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Home>Catalog>CollectingThemes>Gods,Non-Olympian>Sol PAGE 1/3123

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.


Rhodos, Carian Islands, c. 170 - 150 B.C.
Click for a larger photo The c. 3 gram drachm standard on which this coin is struck, used by Rhodes and other Carian cities, is called 'Plinthophoric' for the square incuse around the reverse type (plinthos = brick or ingot). The archaized incuse reverse revived a characteristic more typical of the 5th century B.C.
GS71551. Silver hemidrachm, Jenkins Rhodian, Group B, 54; BMC Caria p. 258, 306; SNG Keckman -; SNG Cop -, VF, weight 1.279 g, maximum diameter 13.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rhodos (Rhodes) mint, magistrate Thrasymenes, c. 170 - 150 B.C.; obverse radiate head of Helios facing slightly right; reverse ΘPAΣYMENΣ, rose with bud to lower right, thunderbolt lower left, P-O flanking across fields, all within incuse square; $150.00 (112.50) ON RESERVE

Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The star in the field, a symbol of the sun-god, stands for the mint of Rome.
RS68509. Silver denarius, RIC IV 28, RSC III 154, SRCV II 7533, gVF, toned, weight 2.681 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 220 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P III COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, star in left field; ex Antioch Associates (San Francisco); $165.00 SALE PRICE $149.00

Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 231, Severus Alexander accompanied his mother Julia Mamaea to Syria and campaigned against the Persians. Military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. The Romans were defeated and withdrew to Syria. After heavy losses on both sides, a truce was signed accepting the status quo. In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to commemorate his "victory."
RB63745. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 511, BMCRE VI 742, Cohen 413, gVF, nice patina, weight 19.982 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 231 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder and back; reverse P M TR P X COS III P P, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00

Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 315, immense baths were constructed in Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier).
RB71555. Bronze follis, RIC VII Trier 105, Choice EF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand, globe in left, T- F across fields, BTR in ex; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00

Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
Click for a larger photo During Gordian's reign, the Roman Empire was threatened on multiple fronts. In 238, Goths from Ukraine crossed the Danube and devastated the Roman Empire up to the border with Anatolia. In 240, Africa revolted. Also in 240, Franks from northwest Germania raided the Rhine frontier. In 242, the cities of the Cimmerian Bosporus were evacuated because Goths controlled the territory.
RB65147. Bronze as, RIC IV 297a, Cohen 44, SRCV III 8773, VF, well centered, weight 10.483 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 4th issue, 241 - 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse AETERNITATI AVG S C, Sol standing slightly right, head left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left; $125.00 SALE PRICE $113.00

Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 234, the year this coin was struck, Alexander and his mother Julia Mamaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Germania Superior. His generals planned a military offensive and built a bridge across the Rhine. Alexander, however, preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the Alemanni. This outraged legionaries who, on 18 March 235 murdered Alexander and his mother, ending the Severan Dynasty.
RB68910. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 538d, BMCRE 593, Cohen 449, SRCV 8004, gF, well centered on a tight flan, weight 15.532 g, maximum diameter 30.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 234 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P XIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S - C across fields; $125.00 SALE PRICE $113.00

Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 318, Constantine the Great given the title Brittanicus Maximus for successful engagements in Britain. The details of the battles are unknown.
RL90502. Bronze AE 3, RIC VII Trier 162 (R4), Nice EF, perfect centering, legend not fully struck (filled die?), weight 2.926 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 210o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 317 - 318 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, F - T at sides, ATR in ex; very rare; $125.00 SALE PRICE $113.00

Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 277, Probus entered Rome to have his position as Emperor ratified by the Senate.
RB29519. Bronze antoninianus, RIC V 351 var (bust type), aVF, weight 3.197 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 0o, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 277 A.D.; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG, radiate nude heroic bust left, aegis across shoulder and spear in right hand; reverse CONSERVAT AVG, Sol standing slightly right, radiate, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, TXXT in exergue; very rare; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00

Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Oriens is Latin for "east." Literally it means "rising" from orior, "rise." The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms "Levant" (French levant "rising"), "Anatolia" (Greek anatole), "mizrahi" in Hebrew (from "zriha" meaning sunrise), "sharq" in Arabic, and others. The Chinese pictograph for east is based on the sun rising behind a tree and "The Land of the Rising Sun" to refers to Japan. Also, many ancient temples, including the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, were built with their main entrances facing the East. To situate them in such a manner was to "orient" them in the proper direction. When something is facing the correct direction, it is said to have the proper "orientation."
RS52118. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 63, VF, weight 4.558 g, maximum diameter 24.50 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 274 - 275 AD; obverse IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVG, Sol standing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, foot on captive left, captive right, officina number VI in right field, XXI* in ex; near full silvering remaining; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00

Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to observe his "victory" the previous year over the Persians. He was forced to leave for the Rhine frontier, where the Alamanni had invaded Swabia. German tribes destroyed Roman forts and plundered the countryside at the Limes Germanicus.
RB57197. Bronze sestertius, RIC IV 535, BMCRE VI 932, Cohen 442, SRCV II 8003, VF, weight 20.229 g, maximum diameter 30.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 233 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P XII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S - C across fields; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00



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Catalog current as of Thursday, November 27, 2014.
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Sol