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Giao Chi (Chinese Occupied Northern Vietnam), Le-Loi's War of Independence, 1414 - 1428

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The Chinese invaded Dai Ngu (northern Vietnam) in 1407, and, after seven years of resistance from rebels and Annamese who remained loyal to the last two Tran Dynasty kings, they occupied the country, and it was formally annexed to China as Giao Chi. Le Loi began his campaign against the Ming Empire on the day after Tet (New Year) February 1418. By 1427, the original Ming army of occupation had been ground down and destroyed. The new Ming ruler, the Xuande Emperor, wished to end the war, but his advisors convinced him to send a massive army (some 100,000 strong) into Giao Chi. The final campaign did not start well for the Ming forces. Le Loi's forces staged a mock retreat. The Ming general, Liu Sheng, urging his troops forward, was cut off from the main part of his army, captured and executed. Then, by sending false reports of dissent within the ranks of Le Loi's generals, the Ming army was lured to Hanoi where it was surrounded and destroyed in a series of battles. The Ming army lost over 90,000 men (60,000 killed and 30,000 captured). During Le-Loi's rebellion several coin types were cast for the payment of his followers. They are all of diminutive size, and the copper employed varies in color according to the provinces wherein the coins were cast.
VN83972. Bronze cash, Toda 48, Barker -, aVF, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 1.209 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, rebel mint, 1417 - 1428; obverse Tri Thanh Binh Bao, regular script; reverse plain, no rim, hole nearly round; $14.00 (11.90)


Dai Viet (Vietnam), Tran Dynasty, Emperor Tran Thai Tong, 1225 - 1258

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Thai Tong was so troubled by domestic affairs that he ran away from the palace and took refuge in a pagoda, for a time refusing to reign. Learned in both Confucianism and Buddhism, he authored several profound works on Buddhism, the most famous of which is Khoa Hu Luc (Instructions on Emptiness), a Zen manual. A prodigious writer, he left behind a substantial number of works, of which only a small number survive. When the Mongols invaded in 1258, he decided not to protect his capital, but instead, with the help of his military commanders, opted for small battles and guerrilla warfare. His strategy forced the Mongols to retreat but he ultimately had to agree to pay a triennial tribute to China, which continued into modern times. Again, tired of the throne, Thai Tong abdicated in 1258 in favor of his son Thanh Tong. Small coins were issued by Thai Tong in his third reign.
VN83973. Bronze cash, Toda 17, cf. Barker 13.1 - 13.2, aVF, dark patina, light green highlighting deposits, weight 1.518 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, c. 1251 - 1258; obverse Nguyen Phong Thong Bao, nguyen in running hand style; reverse plain, no rim, round hole; $10.00 (8.50)


Dai Viet (Vietnam), The Rebel Pham Su On, 1390 - 1391 A.D.

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Rebel Pham Su On was a Buddhist monk who in 1390 proclaimed himself king under the name Thien-Than and called on farmers in Quoc Oai to rebel. For some time no royal troops opposed him and he was able to recruit a large army. He surrounded and captured the capitol Thang Long (Hanoi) in December 1391. After reigning in the capitol for only three days, he was defeated and captured by the Tran General Hoang. Pham Su On was put to death by being slowly cut to pieces.
VN83968. Bronze 1 cash, Toda 29; cf. Barker 121.1 (coins under study) and 139 (other coins of interest), VF, center hole round, thin flan holed with several small casting gaps, weight 1.281 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, c. 1391 A.D.; obverse Thien Thanh nguyen bao, Thein and Thanh in regular script, nguyen and bao in seal characters; reverse plain; $20.00 (17.00)


Annam (Vietnam), The Mac Dynasty at Cao Bang(?), c. 1592 - 1677 A.D.

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The Mac Dynasty formally ended in 1592 when Trinh Tung attacked and captured the Mac capital, Thang Long (Hanoi). The Mac took refuge north of Hanoi on the Chinese border, in the province of Cao Bang, which they controlled under the protection of the Chinese Ming. Their control over Cao Bang lasted until 1677. Controversy exists over the origin of An Phap Nguyen Bao coins. The older attribution to Emperor Le Loi during the War of Independence with China has been rejected. The Mac at Cao Bang is a more recent theory. Most likely the coins were produced by private mints in several places, possibly including foreign mints like Macau. Evidence suggests that at least some of the coins were cast by the Mac at Cao Bang.
VN83969. Bronze Cash (Phan), Barker 52, dark patina, porous, light highlighting by chalky earthen deposits, weight 1.766 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, Cao Bang(?) mint, c. 1592 - 1677 A.D.; obverse An Phap Nguyen Bao; reverse plain, no rims; $8.00 (6.80)


Dai Viet (Vietnam), Unknown King or Rebel, c. 1600 - 1700 A.D.

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A number of cash coin types bearing the names of princes, of rebel chiefs, or of various mints have not been classified. Their Annamese origin is established, but no precise dates or other information. Many are from the Quang-nam Principality, the rulers of which were de facto kings and issued coins at various times. The names of these rulers are unknown. Some rebels who issued coins are otherwise entirely unrecorded by history.
VN83970. Bronze cash, Toda 264 (unclassified), Barker -, aVF, dark green patina, light dusting of chalky earthen deposit, weight 1.263 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, unknown mint, c. 1600 - 1700 A.D.; obverse Thien Nguyen thong bao, regular script, nguyen in seal script; reverse blank; $20.00 (17.00)


Dai Ngu (Northern Vietnam), The Ho Dynasty, 1400 - 1407 A.D.

