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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ Roman Republic ▸ 99-50 B.C.View Options:  |  |  | 

Roman Republic, 99 - 50 B.C.

Roman Republic, C. Allius Bala, 92 B.C.

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In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, the moon and childbirth, associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals. Oak groves were especially sacred to her. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy. In myth, Diana was born with her twin brother Apollo on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry.
RR77759. Silver denarius, BMCRR I 1751 (same controls), Crawford 336/1c, SRCV I 221, Sydenham 595, RSC I Aelia 4, aF, etched rough and porous surfaces, weight 3.329 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 92 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Diana right, wearing earring and necklace, BALA downward behind, F (control letter) below chin; reverse Diana in biga of stags right, holding scepter and torch in right, reins in left, duck right (control symbol) below, CALLI in exergue, all within laurel wreath; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren, ex Wayne C. Phillips; $7.51 (6.61)


Roman Republic, L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus, 89 B.C.

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The reverse refers to the rape of the Sabines. This moneyer traced his descent form the Sabines and perhaps from King Tatius himself. -- Roman Silver Coins edited by David R. Sear and Robert Loosley
RR77760. Silver denarius, Crawford 344/1a, Sydenham 698, RSC I Tituria 1, BMCRR I Rome 2322, SRCV I 249, F, uneven strike, porous, scratches, flan crack, weight 3.770 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 89 B.C; obverse bare head of Sabine King Tatius right, SABIN downward behind, TA (Tatius) monogram before; reverse two Roman soldiers running left, each bearing a Sabine woman in his arms, LTITVRI in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren, ex M & R Coins; $135.00 (118.80)


Roman Republic, M. Plaetorius Cestianus, 69 B.C.

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The moneyer, M. Plaetorius Cestianus, was from Praeneste, in Latium, 23 miles east-southeast of Rome, home of the great temple to Fortuna Primigenia. Her sanctuary was an immense complex of buildings rising up the hillside on five vast terraces, connected with each other by grand staircases, visible even from the sea. The reverse likely depicts a pediment in the sanctuary. The epithet of Primigenia means "Original." She was represented suckling two babes, said to be Jupiter and Juno, and she was especially worshipped by matrons. The oracle continued to be consulted down to Christian times, until Constantine the Great, and again later Theodosius I, forbade the practice and closed the temple.
SH76980. Silver denarius, BMCRR Rome 3524 (same wheel control); Crawford 405/1b; Sydenham 800a; SRCV I 340, F, banker's mark, weight 3.563 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 69 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped bust of Fortuna Primigenia right, hair in net, wheel (control symbol) behind; reverse temple pediment, ornamented with sculpture of an anguipede (snake legged) giant holding a club(?) in his left hand, M PLAETORI (AE ligate) on the architrave, CEST S C in exergue; very rare; $800.00 (704.00)


Roman Republic, M. Fannius and L. Critonius, 86 B.C.

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In 80 B.C. M. Fannius was one of the judices quaestionis in the trial of Sextus Roscius, who was accused of having murdered his father, and who was defended by Cicero. L. Critonius is otherwise unknown but was probably the father of the aediles cereales of the same name who held office in 44 B.C.
RR74537. Silver denarius, Crawford 351/1, Sydenham 717, RSC I Critonia 1a, BMCRR I Rome 2463, SRCV I 267, VF, struck with worn dies, tight flan, weight 3.790 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 195o, Rome mint, 86 B.C.; obverse draped bust of Ceres right, wearing earring, wreathed in grain, AED. PL (Aediles Plebei) behind; reverse the aediles M. Fannius and L. Critonius seated right on a subsellium, P A (publico argento) behind, ear of grain before, M FAN L CRIT (IT ligate) in exergue; scarce; $185.00 (162.80)


Roman Republic, Anonymous, c. 170 - 160 B.C.

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Janus (or Ianus) was the god of gates, doors, doorways, beginnings and endings. He is most often depicted as having two faces or heads, facing in opposite directions. Janus is believed to be one of the few major deities in Roman mythology that does not have a Greek origin or counterpart.
RR76436. Bronze as, cf. McCabe Anonymous K2, Crawford 198/1a, Sydenham 143, BMCRR 217, SRCV I 712, F, pitting, weight 28.660 g, maximum diameter 34.0 mm, die axis 270o, Rome(?) mint, c. 170 - 160 B.C.; obverse laureate and bearded head of Janus, I (mark of value) above; reverse prow right, I (mark of value) above, ROMA in exergue; scarce; $90.00 (79.20)


Roman Republic, Vergilius, Gargilius and Ogulnius, 86 B.C.

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The as is the only bronze denomination struck by these moneyers.
RR76801. Bronze as, BMCRR I Rome 2632, Crawford 350A/3c, Sydenham 722b, SRCV I 752, VF, encrusted areas, some spots of corrosion, weight 13.454 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 86 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Janus, I (mark of value above); reverse OGVL GAR VER (VL, AR, and VE ligate), war galley prow left, X (control letter) before prow; $250.00 (220.00)


Roman Republic, C. Coelius Caldus, 51 B.C.

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The obverse depicts the moneyer's grandfather, also Caius Coelius Caldus, consul in 94 B.C., and the first in his family to obtain high office. Prior to his term as consul, in 107 B.C., he was a tribune of the plebs and passed a lex tabellaria, requiring a secret ballot to determine the verdict in cases of high treason. He was a praetor in 100 or 99 B.C., and proconsul of Hispania Citerior the following year. Later, during Sulla's second civil war, he tried to help Gaius Marius the Younger by preventing Pompey from joining his forces to Sulla, but failed.

