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In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Roman people, of the Senate, of the Emperor, etc. RS85551. Silver denarius, RIC IV 59(a); RSC III 114; BMCRE V p. 274, 579; Hunter III 24; SRCV II 7187, Choice gVF, excellent portrait, perfect centering, well struck, tiny edge cracks, slightly frosty, weight 3.369 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; obverse P SEPTIMIVS GETACAES, bearded, draped bust right, from behind; reversePONTIFCOS II (priest, consul for the 2nd time), Genius standing left, nude, sacrificing from patera in right hand over flaming altar, ears of grain downward in left hand; $90.00 (€76.50)
Geta, 209 - c. 26 December 211 A.D.
In late December 211, Geta was lured to come without his bodyguards to meet Caracalla, to discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrived at their mother's house, the Praetorian Guard murdered him and he died in the arms of his mother Julia Domna. RS85553. Silver denarius, Hunter III 56 (same obv. leg. break), RIC IV 81, RSC III 200, SRCV II 7252, BMCRE V - (noted p. 422), VF, excellent portrait, broad flan, well struck full circlereverse, small edge cracks, weight 3.589 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 211 A.D.; obverse P SEPT GETAPIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverse TR P III COS II P P, Providentia (or Aeternitas?) standing slightly right, head left, short torch in extended right hand, globe in extended left hand; scarce; $90.00 (€76.50)
Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.
The variant with a branch in the left field is considerably scarcer than the usual "indeterminate object" or blank field. In addition, this officina is not listed in RIC. RL85662. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IXConstantinopolis 17b (R3) var. (unlisted officina), LRBC II 2084, Cohen VIII 9, SRCV V 19882, VF, weight 3.566 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - Apr 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassedbust left; reverse REPARATIO FEL TEMP (happy times restored), Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, palm frond left, Christogram above right, CONSB in exergue; very rare; $85.00 (€72.25)
Gallic Empire, Postumus, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.
Ptolemy Soter wanted to integrate the Hellenistic and Egyptian religions by finding a deity that could win the reverence of both groups. The Greeks would not accept an animal-headed figure, so a Greek-style anthropomorphic statue was chosen as the idol, and proclaimed as the equivalent of the highly popular Apis. It was named Aser-hapi (i.e. Osiris-Apis), which became Serapis, and was said to be Osiris in full, rather than just his Ka (life force). RS86380. Billonantoninianus, RSC IV 360a; Schulzki AGK 90; Hunter IV 92; RIC V-2 329; Cunetio 2437 (56 spec.); Elmer 383; SRCV III 10992, gVF, well centered and struck, luster in recesses, light toning, light marks, areas of slightest porosity, edge cracks, weight 2.714 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 267 A.D.; obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseSERAPI COMITI AVG (to Serapis companion of the Emperor), Serapis standing left, raising right hand, long transverse scepter in left hand; $110.00 (€93.50)
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Emerita, HispaniaLusitania
Mérida, Spain was founded by P. Carisius in 25 B.C., as Emerita Augusta, the name referring to the discharged soldiers who populated the city, by order of Augustus to protect a pass and a bridge over the Guadiana river. The city became an important city in the Roman Empire and the capital of Lusitania province. Mérida preserves more important ancient Roman monuments than any other city in Spain (including a triumphal arch of the age of Trajan). SH84707. Silver denarius, RIC I 9b, RSC I 398, BMCRE I 291, BMCRR Spain 128, BnF I 1039, Hunter I 124, SRCV I 1627 var. (head right), gVF, full circle centering on a broad flan, mint luster, weak strike areas, die wear, small edge cracks, weight 3.775 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 90o, Emerita Augusta (Merida, Spain) mint, P. Carisius, c. 25 - 23 B.C.; obverse IMP CAESARAVGVST, bare head left; reverse P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR (P. Carisius Legatus [Augusti] pro Praetore), bird's-eye view of town with walls around, EMERITA inscribed above gateway in front with three battlements over two arched entrances; from the Marcelo Leal Collection; $870.00 (€739.50)
Ionia, c. 650 - 600 B.C., Rough Irregular "Typeless" Type
Some sales catalogs describe similar coins as the striated type. The roughly parallel lines on the striated type appear to be impressed into the "obverse" by lines cut into the anvil. On this coin, it appears the rough irregular "typeless" surface is simply flattened rough pre-strike features from the raw irregular nugget-like "planchet." Based on the apparent wear on the reverse punch, huge numbers of this type may have been struck. Very few have survived. This is the first example handled by Forum. SH77378. Electrum 1/24 stater, cf. SNGvA 7768, SNG Kayhan 682, Traité I 14 -15, Weidauer -, Rosen -, VF, weight 0.647 g, maximum diameter 5.7 mm, uncertain Ionian mint, 650 - 600 B.C.; obverse flattened rough irregular "typeless" surface; reverse roughly square incuse pyramidal punch with striated sides, divided roughly in half by a raised irregular line, striated sides and the irregular line appear to be the result of wear; very rare; $720.00 (€612.00)
Larissa, Thessaly, Greece, 404 - 370 B.C.
