, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG II
This may have been II , disbanded by . The well-known II Augusta, which took in the conquest of Britain and was later stationed in South Wales, was one of Octavian's legions, and so not likely to be the Second Legion referred to on this coin. Other Second Legions (Adiutrix, , Parthica and Traiana) were raised much later in imperial times.SH76924. Silver , 544/14, 1216, II East 190, 27, 349, gVF, well struck, , , marks and scratches, 3.521 g, maximum 17.5 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - II, ( ) between two legionary standards; ex Inferior Numismatics; $550.00 (€489.50)
The Temple Tax Coin, KP Tyrian Half , Jerusalem or Tyre Mint, 44 - 45 A.D.
At the Great Temple in Jerusalem the annual tax levied was 1/2 per male. The 1/2 and were the only coins accepted by the temple. Some experts believe that after the coinage of Tyre was debased under Roman control, Herod the Great began to strike "Tyre" shekels in Jerusalem. These coins were of cruder and , but maintained the silver purity required to pay the temple tax. The "Jerusalem" shekels have the letters KP or KAP to the right of the and dates range from PH (18/17 B.C.) to PKE (69/70 A.D.). The Greek letters KP or KAP are probably an abbreviation for , Greek for .
JD79299. Silver half , 4701A (1 spec.), 921 (S), 1619, 358, -, -, -, AUB -, F, centered on a , , 6.358 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 0o, Jerusalem or Tyre mint, 44 - 45 A.D.; laureate of right, lion's skin knotted around neck; TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), standing left, right foot on ship's ram, frond behind, PO (year 170) over club left, KP over (control) right, Phoenician letter beth (control) between legs; $550.00 (€489.50)
Tyre, , 54 - 55 B.C., The Temple Tax Coin
Half - the currency of the Jerusalem Temple
At the Great Temple in Jerusalem the annual tax levied on Jews was 1/2 per male. The 1/2 and were not always used in everyday commerce, but were the only coins accepted by the temple. Many taxpayers required a currency exchange, so money changers set up in the Temple court. Jesus found this business and their shouting (advertising rates) offensive, so he threw over their tables.
JD79300. Silver half , 921 (unreported date - no known specimens), 358, 1619, -, AUB -, F, , slightly off center, shallow pitting, 6.719 g, maximum 22.1 mm, 0o, Tyre, mint, 54 - 55 B.C.; laureate of right, lion's skin knotted around neck; TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), standing left, right foot on ship's ram, frond behind, PΠ (year 180) over club left, AN (?, control) right, Phoenician letter beth (control) between legs; extremely date; $550.00 (€489.50)
The Temple Tax Coin, KP Tyrian Half , Jerusalem or Tyre Mint, 18 B.C. - 69 A.D.
The barbaric with blundered legends and date are typical of the later coins attributed by some experts to Jerusalem.
After the coinage of Tyre was debased under Roman control, some experts believe Herod the Great began to strike "Tyre" shekels in Jerusalem. These coins were of cruder and , but maintained the silver purity required to pay the temple tax. The Jerusalem shekels have the letters KP or KAP to the right of the and dates range from PH (18/17 B.C.) to PKE (69/70 A.D.). The Greek letters KP or KAP are probably an abbreviation for , Greek for .
JD79301. Silver half , 358; 922; 1621; p. 252, 235 ff.; 4681 ff.; 1455 ff., F, , bumps and marks, light corrosion, 6.336 g, maximum 21.9 mm, 0o, Jerusalem or Tyre mint, 18 B.C. - 69 A.D.; laureate of right, lion's skin knotted around neck; TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY, standing left, right foot on ship's ram, frond behind, uncertain date & club left, KP and right, Aramaic letter between legs; $550.00 (€489.50)
Tutere (Tudor), , Italy, 280 - 240 B.C.
Todi was founded by the ancient people of the Umbri, in the 8th - 7th century BC, with the name of Tutere. The name means "border," it being the city located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a double line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his at the Trasimeno. Christianity spread to Todi very early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. St. Fortunatus became the saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the siege. In Lombard times, Todi was of the Duchy of Spoleto.SH73969. Bronze , 37, CNAI 2, 75, 105; p. 39, 1, F, , pitted, , 3.364 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 180o, Tuder (Todi, Italy) mint, 280 - 240 B.C.; bearded of the satyr (Seilenos) right, wearing ivy wreath; Umbrian: TVTEDE (downward on left, TVT top outward, EDE top inward), standing left, wings spread; ; $540.00 (€480.60)
, The Great, 336 - 323 B.C.
Struck during the lifetime of Alexander the Great or very soon after.
SH79674. Silver , 83, 181, Issue E4, Hoard 536 - 578, 673, Reattribution 31, 21, gVF, centered, , 17.156 g, maximum 25.8 mm, Amphipolis(?) mint, struck under Antipater, c. 325 - 323/2 B.C.; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, throne without back and two leg struts, right leg forward (archaic lifetime ), in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, TE lower left, concave ; Obolos (by Nomos) auction 3, lot 120; ex a Swiss collection formed prior to 2005; $520.00 (€462.80)
Kings of , Thracian Kainoi, Mostis, c. 126 - 86 B.C.
