.111 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse COR SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back and top of head, thin crescent behind shoulders; reverse IVNONI CONS AVG (to Juno protector of the Empress), hind walking left, ∆ in exergue; $90.00 (€80.10)


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.

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Oriens is Latin for "east." Literally, it means "rising" from orior, "rise." The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms "Levant" (French levant "rising"), "Anatolia" (Greek anatole), "mizrahi" in Hebrew (from "zriha" meaning sunrise), "sharq" in Arabic, and others. The Chinese pictograph for east is based on the sun rising behind a tree and "The Land of the Rising Sun" to refers to Japan. Also, many ancient temples, including the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, were built with their main entrances facing the East. To situate them in such a manner was to "orient" them in the proper direction. When something is facing the correct direction, it is said to have the proper "orientation."
RA84401. Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 75c, RIC V 106, RSC IV 135, Hunter IV 31, SRCV III 9950, F, well centered on a broad flan, scratches, porous, weight 3.467 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 257 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVGG (the rising sun of the two emperors), Sol standing slightly facing, radiate head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left hand; $32.00 (€28.48)


Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D.

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Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite.
RA77905. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1671, RIC V S86, RSC III 113, Hunter IV 33, SRCV III 10654, Choice VF, excellent centering, toned, earthen encrustation, weight 4.282 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, bust resting on thin crescent; reverse VENVS AVG, Venus standing left, helmet in right hand, transverse spear in left hand, shield at side behind her, PXV (= TR P XV) in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€35.60)


Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D.

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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RA79887. Fouree silver plated antoninianus, cf. Göbl MIR 903c, RIC V J6 (Lugdunum), Hunter IV J22, SRCV III 10636, RSC IV 50 var. (obv. leg., Lugdunum) (billon, official, Cologne mint, 257-259), F, plated, corrosion, edge crack, weight 2.561 g, maximum diameter 20..4 mm, die axis 0o, criminal counterfeiter's mint, c. 257 - 265 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas seated left, caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; $16.00 (€14.24)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

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Virtus is the personification of valor and courage. Valor was, of course, essential for the success of a Roman emperor and Virtus was one of the embodiments of virtues that were part of the Imperial cult. During his joint reign with his father, Gallienus proved his courage in battle; but his failure to liberate his father from Persian captivity was perceived as cowardice and a disgrace to the Emperor and Empire. It was not, however, actually fear that prevented a rescue. While others mourned Valerian's fate, Gallienus rejoiced in his new sovereignty.
RA79905. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1617e, RSC IV 1235a, RIC V S667, SRCV III 10402 var. (obv. legend), F, well centered, porous, small edge cracks, weight 3.144 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 266 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Virtus standing left, helmeted and wearing military garb, resting right hand on shield set on ground, spear with point up in left, star left; $24.00 (€21.36)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

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In 268, Gallienus was murdered by his senior officers while besieging the would-be usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum (Milan). The Senate charged Marcus Aurelius Claudius with Gallienus' murder but it was never proven. The accused became the new emperor, Claudius II.
BB83790. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 710b, RIC V S284, RSC IV 981, SRCV III 10362, Hunter IV 127 var. (Pegasus right), F, green patina, small flan, encrustations, weight 1.986 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 90o, 9th officina, Rome mint, 267 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus flying left, N in exergue; $14.00 (€12.46)











Catalog current as of Wednesday, February 22, 2017.
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Crisis and Decline