When Larissa ceased minting the federal coins it shared with other Thessalian towns and adopted its own coinage in the late fifth century B.C., it chose local types for its coins. The obverse depicted the local fountain nymph Larissa, for whom the town was named, probably inspired by the famous coins of Kimon depicting the Syracusan nymph Arethusa. The reverse depicted a horse in various poses. GS85151. Silver drachm, BCD Thessaly II 380.18 (same dies), Lorber Early group IV H23, 65.1(a) (this obv. die), BCD Thessaly I 1144.2, Hoover HGC 430, Choice VF, toned, finestyle, areas of light etching, weight 6.075 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 270o, Larissa mint, 404 - 370 B.C.; obversehead of the nymph Larissa facing slightly right, wearing necklace, hair confined by ampyx and floating loosely; reverse horse grazing right, legs straight, dotted exergual line, ΛAPI above; ex Art of Money (Portland, OR); $360.00 (€306.00)
Didius Julianus, 28 March - 2 June 193 A.D.
193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in Rome SH86628. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC VI 14 (R), BMCRE V 20, Hunter III 8, Cohen III 3, Cayon III 1, SRCV II 6075, nice F, attractive portrait for grade, legends not fully struck, encrustations on reverse, edge crack, weight 19.044 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 28 Mar - 2 Jun 193 A.D.; obverseIMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverseCONCORD MILIT (harmony with the soldiers), Concordia Militum standing half left, head left, legionary aquila (eagle) standard in right hand, signumstandard in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field below center; rare; $1080.00 (€918.00)
Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.
In the Roman Republic, and Empire, the curule chair (sella curulis, supposedly from currus, "chariot") was the seat upon which magistrates holding imperium were entitled to sit. This includes dictators, magistri equitum, consuls, praetors, censors, curule aediles, and the promagistrates, temporary or de facto holders of such offices. Additionally, the Flamen of Jupiter (Flamen Dialis) was also allowed to sit on a curule seat, though this position did not hold imperium. Livy writes that the three flamines maiores or high priests of the Archaic Triad of major gods were each granted the honor of the curule chair. RS86633. Silver denarius, RIC II-1 6 (R); RSC II 541a; BMCRE II p. 8, 46; BnF III -; Hunter I -; SRCV I -, F, dark toning, tight flan, bumps and scratches, legends not fully struck, weight 3.219 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1st issue, 21 Dec 69 - early 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESARVESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAESARES PRIN IV, Titus and Domitian seated left, side by side on curule chairs, each holding a laurel branch in extended right hand; rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
RS86634. Silver denarius, RIC IV 123, RSC III 448, BMCRE VI 950, Hunter III 68, SRCV II 7916, Choice EF, excellent portrait, attractive Sol, well centered and stuck, attractive toning, some very light marks and scratches, weight 2.377 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 234 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseP M TR P XIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm and flying behind, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left hand; $160.00 (€136.00)
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