Mostis, reigned c. 126 - 86 B.C., was of the Thracian Kainoi (Caeni) tribe in South East to Strandzha mountain, territory in Bulgaria and Turkey today. He is best known from his coinage, which includes bronze coins and tetradrachms.GB77206. Bronze AE 20, Black Sea 311 - 312, 134, -, -, -, VF, green , some light corrosion, 4.750 g, maximum 19.9 mm, c. 126 - 86 B.C.; heads of Zeus and right; : ; BAΣIΛEΩΣ / MOΣTI∆OΣ, standing left on thunderbolt, above right; very ; $500.00 (€445.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been a legion raised by Antony and disbanded by . The XI , an old legion of Caesar's, fought for (and won the title Actiaca at the battle of ).
SL79267. Silver , 544/25, 1229, II East 203, 39, NGC F, strike 3/5, surface 2/5, banker's marks (2400602-008), , 3.48 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XI, ( ) between two legionary standards; NGC certified (slabbed); $500.00 (€445.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XII
This old Caesarean legion was known at different times as , Antiquae, Paterna and finally XII Fulminata ('the thunderers'). Its veterans settled (among other places) in Patras in . After fighting without great distinction in the First Jewish Revolt, the legion was transferred to Melitene in , where it remained for several hundred years.RR76782. Silver , 544/20, 1224, II East 198, 34, VF, , contact marks, , 3.561 g, maximum 19.3 mm, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XII, ( ) between two legionary standards; $450.00 (€400.50)
, The Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue
Lifetime issue. This coin was issued during the lifetime and rule of Alexander the Great. Most Alexander coins were issued after his death.
GS79557. Silver , 2090; 763; 895; 629; 771; -, gVF, , , centered, bumps and marks, 4.004 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 0o, , Miletos mint, 325 - 323 B.C.; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne without back, nude to the waist, around hips and legs, feet on footstool, right leg forward, in extended right hand, long topped with lotus vertical behind in left hand, ∆H left; $450.00 (€400.50)
Seleukid Kingdom, Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C., Tyre,
Minted in Tyre during a period of Seleukid control. The is the same as the for Tyre.
GY79683. Silver , II 2109.5a, 121, HGC9 1074, 2027 var. (control ), 335 var. (same), aEF, light marks, uneven tone, 14.146 g, maximum 29.8 mm, 0o, Tyre mint, 136 - 135 B.C.; diademed and draped of Antiochus right; ANTIOXOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, standing left on prow of galley, left, wings closed, transverse frond on far side over right wing, A/PE over TYP (Tyre) over club left, A/Σ over ZOP (year 177, Z appears as I), (control) between legs; ex Naville Numismatics auction 18 (1 Nov 2015), lot 66; $420.00 (€373.80)
, , 450 - 440 B.C.
Located on a plateau overlooking Sicily's southern coast, was founded c. 582 B.C. by from Gela. It grew rapidly, becoming second only to in importance on , but was sacked by in 406 B.C. and never fully recovered. It was renamed after it fell to Rome in 210 B.C.GI76829. Cast bronze trias, I, p. 143, 1; pl. I, 1; 61; 1015; 832; 126 (R1);, VF, green , earthen deposits, some light corrosion, 16.186 g, mint, 450 - 440 B.C.; cast near tooth-shaped flattened form, four pellets on flat top, sea-eagle standing left on one side, crab opposite; ; $400.00 (€356.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
Struck by Antony and at while preparing for the struggle with . Twenty-three different legions are named on coins of this issue. This may have been the famous V Alaudae ('the larks'), a Caesarean legion which remained loyal to Antony but was later retained by . There are other possibilities, however: V Macedonica, a Caesarean legion about which little is known; V Urbana, disbanded after (and therefore quite likely an Antonian legion); and V Gallica, a Caesarean legion that was probably the one that under Lollius lost its to German raiders in Gaul in 17 B.C.SH77472. Silver , 544/18, 1221, II East 196, 32, 354, VF, , minor flaw on , light scratches, 3.401 g, maximum 17.0 mm, mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT AVG III. VIR. R. P. C., galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - V, legionary between two standards; $375.00 (€333.75)
Roman Republic, , , and Terentius Varro, Proquaestor, 49 B.C.
Gnaeus Magnus (29 Sep 106 B.C. – 29 Sep 48 B.C.), known as , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman . Pompey's immense success as a general while very young enabled him to advance to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a military commander in Sulla's Second Civil War resulted in bestowing the nickname Magnus, "the Great" upon him. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs. In mid-60 B.C., Pompey joined Licinius Crassus and Gaius in the unofficial military-political known as the First Triumvirate, which Pompey's marriage to Caesar's daughter helped secure. After the deaths of and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and then contended for the leadership of the Roman state, leading to a civil war. When Pompey was defeated at the Battle of , he sought refuge in , where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Principate and Empire.
