, First Half of 283 - Spring 285 A.D.
A sum of Greek numerals E (5) and ∆ (4) is used to indicate the 9th in order to avoid using Θ (9). Because they sound alike, theta (Θ) was associated with Thanatos, the daemon personification of death. Theta used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times. It survives on potsherds used by Athenians voting for the death penalty. Also, after a funeral "Nine Days of Sorrow," were solemnly observed by the family. Romans avoided the use of theta, as we avoid the use of the number 13 today.RL84211. , , 2, 325; 184; 12362; VI/2, p. 52; -, gVF, much , and struck on a , 3.684 g, maximum 20.3 mm, 180o, 9th , Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 4th emission, May - June 284 A.D.; IMP C CARINVS , and right, slight drapery on far shoulder; (valor of the two emperors), Emperor standing right, short in left hand, facing (or ) on right, standing left, with right hand offering on globe, long vertical behind in left hand, E∆ in lower center, XXI in ; $110.00 (€97.90)
, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.
On 8 October 314, at the Battle of Cibalae, Constantine defeated Licinius near Cibalae (modern Vinkovci, Croatia). Licinius was forced to flee to , and lost all of the Balkans except for . The two initiated peace negotiations, but they failed and they would not make peace until 1 March 317.RB71428. , Antioch 8 (R4), I5244, 108, gVF, nice portrait, on a , 4.105 g, maximum 19.6 mm, 180o, 8th , Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 313 - 314 A.D.; IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS , laureate right; (to the protector of the two Emperors), standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulders, on globe in right offering , long vertical behind in left, at feet with in beak, over H over III in right , ANT in ; $100.00 (€89.00)
Palmyrene Empire, and , 270 - 275 A.D.
, son of the Palmyran Odenathus and , was declared but defeated his forces. He and were then taken to Rome where they lived in great comfort. The abbreviated titles of most likely were, Vir Clarissimus Romanorum (or Rex) Dux Romanorum. The of are interesting because they display both the Roman laurel and the Hellenistic royal diadem.RA79908. , 3107, 381, 1248a, 7, 353, 1, 11718, gVF, white metal, , , , slightly off center, 3.703 g, maximum 20.8 mm, 270o, 5th , Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Nov 270 - Mar 272 A.D.; IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, and right, E below; VABALATHVS V C R IM D R, laureate, diademed, draped and right; $100.00 (€89.00)
, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
In 231, led a formidable army into the east. In a great battle Alexander defeated Artaxerxes and drove him back from the frontiers of Rome. He returned to Rome, where he received a triumph for his over the Persians.RS73592. Silver , 561, 302, 1020, 190 var. (no ), cf. 7930 (obv , right on rev, etc.), VF, , interesting eastern , 2.643 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 228 - 231 A.D.; IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped right; (the of the Emperor), advancing right, raised in right hand, frond in left over shoulder; $95.00 (€84.55)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
The abbreviates Temporum, which can be translated "a time of peace and calm."RS65435. , , 2, 921, EF, 4.138 g, maximum 22.5 mm, 180o, 1st , Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, IMP C PROBVS AVG, , draped, and right, from behind; (time of peace and calm), emperor standing right receiving globe from standing left holding long behind in left, A• in center, XXI in ; $90.00 (€80.10)
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