The reverse honors the moneyer's father and uncle. His father was a Epulo Jovis, one of the septemviri Epulones, the college of seven priests responsible for banquets and sacrifices given in honor of Jove and the other gods. His uncle was an imperator, augur and decemvir, Imperator, Augur, Decemvir (sacris faciundis), commander for military forces, a priest-soothsayer, and one of a body of ten Roman magistrates responsible for management of the Games of Apollo, and the Secular Games. The moneyer's name and title are in the exergue.
RS72975. Silver denarius, Crawford 437/2a, Sydenham 894, RSC I Coelia 7, BMCRR II 3837, SRCV I 404, Choice aF, toned, well centered on a tight flan, weight 3.623 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 51 B.C.; obverse C COEL CALDVS downwards on right, COS below, head of Coelius Caldus right, standard inscribed HIS (Hispania) behind, standard in the form of a boar (emblem of of Clunia, Hispania) before; reverse C CALDVS downward on left, IMP A X (Imperator, Augur, Decemvir) in four lines on right, CALDVS III VIR (ALD ligate, triumvir) below, statue of god seated left between two trophies of arms, all on a high lectisternium with front inscribed L CALDVS VI VIR EPVL (VIR and VL ligate, Lucius Caldus Septemvir Epulo); from the Jyrki Muona Collection; scarce; $165.00 (145.20)


Roman Republic, Mn Fonteius C.f., c. 85 B.C.

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Vejovis is a little-known Italian deity. He was worshiped in a temple on the Capitol in Rome. The reverse most likely depicts a statue that was beside the statue of Vejovis in the temple. This statue may refer to the infancy of Jupiter who was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.

The thyrsus is the staff carried by Bacchus and his associates; topped by a pine cone or a bunch of ivy leaves and wreathed with tendrils of vine or ivy.
RR75243. Silver denarius, RSC I Fonteia 9, Sydenham 724, BMCRR 2476, Crawford 353/1a, SRCV I 271, Choice aEF, well centered and struck, nicely toned, a few light scratches, weight 3.813 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 85 B.C.; obverse MN FONTEI C F (MN and NT in monogram), laureate head of Vejovis right, thunderbolt below, Roma monogram below chin; reverse Cupid seated on goat right, caps of the Dioscuri above, thyrsus of Bacchus in ex, all within laurel wreath; ex Naville auction 9, lot 175, ex Tkalec sale 2006, 106, ex NAC 46 (April 2008), lot 369; $400.00 (352.00)


Roman Republic, P. Furius Crassipes, 84 B.C.

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The clubfoot, crassipes in Latin, in a perfect example of typical Roman humor, replaces the moneyer's name in the obverse inscription. The chair refers to the moneyer's position as Aedile Curule. The turreted head probably indicates this special issue was authorized to finance a building project. Publius Fourius Crassipes is only known from his coins but he was probably the father of Fourius Crassipes who married Cicero's daughter, who became proquaestor in Sicily, and who struck bronze coins bearing his name at Panormus.
RR75815. Silver denarius, RSC I Furia 20, Sydenham 735, Crawford 356/1a, BMCRE I Rome 2604, SRCV I 275, VF, well struck foot (often poorly struck on the type), nice old cabinet toning, well centered, slightly uneven strike with weak areas, weight 3.870 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 84 B.C.; obverse AED CVR (downward on left), turreted head of Cybele right, clubfoot pointed upwards behind; reverse curule chair inscribed P FOVRIVS, CRASSIPES in exergue; $115.00 (101.20)


Roman Republic, L. Rubrius Dossenus, 87 B.C.

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Athens chose the wrong side in Rome's war with Mithridates, portrayed as a war of Greek freedom against Roman domination. In 87 B.C., Sulla's siege of Athens was long and brutal. The population was reduced to eating shoe leather and grass. A delegation was sent to Sulla, but instead of serious negotiations they expounded on the glory of their city. Sulla sent them away saying: I was sent to Athens, not to take lessons, but to reduce rebels to obedience. Sulla's rough battle hardened legions took Athens on 12 February 86 B.C. Blood was said to have literally flowed in the streets, it was only after the entreaties of a couple of his Greek friends and the pleas of the Roman Senators in his camp that Sulla decided enough was enough. Before he left Athens, Sulla burnt the Port of Piraeus to the ground. It was "some time" before Aristion and his followers on the Akropolis eventually surrendered, after their water had run out. Rome's show of vengeance ensured Greece would remain docile during later civil wars and Mithridatic wars.
RR75831. Bronze as, Crawford 348/5, Sydenham 709, BMCRR I Rome 2461, Russo RBW 1326, SRCV I 749, aVF, green patina, weight 10.757 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 87 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Janus, snake entwined cylindrical altar in center; reverse prow of galley right, L RVBRI / DOSSEN in two lines above, I (mark of value) to right, ROMA below; from the Andrew McCabe Collection; $110.00 (96.80)










REFERENCES

Babelon, E. Monnaies de la Republique Romaine. (Paris, 1885).
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Hoover, O.D. Handbook of Coins of Sicily (including Lipara), Civic, Royal, Siculo-Punic, and Romano-Sicilian Issues, Sixth to First Centuries BC. HGC 2. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Russo, R. The RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. (Zurich, 2013).
Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Seaby, H.A., D. Sear, & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989).
Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).

Catalog current as of Monday, May 02, 2016.
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Roman Republic Coins of 99-50 B.C.