Antioch, Syria (Antakiyah, Turkey)
Because of Egypt's isolated position, Antioch was a more suitable capital for the eastern empire than Alexandria, and to some extent the Roman emperors tried to make the city an eastern Rome. They built a great temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, a forum, a theater, a circus, baths and aqueducts. The city was, however, repeatedly damaged by earthquakes. Edward Gibbon wrote of Antioch: "Fashion was the only law, pleasure the only pursuit, and the splendour of dress and furniture was the only distinction of the citizens of Antioch. The arts of luxury were honoured, the serious and manly virtues were the subject of ridicule, and the contempt for female modesty and reverent age announced the universal corruption of the capital of the East." Antioch was, paradoxically, also an important hub of early Christianity. The city had a large population of Jews and so attracted the earliest missionaries; including Peter, Barnabas, and also Paul during his first missionary journey. Antioch's converts were the first to be called Christians. Late in 311, an embassy from Antioch presented themselves before Maximinus and requested permission to banish Christians from their city. Maximinus initially agreed, but in May 313 restored privileges and property to Christians. Antioch struck coins for provincial Syria before becoming and imperial mint. Imperial mint dates of operation: 217 - 611 A.D. Mintmarks: AN, ANT, ANTOB, SMAN.
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
The reverse legend abbreviates Clementia Temporum, which can be translated "a time of peace and calm."RS65435. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 921, Choice EF, weight 4.138 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP, emperor standing right receiving globe from Jupiter standing left holding long scepter behind in left, A• in center, XXI in ex; $115.00 (€100.05)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Constantine reorganized the Roman army to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the Roman frontiers - the Franks, the Alamanni, the Goths, and the Sarmatians - even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the turmoil of the previous century.RL65366. Billon reduced centenionalis, RIC VII Antioch 86, LRBC I 1356, SRCV IV 16359, Choice aEF, attractive black patina with highlighting red earthen desert fill, weight 2.670 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 330 - 333 and 335 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS (glory of the army), two soldiers standing facing, heads turned inward confronted, two standards in center between them, each holds a spear in outer hand and rests inner hand on grounded shield, SMANB in exergue; $110.00 (€95.70)
Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
Julia Maesa ruled as regent for Severus Alexander until her death in 223 or 224. Upon her death power passed to Julia Mamaea, the young emperor's mother. Mamaea governed moderately, advised by a council of 16 distinguished senators. Rome had difficulty accepting rule by a woman. There were numerous plots and revolts, the last of which ended with the murder of the emperor and his mother.RS90497. Silver denarius, RSC III 470, RIC IV 271, SRCV II 7918, BMCRE VI 1063 note, VF, well centered on a broad flan, some porosity, minor edge crack, weight 2.511 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 223 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PONTIF MAX TR P II COS II P P, Roma seated left on throne, Victory in extended right hand, reversed spear in left, shield rests on the ground beside the throne; scarce; $105.00 (€91.35)
Trajan Decius, July 249 - First Half of June 251 A.D., Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria
In 256 A.D., about six years after this coin was struck, the Persian King Shapur conquered and plundered Antioch.RP57232. Billon tetradrachm, McAlee 1135(f); Prieur 546; BMC Galatia p. 220, 583; Dura Coins 524, aVF, weight 12.226 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 180o, 6th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, obverse AVT K Γ ME KY ∆EKIOC TPAIANOC CEB, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind, S below bust; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC, S C, eagle standing left on palm branch, head left, wings spread, wreath in beak; scarce; $100.00 (€87.00)
Byzantine Empire, Justin I and Justinian I, April - 1 August 527 A.D.
This tiny bronze from Antioch is the last coin type to depict the Tyche of Antioch by Eutychides and, indeed, it is the last ancient coin type to depict any classical deity. The sculpture, which first appeared on coins of Antioch in the second century B.C., was made in the late 4th Century B.C. by the Greek sculptor Eutychides of Sicyon for the then newly founded city of Antioch. The sculpture was imitated by many Asiatic cities. There is a small copy in the Vatican.BZ73040. Bronze pentanummium, DOC I 17, Hahn MIB 13, Wroth BMC 10 - 11, SBCV 133, Morrisson BnF -, Ratto -, F, nice glossy green patina with earthen highlighting, weight 1.716 g, maximum diameter 12.5 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, obverse D N D N IVSTINVS ET IVSTINIANVS PP AVG (or similar), diademed, draped and cuirassed busts of Justin and Justinian facing; reverse Tyche of Antioch seated left, reversed E left, all within a distyle shrine; very rare; $100.00 (€87.00)
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