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Todi was founded by the ancient Italic people of the Umbri, in the 8th - 7th century BC, with the name of Tutere. The name means "border," it being the city located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a double line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his victory at the Trasimeno. Christianity spread to Todi very early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. Bishop St. Fortunatus became the patron saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the Gothic siege. In Lombard times, Todi was part of the Duchy of Spoleto.SH73969. Bronze hemiobol, HN Italy 37, Campania CNAI 2, SNG Cop 75, SNG ANS 105; BMC Italy p. 39, 1, F, well centered, pitted, flan crack, weight 3.364 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Tuder (Todi, Italy) mint, 280 - 240 B.C.; obverse bearded head of the satyr Silenus (Seilenos) right, wearing ivy wreath; reverse Umbrian: TVTEDE (downward on left, TVT top outward, EDE top inward), eagle standing left, wings spread; rare; $400.00 (€340.00)
Kings of Thrace, Thracian Kainoi, Mostis, c. 126 - 86 B.C.
Mostis, reigned c. 126 - 86 B.C., was king of the Thracian Kainoi (Caeni) tribe in South East Thrace to Strandzha mountain, territory in Bulgaria and Turkey today. He king is best known from his coinage, which includes bronze coins and rare tetradrachms.GB77206. Bronze AE 20, SNG BM 311 - 312, Youroukova 134, SNG Stancomb -, SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, VF, green patina, some light corrosion, weight 4.750 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, c. 126 - 86 B.C.; obversejugate heads of Zeus and Hera right; countermark: monogram; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ / MOΣTI∆OΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, monogram above right; very rare; $400.00 (€340.00)
Syracuse, Sicily, Timoleon, 344 - 336 B.C.
Threatened by Carthage and dominated by Hiketas, the tyrant of Leontini, Syracusans sent an appeal for help to their mother city, Corinth. By a unanimous vote Corinth selected Timoleon to set sail for Sicily with a few leading citizens of Corinth and a small troop of Greek mercenaries. After defeating Hiketas, Timoleon put order to Syracuse' affairs and established a democratic government. He repelled Carthage in several wars, ending with a treaty which divided the island. Timoleon then retired without any title or office, though he remained practically supreme. He became blind before his death, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted. When he died the citizens of Syracuse erected a monument to his memory, afterward surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum.GI83514. Bronze hemidrachm, Calciati II p. 168, 72 st3/7; SNG ANS 477 ff.; SNG Cop 727; HGC 2 1440 (S), VF, green patina, edges earthen encrusted, reverse double struck, weight 15.872 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 90o, Syracuse mint, c. 342 - 338 B.C.; obverse ZEYΣ EΛEYΘEPTOΣ, laureate head of Zeus Eleutherios right; reverse ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, thunderbolt, eagle on right standing right with wings closed; $400.00 (€340.00)
Seleukid Kingdom, Achaios, 220 - 214 B.C.
Achaios was an uncle of Antiochos III. He proclaimed himself King in Anatolia. After a two-year siege of his capital of Sardes, Lydia, he was captured and beheaded.GY76100. Bronze AE 15, Houghton-Lorber I 956 var. (unlisted control symbol), SNG Spaer 834 var. (same), Newell WSM 1442 var. (same), HGC 9 436 (S-R1), VF, nice green patina, weight 3.314 g, maximum diameter 15.3 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 220 - autumn or winter 214 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverseeagle standing right, head right, wings closed, wreath in talons, BAΣIΛEΩΣ / AXAIOY in two flanking downward lines, X (control symbol) outer right; unpublished extremely rare variant; $340.00 (€289.00)
Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleukis and Pieria, Syria
On 11 February 244, Emperor Gordian III was murdered by mutinous soldiers in Zaitha (Mesopotamia). Philip the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus) declared himself emperor and made a disgraceful peace with the Sasanian Empire, withdrawing from their territory and giving Shapur 500,000 gold pieces. The Sasanians occupied Armenia. Philip was recognized by the Roman Senate as Emperor and he nominated his son Philippus, age 6, as Caesar and heir to the throne. He gave his brother Priscus supreme power (rector Orientis) in the Eastern provinces; and began construction of the city of Shahba, Syria in the province of his birth.RY85323. Billontetradrachm, Prieur 321 (1 spec.); McAlee 889 (v. rare); BMC Galatia p. 212, 505, EF, sharp attractive portrait, attractive iridescenttoning, parts of legends weak, areas of some porosity, weight 13.256 g, maximum diameter 27.3 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 1st issue, 244 A.D.; obverse AVTOK K M IOV Λ ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, Radiate, draped and cuirassedbust left, from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC (holder of Tribunitian power), eagle standing slightly left on palm frond, wings open, head left, wreath in beak, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; very rare; $310.00 (€263.50)
Istros, Thrace, c. 280 - 255 B.C.
