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Roman Empire, Anonymous, Domitian to Antoninus Pius, c. 81 - 161 A.D.
Minerva was the Roman virgin goddess of wisdom, trade, medicine, defense, magic, and the arts: music, poetry, weaving, and crafts. She was born from the head of Jupiter. The Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena. She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl, which symbolizes her connection to wisdom. RB91944. Copper quadrans, RIC II p. 216, 8; Cohen VIII p. 268, 7 var. (owl right); SRCV I 2918 var. (same), VF, dark green patina, earthen deposits, scratches, edge cracks, weight 3.568 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 138 - 161 A.D.; obverse helmeted bust of Minerva right; reverse owl standing slightly left, head facing, wings closed, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $70.00 (€61.60)
Great Britain, Victoria, 20 June 1837 - 22 January 1901
The British farthing (derived from the Old English feorthing, a fourth part) was worth a quarter of an old penny (1/960 of a pound sterling). It ceased to be struck after 1956 and was demonetized from 1 January 1961.
1860 mintage: approximately 2,867,200 (including all varieties); designer: Leonard Wyon. UK91914. Bronze farthing, SCBC 3958; bun head, tooth, five berry variety, aEF, some marks, plain edge, weight 2.798 g, maximum diameter 20 mm, die axis 0o, London mint, 1860; obverse VICTORIA D: G: BRITT: REG: F: D. (Victoria, by the grace of God, Queen of the British Territories, Defender of the Faith), laureate and draped bust of Queen Victoria left, hair in a bun, wreath of 15 leaves and 5 berries, tiny L C WYON on drapery at shoulder, toothed border with linear circle; reverse FARTHING, Britannia seated right on rocks, helmeted, right hand resting on Union shield at side, trident in left hand, in the background a lighthouse to the left, and ship to the right, tiny 1860 below, toothed border with linear circle; $25.00 (€22.00)
Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
In 323, Constantine the Great defeated invading Goths and Sarmatians north of the Danube in Dacia, and claimed the title Sarmaticus Maximus. RL91922. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 372, SRCV IV 16731, Cohen VII 22, Choice VF, well centered and struck, weight 2.846 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; obverse IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust left, spear over shoulder in right, shield on left shoulder; reverse BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX in three lines, surmounted by globe, three stars above, •STR• in exergue; $30.00 (€26.40)
Syracuse, Sicily, Dionysos I, 405 - 367 B.C.
Dionysius I was tyrant of Syracuse. He conquered several cities in Sicily and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in Sicily and made Syracuse the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive. GI91895. Bronze litra, Calciati II p. 88, 44; SNG ANS 449; SNG Cop 722; BMC Sicily p. 187, 289; HGC 2 1456 (all described with wreath on helmet but some images without), F, attractive classical style, tiny edge crack, weight 8.684 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, c. 390 - 375 B.C.; obverse ΣYPA, head of Athena left wearing Corinthian helmet, two dolphins downward, one before, one behind, no pellet; reverse hippocamp left, with bridle; $50.00 (€44.00)
Kingdom of Thrace, Rhoemetalces III, c. 38 - 46 A.D., Caligula Reverse
Rhoemetalces III was the son of the King Rhescuporis II. He ruled the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace with his cousin-wife Pythodoris II as clients under the Romans from 38 to 46 A.D. They succeeded Pythodoris’ mother Tryphaena and her brother Rhoemetalces II. Rhoemetalces III was murdered in 46, by insurgents or on the orders of his wife. The subsequent fate of Pythodoris II is unknown and it seems they didn't have any children. Soon after his death, Thrace was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a province. RP91897. Bronze AE 26, RPC I 1724; Youroukova 210; BMC Thrace p. 210, 2; SNG Cop -, aF, corrosion, weight 8.998 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Thracian mint, 38 - 41 B.C.; obverse BAΣIΛEYΣ POIMHTAΛKAΣ, diademed and draped bust of Rhoemetalkes right; reverse ΓAIΩ KAIΣAPI ΣEBAΣTΩ, laureate head of Caligula left; very rare; $60.00 (€52.80)
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.
