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Home>Catalog>Themes&Provenance>Gods,Non-Olympian>SolPAGE 1/3123
Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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In 315, immense baths were constructed in Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier).
RB71998. Billon follis, RIC VII Trier 105, SRCV IV 16063, Cohen VII 525, Choice EF, weight 3.551 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder and arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in extended left, T- F across fields, BTR in exergue; $180.00 (156.60)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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In 318, Constantine was given the title Brittanicus Maximus for victories in Britain. The details of the battles are unknown.
RL71415. Billon follis, RIC VII 164, SRCV IV 16083, Cohen -, Nice VF, attractive green patina with red earthen highlighting, weight 3.616 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 315o, 1st officina, Arelatum (Arles, France) mint, 318 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for cloak over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, P star in crescent A in exergue; scarce; $175.00 (152.25)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. It is commonly claimed that the date of 25 December for Christmas was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, or "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
SH71416. Billon follis, RIC VII Lugdunum 35 (R4), SRCV IV 16069, Cohen VII -, VF, nice armored bust left, sea green patina, light scratches, weight 3.142 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 314 - 316 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust left; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, TF left, star right, PLG in exergue; very rare; $175.00 (152.25)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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On 25 July 315, The Arch of Constantine was completed near the Colosseum at Rome to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. As part of the ceremony Constantine was expected to make a sacrifice to Rome's traditional gods, but he refused to do so. Also in 315, Constantine abolishied crucifixion as punishment and established a new program of assistance to the poor.
RL72420. Billon follis, RIC VII Lyons 17, SRCV IV 16067, EF, attractive style, good strike, weight 3.648 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 314 - 315 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, T - F flanking at sides, PLG in exergue; $170.00 (147.90)


Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.

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The star in the field, a symbol of the sun-god, stands for the mint of Rome.
RS68509. Silver denarius, RSC III 154, RIC IV 28, SRCV II 7533, gVF, toned, weight 2.681 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 220 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P III COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, star in left field; ex Antioch Associates (San Francisco); $165.00 (143.55)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to observe his "victory" the previous year over the Persians. He was forced to leave for the Rhine frontier, where the Alamanni had invaded Swabia. German tribes destroyed Roman forts and plundered the countryside at the Limes Germanicus.
RB71744. Bronze as, SRCV II 8091, RIC IV 543, BMCRE VI 966, Cohen IV 455, Choice aVF, excellent portrait and centering, Sol's head flatly struck, weight 10.435 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 235 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S - C across fields; $160.00 (139.20)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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In 231, Severus Alexander accompanied his mother Julia Mamaea to Syria and campaigned against the Persians. Military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. The Romans were defeated and withdrew to Syria. After heavy losses on both sides, a truce was signed accepting the status quo. In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to commemorate his "victory."
RB63745. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 511, BMCRE VI 742, Cohen IV 413, gVF, nice patina, weight 19.982 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 231 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder and back; reverse P M TR P X COS III P P, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left; $150.00 (130.50)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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This coin was struck in 314 AD. Anno Domini (AD) year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome in 525. In Roman times, the dominant method of identifying Roman years was to name the two consuls who held office that year. The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years. The year 314 AD was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rufius and Annianus. Imagine how difficult it would be to use the Roman system. If someone was born in Kennedy year 2, could you determine how old they are now by adding up the number of years each president served since then? Most Romans did not know their own age.
RL71418. Billon follis, RIC VII Rome 19, SRCV IV 16096, Cohen VII -, Choice gVF, attractive style, weight 2.679 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 315o, 1st officina, Rome mint, 314 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, R - F flanking at sides, R*P in exergue; $145.00 (126.15)


Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.

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Ticinum was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. In 476, Odoacer defeated Flavius Orestes at Ticinum after a long siege. To punish the city for helping his rival, Odoacer destroyed it completely. After the Lombard's conquest, Pavia became the capital of their kingdom, 568 - 774.
RA70549. Silvered antoninianus, BnF XII.1 p. 186, 632; Gbl MIR 78Ab3; RIC V 152; Cohen VI 183; SRCV III 11587, Choice gVF, weight 4.655 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4th emission, late 274 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PROVIDEN DEOR (foresight of the gods), Fides on left holding standard in each hand, facing Sol, standing left, raising his right hand commanding the sun to rise and holding globe in left; TXXT in ex; $140.00 (121.80)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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The word comiti, during imperial times indicated a minister of the emperor. Even the two consuls where called "comites." The legend therefore reads: "to the unconquered Sun, minister [of Constantine]."
RL71417. Billon follis, RIC VII Rome 27, SRCV IV 16097, Cohen VII -, Choice VF, perfect centering, Sol's head struck a bit flat, weight 3.181 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 314 - 315 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, extending globe in left, R over X left, F right, R Q in exergue; $135.00 (117.45)




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Catalog current as of Wednesday, May 27, 2015.
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Sol