The obversetype has been variously interpreted as representing the Dioscuri, the rising and setting sun, and the two branches of the river Danube. - Greek Coins and Their Values by David Sear.GS86906. Silver drachm, Dima subgroup VI, 1, pl. XIX, 2 (same obv. die); AMNG I/I 425; SNG Stancomb 148; SNG BM 256 var. (right head inverted); SNG Cop -; BMC Thrace -, VF, toned, flan flaws, flan cracks, weight 4.652 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 90o, Istros (near Istria, Romania) mint, c. 280 - 256/255 B.C.; obverse two facing male heads, left head inverted; reverse IΣTPIH, sea-eagle grasping a dolphin with talons, ΦY (control) below dolphin; $300.00 (€255.00)
Akragas, Sicily, 450 - 440 B.C.
Located on a plateau overlooking Sicily's southern coast, Akragas was founded c. 582 B.C. by colonists from Gela. It grew rapidly, becoming second only to Syracuse in importance on Sicily but was sacked by Carthage in 406 B.C. and never fully recovered. It was renamed Agrigentum after it fell to Rome in 210 B.C.GI76829. Cast bronze trias, Calciati I, p. 143, 1; Westermark Fifth pl. I, 1; SNG Cop 61; SNG ANS 1015; SNG Lloyd 832; HGC 2 126 (R1);, VF, green patina, earthen deposits, some light corrosion, weight 16.186 g, Akragas (Agrigento, Sicily, Italy) mint, 450 - 440 B.C.; cast near tooth-shaped flattened cone form, four pellets on flat top, sea-eagle standing left on one side, crab opposite; rare; $280.00 (€238.00)
Amisos, Pontos, 85 - 65 B.C.
Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of Pontus. The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey.GB85026. Bronze AE 31, SNG BM 1145; SNG Cop 132; SNGvA 55; SNG Stancomb 675; BMC Pontus p. 15, 22; Rec Gen 15; HGC 237 (S), VF, well centered on a broad flan, green patina, porous areas, weight 18.944 g, maximum diameter 30.5 mm, die axis 0o, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, 85 - 65 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverseeagle standing left on thunderbolt, head turned right, wings open, ΩΣ monogram left, AMIΣOY below; scarce; $250.00 (€212.50)
Istros, Thrace, c. 280 - 255 B.C.
The obversetype has been variously interpreted as representing the Dioscuri, the rising and setting sun, and the two branches of the river Danube. - Greek Coins and Their Values by David SearGS86905. Silver drachm, Dima subgroup VI, 1, pl. XIX, 5 (same obv. die); SNG BM 256; AMNG I/I 425 var. (l. head inverted); SNG Stancomb 148 var. (same); SNG Cop -; BMC -, VF, obverse die wear, bumps and marks, edge crack, weight 5.744 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 90o, Istros (near Istria, Romania) mint, c. 280 - 256/255 B.C.; obverse two facing male heads, right head inverted; reverse IΣTPIH, sea-eagle grasping a dolphin with talons, ΦY (control) below; $250.00 (€212.50)
Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria
MON VRB stands for MONETAVRBIS. According to H. R. Baldus this initial issue of coins was minted in Rome. Indeed the portrait style is unmistakably that of the mint of Rome, and even if the coins were actually minted in Antioch, the dies were surely engraved by the Rome mint.SH60149. Billontetradrachm, McAlee 899, Prieur 304, BMC Galatia 507, EF, very sharp, handsome portrait and eagle, double strike evident in obverselegend, minor flan crack, small encrustations,, weight 13.825 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome or Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 244 or 246 A.D.; obverse AYTOK K M IOYΛ ΦIΛIΠΠOY CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞOYCIAC (holder of Tribunitian power), eagle standing facing on ground line, wings open, head and tail left, wreath in beak, S - C (senatus consulto) below wings, MON VRB in exergue; FORVM paid $225 for this coin!; $225.00 (€191.25)
Diadumenian, Mid May - 8 June 218 A.D., Hierapolis, Cyrrhestica, Syria
Modern Membij, was renamed Hierapolis, (Holy City) by Seleucus Nicator and his wife Stratonice when they built a temple for the goddess of fertility and water, Atargatis (dea Syria). The city retained the name Hierapolis for only a few hundred years. Religious ceremonies before Roman times may have included child sacrifice. -- The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and Their Fractions by Michael and Karin PrieurRY85320. Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 947 (43 spec.), Bellinger Syrian 108, SNG Cop -, BMC Galatia -, VF, light toning, attractive style, tight flan, reverse slightly off center, light marks, porous, edge split, weight 13.025 g, maximum diameter 25.2 mm, die axis 180o, Cyrrhestica, Hierapolis-Bambyce (Membij, Syria) mint, Middle May - 8 Jun 218 A.D.; obverse AYT K M OΠEΛ ANTΩEINOC, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EΞ YΠATOC (holder of Tribunitian power, consul), eagle standing facing, wings spread, head right, wreath in beak, lion walking right between eagle's legs; $225.00 (€191.25)
Halikarnassos, Caria, c. 400 - 387 B.C.