SH77559. Silver , 447/1a; 1033; 3; 8; Spain 64, F, , light tone, 3.603 g, maximum 18.2 mm, 270o, struck by Varro, proquaestor in , 49 B.C.; VARRO•PRO•Q, diademed terminal herm of right; between down and right (on left) and standing left (on right), •PRO COS in two lines in ; $350.00 (€311.50)
Kabyle, , c. 219 - 215 B.C., Civic Issue in the Types and Name of Alexander the Great
The dies for this were also used with dies naming the Gaulish Kavaros. Die wear shows the Alexanderine types followed Kavaros' coinage, indicating this was likely struck during the revolt of the Thracians, which brought about the chieftain's death and the end of Gaulish rule. Kavaros ruled until at least 219 B.C., when he participated in a treaty between and . The compares closely with issues of Dionysopolis, Mesembria, and Odessus.SH69935. Silver , 882a, 845 ff., 399, VF, 16.205 g, maximum 26.9 mm, 0o, Cabyle mint, time of the Thracian Revolt, c. 219 - 215 B; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, right leg drawn back, Demeter standing facing torch in each hand; $330.00 (€293.70)
, Antigonos I Monophthalmos, 320 - 306 B.C., In the Name and Types of Alexander the Great
Antigonos I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") was a nobleman and (general and governor) under Alexander the Great. Upon Alexander's death in 323 B.C., he established himself as one of the successors and declared himself in 306 B.C. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy and , answered by also proclaiming themselves kings. found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all of them. He died in battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C. Antigonus' kingdom was divided up, with Seleucus I Nicator gaining the most. His son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, took Macedon, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by Rome in 168 B.C.SH79282. Silver , cf. 2646 ff., 368, gVF, excellent , well struck on a , off center, light marks and corrosion, 16.729 g, maximum 26.6 mm, 90o, , Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, as of , 318 - 315 B.D.; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, nude to waist, around waist and legs, right foot drawn back, in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left, Γ left, A under throne; nothing ( 2646), a ( 2647), or an ivy leaf ( 2649A) in ; Naville Numismatics Ltd., auction 18, lot 29; $320.00 (€284.80)
, Son of and , 12 February 41 - 11 February 55 A.D., ,
was born in 41 A.D., son of Cladius I and . Although the natural heir to the empire, was passed over in favor of who then had him murdered a year after his fathers' death.SH54008. Bronze AE 17, 2431 (4 specimens), -, , 3.696 g, maximum 16.9 mm, 0o, mint, 50 - 54 A.D.; BPETANNIKOC , of right; AIΓAEΩN EΠI XAΛEOY, Zeus standing left, facing, in right, long behind in left; extremely ; $310.00 (€275.90)
Istros, , Late 5th - 4th Century B.C.
The has been variously interpreted as representing the , the rising and setting sun, and the two branches of the river Danube. - and Their Values by David Sear.GS76336. Silver , Black Sea 230 - 231, -, -, -, -, gVF, areas of light corrosion, some light marks, , 5.561 g, maximum 17.2 mm, 0o, Istros (near Istria, Romania) mint, Late 5th - 4th Century B.C.; Facing male heads, left inverted; IΣTPIH, sea-eagle grasping a with talons, Γ below ; ; $300.00 (€267.00)
, Seleukos, in Babylon, 311 - 306 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Struck in the name of Alexander, this coin also bears the personal badge of Seleukos, an . Seleukos was first appointed in in 320 B.C. but was put to flight by in 315. He returned in 311 only to be forced to evacuate later that year by a counterattack by Antigonus' son, Demetrius. Not long after, however, Seleukos again recovered the city.SH60135. Silver , I 293, 3449 (Marthus), 1512, aVF/F, 16.601 g, maximum 27.0 mm, 225o, uncertain mint, c. 311 - 305 B.C.; of Herakles right, wearing scalp headdress; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne, right leg drawn back, in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, flukes up flanked by ∆ - I in left , under throne; $290.00 (€258.10)
the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria,
stands for . According to H. R. this initial issue of coins was minted in Rome. Indeed the portrait is unmistakably that of the mint of Rome, and even if the coins were actually minted in Antioch, the dies were surely by the Rome mint.SH60149. , 899, 304, 507, EF, 13.825 g, maximum 27.6 mm, 0o, Rome or Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 244 or 246 A.D.; AYTOK K M IOYΛ ΦIΛIΠΠOY CEB, laureate, draped and right, from behind; ∆HMAPC EΞOYCIAC, standing facing on ground line, wings open, and tail left, wreath in beak, below wings, in ; double strike evident in , minor , small encrustations, very , handsome portrait and ; $285.00 (€253.65)
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