, Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Aquitaine, 1362 - 1372
Edward of Woodstock (15 June 1330 - 8 June 1376), called the Black Prince, was the eldest son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall (from 1337), the Prince of Wales (from 1343) and the Prince of Aquitaine (1362-72). He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular in England during his lifetime. Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.
SH84611. Silver esterlin (sterling), 194c, 8133, 1125A, 511, d'Avant –, VF, , usual , clashed die, slightly off center, 0.996 g, maximum 18.9 mm, Poitiers mint, second issue; + : ED' PO·GIT·REG·AnGL P (Edwardus Primo Genetis Regis Anglie Princeps, double annulet before , rosette stops), half-length figure of Edward right, wearing floral . sword in right hand over right shoulder, raising left hand in ; : PRI-CPS - AQV-TAE (Prince of Aquitaine, double annulet before ), long , trefoil of three pellets in each quarter; ; $330.00 (€293.70)
France, Louis XIV the Sun , 1643 - 1715
This coin is on an older coin, of a "reformation" process involving financial manipulations and impacting all French silver and from 1690 to 1709. The is a Louis XIV, demi-écu aux huit L, , workshop A, 1690 - 1693, 1515; : LVD•XIIII•D•G (sun) FR•ET•NAV•REX, draped and of Louis XIV right, wearing large wig, obscure date below; : (Mg) CHRS - - VINC - IMP ( ), formed of four groups of two L's, each arm under a crown cutting the , A ( mint workshop letter) in a at the center, lis in each quarter.
SH84613. Silver demi-écu aux palmes, 1521A, 1895, 185, KM 295.1, VF, extraordinarily strong remnants, of on , of on , 13.297 g, maximum 34.5 mm, 180o, mint, 1694 (A, reformation); LVD•XIIII•D•G (sun) FR•ET•NAV•REX (Louis XIV, by the grace of God, of France and Navarre), right, wearing large wig, ornamented with facing of on chest; BENEDICTVM (arrow point) 1964 (crescen horns up - indicates reformation) SIT•NOMEN•DOMINI (Blessed be the name of the Lord), crown above three lis in a (round arms of France), between two palms tied at the bottom, •A• ( mint workshop letter) below; edge inscribed: (lis) (sun) (lis) (flower) DOMINE (flower) (lis) (flower) SALVVM (lis) (flower) FAC (flower) (lis) (flower) REGEM; $250.00 (€222.50)
France, III, 1574 - 1589
On May 31, 1575, III created a new 14.188 grams, .833 silver coin with the value of 20 sols tournois. The gold écu was set at 60 sols. The gold franc equaled 1/3 écu or 20 sols. This coin, corresponding to the value of the medieval gold franc, naturally took the name franc d'argent (silver franc). Our coin is a franc avec fraise, distinguished from the franc au col plat by the addition of a lace ruff to the king's collar. It was unique to the Toulouse mint. Due to constant clipping, the coinage of francs was suspended for on October 13, 1586. After the death of the , however, mints held by the Catholic League struck francs in his name.
SH84614. Silver franc, 1130A, 1434, 3612, 970, aVF, , 13.995 g, maximum 35.2 mm, 180o, Toulouse (M) mint, 1586; •HENRICVS•III D•G FRANC ET•POL•REX• ( III, by the grace of god, of France and Poland), laureate and of III, ruffled collar, M (Toulouse workshop letter) below , 1586 at bottom between end and beginning of ; * SIT•NOMEN•DOMINI•BENEDICTVM S (Blessed be the name of the Lord), fleurée, H surrounded by dots in the center; $750.00 (€667.50)
France, Louis XVI, 10 May 1774 - 4 September 1791 A.D.
Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last of France and Navarre before the French Revolution; during which he was also known as Louis Capet. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, Dauphin of France, son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he became of France and Navarre, which he remained until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of of the French until his suspension on 10 August 1792. Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793.
The Louis d'or (20 francs) under Louis XVI was minted between 1785 and 1792 and had a dimension of 23 mm, and a of 7.6490 g, a of 0.917, and gold content of 0.2255 troy oz.
SH84615. Gold louis d'or, 1707, 2183, 361, KM 591.5, 475, EF, mint luster, light marks, 7.663 g, maximum 24.3 mm, 180o, mint, 1786, 1st issue; LUD. XVI. D. G. FR. - ET NAV. REX (LVDOVICVS XIII DEI GRATIA FRANCIAE ET NAVARRAE REX "Louis XIII by the grace of God of France and of Navarre"), of Louis XVI left, DUVIV (engraver B. Duvivier) on truncation, bee (sign of the mintmaster Jean-Claude Gabet) below; CHRS. . VINC. IMPER 1786 (CHRISTVS REGNAT VINCIT IMPERAT "Christ reigns, conquers and commands"), crowned arms of France and Navarre, D ( ) below, left (symbol of engraver Jean Humbert Bernavon) before date; $1000.00 (€890.00)
France, Strasbourg, Louis XIV, 1684
The Free City of Strasbourg remained neutral during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and retained its status as a Free Imperial City. However, the city was later annexed by Louis XIV of France to extend the borders of his kingdom. Louis' advisors believed that, as long as Strasbourg remained independent, it would endanger the King's newly annexed territories in Alsace, and, that to defend these large rural lands effectively, a garrison had to be placed in towns such as Strasbourg. Indeed, the bridge over the Rhine at Strasbourg had been used repeatedly by Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) forces, and three times during the Franco-Dutch War Strasbourg had served as a gateway for Imperial invasions into Alsace. In September 1681 Louis' forces, though lacking a clear casus belli, surrounded the city with overwhelming force. After some negotiation, Louis marched into the city unopposed on 30 September 1681 and proclaimed its annexation.