C. Howgego suggests that this might belong with the Thracian group of Neronian coins in Latin (RPC I 1758 ff.). RP91898. Bronze semis, RPC I Supplement (online) S2-I-5487 (4 spec.), RIC I -, Cohen I -, BMCRE I -, BnF I -, aF, weight 3.052 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain (Perinthus, Thrace?) mint, c. 64 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR, bare head right; reverse VICTORIA AVGVSTI (the victory of the Emperor), Victory walking left, wreath in right hand, palm frond in left; very rare; $90.00 (€79.20)
Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
In 407, Constantine III, a general (magister militum) in Britain, declared himself Roman emperor. To extend his dominion over Gaul and Spain, he took nearly all the Roman garrisons from Britain and crossed the English Channel. Constantine occupied Arles and established tenuous authority over Gaul, sharing control with marauding "barbarians." After 360 years of occupation, the local regional British-Roman leaders, began to raise their own levies for defense against Saxon sea rovers. This was the beginning of British self rule. RL91899. Bronze centenionalis, RIC X Arcadius 155, DOCLR 310, LRBC II 2804, SRCV V 21196, Hunter V -, VF, flow lines, edge cracks, unusually bold reverse with deep incuse, weight 1.686 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. 406 -1 May 408 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, star left; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), Arcadius, Honorius and Theodosius II standing facing, Theodosius in center, shorter, spear in right hand, globe in left hand; the two senior emperors flank him, heads turned toward center, each holds spear in outer hand, resting inner hand on grounded shield, ANT∆ in exergue; scarce; $30.00 (€26.40)
Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross. RL91900. Bronze half centenionalis, cf. RIC X Theodosius II 440 ff., SRCV V 21231 ff. (various mints), F, green patina, well centered, porous, edge a little ragged, weight 1.413 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, 425 - 435 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse cross in wreath, mintmark (obscure) in exergue; $40.00 (€35.20)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IX or Ptolemy X, c. 116 - 80 B.C., Ancient Counterfeit or Imitative
This is an unusual ancient counterfeit with a Cypriot style portrait of Zeus Ammon. The central "dimples" on this counterfeit type were actually cut into the dies and struck into the flan. On the official coins the "dimple" resulted from a production process and was not a feature of the dies. GP91904. Bronze AE 21, cf. Svoronos 1698 (official Ptolemaic mint issue), F, dark patina, remnants of pre-strike casting sprues, struck imitations of central cavities, porous, weight 6.856 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 0o, unofficial mint, c. 116 - 80 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Zeus Ammon right, struck central "dimple"; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (King Ptolem, blundered), two eagles standing left on thunderbolts, side by side, heads left, wings closed, cornucopia left, struck central "dimple"; $50.00 (€44.00)
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VI Dionysus, 144 - c. 142 B.C.
After his father was deposed by Demetrius II, the general Diodotus Tryphon nominated Antiochus VI as king. He gained the allegiance of most of the Seleucid domain, including Judaea, but was actually only a puppet of the general. He died after "ruling" for two years. He was likely assassinated under orders from Tryphon, who then made himself king. GY91905. Bronze serrated AE 21, cf. Houghton-Lorber II 2006, SNG Spaer 1771, Babelon Rois 1007, SNG Cop 304, HGC 9 143 (C-S), F, corrosion, weight 6.793 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. mid-143 - 142 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Antiochos VI right, wearing ivy wreath; obscure countermark; reverse elephant walking left, holding torch in trunk, BAΣIΛEΩS ANTIOXOY above, EΠIΦANOYΣ ∆IONYΣOY in exergue, ΣTA over uncertain second control symbol right; scarce; $38.00 (€33.44)
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