Halicarnassus was in southwest Caria on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf. It was famous for the tomb of Mausolus, the origin of the word mausoleum, built between 353 B.C. and 350 B.C., and one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. It was part of the Persian Empire until captured by Alexander the Great at the siege of Halicarnassus in 334 B.C. The site is now occupied in part by the town of Bodrum; but the ancient walls can still be traced round nearly all their circuit, and the position of several of the temples, the theater, and other public buildings can be fixed with certainty.GS86730. Silver drachm, Hecatomnus 5 (A4/P5); SNG Keckman 40; SNG Kayhan 759; BMC Caria p. 102, 3; SNG Cop -, VF, rough, corrosion, lamination defects, weight 3.214 g, maximum diameter 15.5 mm, die axis 0o, Halikarnassos (Bodrum, Turkey) mint, c. 400 - 387 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo facing slightly right; reverseeagle standing right, wings open, AΛIKAP upper left, olive sprig lower right, all within an incuse square; scarce; $225.00 (€191.25)
Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XII
This old Caesarean legion was known at different times as Victrix, Antiquae, Paterna and finally XII Fulminata ('the thunderers'). Its veterans settled (among other places) in Patras in Greece. After fighting without great distinction in the First Jewish Revolt, the legion was transferred to Melitene in Cappadocia, where it remained for several hundred years.RR85202. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/26, Sydenham 1230, BMCRR II East 204, RSC I 41, Sear CRI 365, F, toned, off center, scratches, weight 3.216 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 225o, Patrae(?) mint, autumn 32 - spring 31 B.C.; obverse ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; reverse LEG - XII, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards; $195.00 (€165.75)
When Aristobulus II was murdered by Pompey's party in Judaea (49 B.C.), his sons and daughters found protection with Ptolemaios (Ant. xiv. 7, § 4; B. J. i. 9, § 2). It may be that the national Jewish party at that time depended for support on the Itureans in Chalcis, and perhaps the following statement has reference to that fact: "On the 17th of Adar danger threatened the rest of the Soferim in the city of Chalcis, and it was salvation for Israel" (Meg. Ta'an. xii.).CM85831. Bronze AE 19, Herman 7.c (same inscription var. & countermark); HGC 9 1441 (S) var. (inscription); BMC Galatia p. 279, 2 var. (same); Lindgren III 2130 var. (same), VF, centered on a tight flan; c/m: VF, weight 6.715 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, 85 - 40 B.C.; countermark: c. 36 - 30 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; countermark: bust of Cleopatra VII right in oval punch; reverseeagle flying right, NE monogram between wing and tail, ΠTOΛEMAIO / TETPAPXH / AXP (AX ligate) in three lines below; ex Sayles & Lavender; scarce; $180.00 (€153.00)
Kings of Galatia, Deiotaros, c. 64 - 40 B.C.