SH84610. Silver Sol, 2054, 87, 1599, KM 245, VF, , light deposits, 0.936 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 180o, Strasbourg mint, 1684; MON• NOV• ARGENTINENSIS (new currency of Strasbourg), fleur-de-lis; * • IN• EXCELSIS• DEO• (glory to God in heaven), •I• / •SOL• / 1684 in three lines; ex Gordon Andreas Singer; $220.00 (€195.80)
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., , Superior
was a Roman Colony founded by in 239 A.D. The usual is P.M.S. COL. VIM., abbreviating Moesiae Superioris . The usual is a female personification of standing between a and a bull. The bull and the were of the Legions VII and IV, which were quartered in the province.
SL84535. Bronze AE 28, 24 (R2); 130; I/I 96; p. 16, 17; 3874; Mousmov 36, F12 (4988740), maximum 28 mm, 225o, (Stari Kostolac, Serbia) mint, autumn 243 - autumn 244 A.D.; IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS , laureate, draped, and right; ( Moesiae Superioris ), standing facing, left, extending over bull on left standing right and on right standing left, AN V (year 5 of the colonial era) in ; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; $80.00 (€71.20)
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.
Eternal peace was just wishful thinking during the reign of (just as it has always been).
SL84533. Silver , 41, 102, 23, 8939 var. (pax standing left), 12 var. ( ), NGC AU, strike 3/5, surface 4/5, 5.03 g, maximum 23 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, , draped, and right, from behind; (eternal peace), Pax advancing left, branch in right hand, transverse in left hand; certified (slabbed) by NGC, from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; $135.00 (€120.15)
Kingdom of , Massinissa 203 - 148 B.C., or Micipsa 148 - 118 B.C.
was an Ancient Berber kingdom in what is now Algeria and a smaller of Tunisia, in . It was bordered by the kingdoms of (modern-day Morocco) to the , the Roman province of (modern-day Tunisia) to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the , and the Sahara Desert to the south. The long-lived Masinissa ruled c. 203 -148 B.C. He was succeeded by his son Micipsa. When Micipsa died in 118, he was succeeded by his two sons Hiempsal I and Adherbal, and by his illegitimate grandson, . had Hiempsal killed, which led to war with Adherbal. Rome declared war after killed some Roman businessmen aiding Adherbal. surrendered and received a highly favorable peace treaty, which raised suspicions of bribery. The Roman commander was summoned to Rome to corruption charges. was also forced to come to Rome to testify, where he was completely discredited. War broke out again and several legions were dispatched to . The war dragged out into a seemingly endless campaign. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Gaius returned to Rome to seek election as Consul. was elected, and then returned to take control of the war. He sent his Cornelius to neighboring to eliminate their support for . With the of I of , captured . In 104 B.C., after being paraded through the streets of Rome in Marius' Triumph, was executed.
SL84534. Bronze AE 27, MAA 18a; III 50; III p. 18, 32; 505 ff.; 6597, NGC F, strike 4/5, surface 3/5 (3854272-006), 16.02 g, maximum 27 mm, 0o, Cirta (Constantine, Algeria) mint, 203 - 118 B.C.; laureate of left, pointed beard, dot ; horse galloping left, pellet below, linear ; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; $120.00 (€106.80)
Parthian Kingdom, Vologases I, 51 - 78 A.D.
"We cannot tell whether the use of 'lord' rather than 'king' implies a subordinate status; probably the rulers themselves were uncertain of the exact implications and it would be unwise to try to read too much into it." -- , NC 1989, p. 163.
GS65700. Silver , pl. 42, 1; 426; 379; LNV 3 143; -, VF, , , porous, 1.248 g, maximum 11.6 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, 51 - 78 A.D.; bare-headed left, medium length beard, wavy hair, wearing diadem with loop at the top and two ends, two-line neck torque has no ends, of dots; archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne holding bow, left foot drawn back, somewhat blundered Greek reading, with emendations: OΛIΓACOO[Y] TO[Y] KYPIY (Vologases the lord); $90.00 (€80.10)
, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.
was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the of and requested permission to as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for jointly with dea . In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea was combined with at the Hadrianic Temple of and . This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's . The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea with a in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SL84528. , 1037, 1420, 169, 284, 233, 4977, VF30 (4625585), Rome mint, Dec 171 - Dec 172 A.D.; M ANTONINVS - XXVI, laureate right; IMP VI ( 6 times, consul 3 times), seated left on , helmeted and draped, transverse spear on far side in right hand, resting her left forearm on round stacked upon an oval and a hexagonal , S C ( ) flanking across fields; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection, certified (slabbed) by ; $195.00 (€173.55)
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