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The Ho Dynasty was a short-lived six-year reign of two emperors, Ho Quy Ly in 1400 to 1401 and his second son, Ho Han Thuong, from 1401 to 1407. In 1400, Ho Qui Ly dethroned the last Tran emperor, declared himself emperor, and renamed the country from Dai Viet to Dai Ngu. In 1401, he abdicated in favor of his second son Ho Han Thuong. In accordance with the former Tran dynasty's tradition, Ho Qui-Ly styled himself as Emperor Emeritus and still possessed much power over state affairs. In 1402 the Ho forced the Champa king to surrender southern Quang Nam and northern Quang Ngai. Ho Qui Ly initiated many economic, financial and educational reforms. He introduced paper money, but it failed due to counterfeiting. More successful reforms included land reform, opening of ports to foreign trade, reform of the judiciary, improved health care and opening the education system to the study mathematics and agriculture alongside Confucian texts. A surviving Tran prince appealed to the Chinese emperor. The Tran prince and a Chinese ambassador accompanying him to claim his throne were ambushed and killed. The Ming army invaded. Ho Qui-Ly was captured, exiled to China, and forced to enlist in the Ming army as a common soldier. Ho Qui Ly and Ho Han Thuong both died in Chinese exile.
VN83971. Bronze cash, Toda 31, Barker 122.1 and 138, aVF, dark patina, light dusting of highlighting earthen deposits, weight 1.519 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, 1402 - 1407 A.D.; obverse Thanh Nguyen Thong Bao, seal script; reverse plain, no rim, hole nearly round; $20.00 (17.00)


Syracuse, Sicily, Timoleon, 344 - 336 B.C.

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Threatened by Carthage and dominated by Hiketas, the tyrant of Leontini, Syracusans sent an appeal for help to their mother city, Corinth. By a unanimous vote Corinth selected Timoleon to set sail for Sicily with a few leading citizens of Corinth and a small troop of Greek mercenaries. After defeating Hiketas, Timoleon put order to Syracuse' affairs and established a democratic government. He repelled Carthage in several wars, ending with a treaty which divided the island. Timoleon then retired without any title or office, though he remained practically supreme. He became blind before his death, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted. When he died the citizens of Syracuse erected a monument to his memory, afterward surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum.
GI87379. Bronze hemidrachm, Calciati II p. 167, 72; SNG ANS 477; SNG Cop 727; SNG Mnchen 1151; BMC Sicily p. 189, 313; Laffaille 220; HGC 2 1440 (S), VF, nice style, brown tone, porosity/light corrosion, weight 16.601 g, maximum diameter 24.6 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, c. 342 - 338 B.C.; obverse ZEYΣ EΛEYΘEPIOΣ, laureate head of Zeus Eleutherios right; reverse ΣYPAKOΣIΩN (clockwise starting upper right), thunderbolt, eagle on right standing right with wings closed; $160.00 (136.00)


Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, 4 B.C. - 40 A.D.

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Pontius Pilate sent Jesus to Herod for judgment. "Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing...And mocking him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate." (Luke 23:7-15)

All the coins of Antipas are rare and very rare in nice condition. They were minted with an inferior alloy that was particularly susceptible to corrosion and wear. The coins were minted in Tiberias, a capital city founded by Antipas c. 19 A.D. and named for Tiberius.
JD87492. Bronze unit, Hendin 1203; RPC I 4922; Meshorer TJC 79; Meshorer AJC II 242, 5, aVF, earthen highlighting, spots of mild corrosion, weight 11.022 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 330o, Tiberias mint, 29 - 30 A.D.; obverse TIBE/PIAC (Tiberias, the mint) in two lines, surrounded by wreath; reverse HPW∆OY TETPAPXOY, palm branch, L - ΛΓ (year 33) across fields; ex CNG e-auction 426 (8 Aug 2018), lot 269; rare; $500.00 (425.00)


Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, 4 B.C. - 40 A.D.

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Pontius Pilate sent Jesus to Herod for judgment. "Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing...And mocking him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate." (Luke 23:7-15)

All the coins of Antipas are rare and very rare in nice condition. They were minted with an inferior alloy that was particularly susceptible to corrosion and wear. The coins were minted in Tiberias, a capital city founded by Antipas c. 19 A.D. and named for Tiberius.
JD87493. Bronze half denomination, Hendin 1204, RPC I 4923, Meshorer TJC 80, F, earthen highlights, bumps and scratches, weight 6.364 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 0o, Tiberias mint, 29 - 30 A.D.; obverse TIBE/PIAC (Tiberias, the mint) in two lines, surrounded by wreath; reverse HPW∆OY TETPAPXOY, palm branch, L - ΛΓ (year 33) divided across fields; ex CNG e-auction 426 (8 Aug 2018), lot 270; rare; $440.00 (374.00)


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Laodicea ad Mare, Seleucis and Pieria

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Laodicea ad Mar was founded by Seleukos Nikator. The site was determined after an eagle snatched a piece of flesh from an altar where Seleukos was sacrificing. The exact site was indicated when he slew a boar following the eagle's flight. Perhaps the eagle on this reverse refers to the city's founding myth, though the ancients did not need a special reason to depict an eagle, the companion of Zeus.
RY87494. Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 1174 (same obv. die); Bellinger 66 & pl. 6, 1 (same obv. die); McAlee Severan, group 5, 37; BMC Galatia -; SNG Cop -, VF, well centered, dark patina, bumps and marks, weight 11.872 g, maximum diameter 28.2 mm, die axis 0o, Laodicea ad Mare (Latakia, Syria) mint, 212 - 213 A.D.; obverse AVT KAI ANTΩNEINOC CE, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞVΠATOC TO Γ (holder of Tribunitian power, consul for the 3rd time), eagle standing facing on ground line, wings spread, head left holding wreath in beak, star between legs; ex CNG auction 426 (8 Aug 2018), lot 358; $150.00 (127.50)




  







Catalog current as of Friday, August 17, 2018.
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