Deiotarus was chief of the Celtic Tolistobogii tribe in western Galatia and became King of Galatia. He was a faithful ally of Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, for which he was rewarded by Pompey. Caesar pardoned him for siding with Pompey in the civil war but he was deprived of some of his dominions. After Caesar's death, Mark Antony, for a large payment, publicly announced that, in accordance with instructions left by Caesar, Deiotarus was to resume possession of all the territory of which he had been deprived. When civil war broke out again, Deiotarus supported the anti-Caesarian party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C., he went over to the triumvirs. He retained his kingdom until his death at a very advanced age.GB84653. Bronze AE 18, Arslan K1; RPC I p. 536, 2; SNGvA 6099; HGC 7 775 (R1); BMC Galatia -; SNG Cop -, gVF, glossy dark green patina, slightest porosity, weight 5.923 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 45o, Pessinus (Ballihisar, Turkey) mint, c. 63 - 58 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverseeagle standing left on fulmen (thunderbolt), head right, wings slightly open, monogram (∆HIOTAP) left; rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
Macedonian Kingdom, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, 323 - 301 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Antigonos I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") (382 B.C. - 301 B.C.) was a nobleman, general, and governor under Alexander the Great. Upon Alexander's death in 323 B.C., he established himself as one of the successors and declared himself King in 306 B.C. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus, answered by also proclaiming themselves kings. Antigonus found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all of them. He died in battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C. Antigonus' kingdom was divided up, with Seleucus I Nicator gaining the most. His son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, took Macedon, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by Rome in 168 B.C. -- Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGS84664. Silver drachm, Price 1382, Müller Alexander 612, SNG Cop 887, SNG Alpha Bank 578, SNG Saroglos 705, ADM II series X, SNG Munchen -, VF/gF, nice style, well centered on a tight flan, toned, reverse double struck, scratches and marks, some porosity, weight 4.094 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 180o, Mysia, Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, c. 310 - 301 B.C.; obversehead of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on backless throne, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg drawn back, eagle in extended right hand, lotus tipped long scepter vertical in left hand, forepart of Pegasos left, No monogram under throne; $160.00 (€136.00)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), 2nd Reign, 88 - 80 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Lathyros was king of Egypt three times with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X Alexander. His first reign ended when his mother and co-regent Cleopatra III claimed that he tried to kill her and replaced him with Alexander, her favorite son. Ptolemy IX, replaced the gold sarcophagus of Alexander the Great with a glass one and melted the original to strike gold coinage. The citizens of Alexandria were outraged and he was killed soon after.GP84839. Bronze AE 34, Svoronos 1696 (only 1 specimen), SNG Cop -, SNG Milan -, Weiser -, Hosking -, Noeske -, Malter -, Cox Curium -, F, dark green patina, porous, reverse a little off center, irregular flan with pre-strike casting sprues, weight 16.863 g, maximum diameter 33.7 mm, die axis 0o, Cypriot mint, c. 87 B.C.; obverse diademed and horned head of Zeus-Ammon right; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, two eagles standing left on thunderbolt, petasos with diadem and straps (control symbol) left; extremely rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 May 305 A.D.
In 291, Diocletian signed peace treaties with the kingdoms of Aksum and Nubia.RA85655. Billonantoninianus, Bastien Lyon p. 172, 322 (9 spec.); RIC V-2 28; Cohen VI 151 (2f); Hunter IV, Choice gVF, well centered and struck, attractive portrait, edge crack, earthen deposits, some light very corrosion, weight 3.679 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 45o, 1st officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, emission 7, spring 290 - 291 A.D.; obverse IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, radiatebust left, wearing imperial mantle, globe in right hand; reverse IOVI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, victory on globe in right hand, leaning on long scepter in left hand, eagle at feet left, A in exergue; this type of consular bust is rare for Diocletian; very rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C.
Struck after Alexander the Great's death during the joint reign of Philip III, Alexander's brother, and the infant king Alexander IV, Alexander's son with the Bactrian princess Roxana. The two were made joint kings by Alexander's generals who only intended to use them as pawns. Philip III was imprisoned upon his return to Macedonia, and in 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from Olympias. Alexander IV and his mother Roxana were executed by the boy's regent, Kassander, in 311 B.C. Magnesia also struck nearly identical drachms during this period in the name of Philip. Traditionally coins naming Alexander have been attributed to Alexander III the Great, but the Alexander named on this coin was more likely the infant son of Roxana, Alexander IV.GS76143. Silver drachm, Hersh 107, Price 1946 corr. (thyrsus left), Müller Alexander 663, SNG Cop -, SNG Munchen -, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Saroglos -, VF, light toning, porosity, light corrosion, bumps, light scratches, reverse slightly off center, weight 4.222 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 0o, Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum (near Tekin, Turkey) mint, struck under Menander or Kleito, c. 323 - 319 B.C.; obversehead of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, nude to waist, himation around waist and legs, right leg drawn back, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, thyrsus behind throne (inner right); $150.00 (€127.50)
Macedonian Kingdom, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, 323 - 301 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Antigonos I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") (382 B.C. - 301 B.C.) was a nobleman, general, and governor under Alexander the Great. Upon Alexander's death in 323 B.C., he established himself as one of the successors and declared himself King in 306 B.C. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus, answered by also proclaiming themselves kings. Antigonus found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all of them. He died in battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C. Antigonus' kingdom was divided up, with Seleucus I Nicator gaining the most. His son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, took Macedon, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by Rome in 168 B.C. -- Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaGS84682. Silver drachm, Price 1801, Müller Alexander 1336, SNG Alpha Bank 613, SNG Saroglos 1743, SNG Munchen -, VF, well struck with high relief dies, very light corrosion, scratches, weight 4.199 g, maximum diameter 16.5 mm, die axis 0o, Ionia, Kolophon (near Degirmendere Fev, Turkey) mint, c. 310 - c. 301 B.C.; obversehead of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg drawn back, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, B left, N under throne; $150.00 (€127.50)