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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Gods, Non-Olympian ▸ SolView Options:  |  |  |     

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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In 318, Constantine was given the title Brittanicus Maximus for victories in Britain. The details of the battles are unknown.
RL71415. Billon follis, RIC VII 164, SRCV IV 16083, Cohen VII 536, Nice VF, attractive green patina with red earthen highlighting, weight 3.616 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 315o, 1st officina, Arelatum (Arles, France) mint, 318 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for cloak over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, P star in crescent in exergue; scarce; $175.00 (154.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. It is commonly claimed that the date of 25 December for Christmas was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, or "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
SH71416. Billon follis, RIC VII Lugdunum 35 (R4), SRCV IV 16069, Cohen VII -, VF, nice armored bust left, sea green patina, light scratches, weight 3.142 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 314 - 316 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust left; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, TF left, star right, PLG in exergue; very rare; $175.00 (154.00)


Florianus, June or July - August or September 276 A.D.

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Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.
RA73897. Bronze antoninianus, MER-RIC 4511 (6 spec.), BnF XII - (not in the collection but noted p. 408), RIC V -, Hunter IV -, SRCV III -, Venra Hoard II -, VF, well centered and struck, green patina, scratches, weight 3.027 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, issue 2, Aug 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AN FLORIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PROVIDEN DEOR (foresight of the gods), Fides Militum on left, standing right, holding two flanking standards, one in each hand; Sol on right, standing left, raising right hand commanding sunrise, globe behind in left, star low between the figures, Γ in exergue; very rare; $175.00 (154.00)


Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.

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Sear identifies this denomination for Aurelian as either an as or a reduced sestertius. The as (or reduced sestertius) is a very scarce denomination this late in the empire.
RA76203. Bronze as, MER-RIC 1871, Gbl MIR 145d0(1), BnF XII 297, Hunter IV 33, SRCV III 11646, RIC V 80 var. (officina number), Hunter IV 27 var. (4th officina), VF, well centered, nice green patina, flan crack, weight 6.041 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina(?), Rome mint, issue 11, early - September 275; obverse IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA AVG, Emperor and empress clasping hands, above and between them a radiate and draped bust of Sol right; $175.00 (154.00)


Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.

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Crispus' earliest issue. On 1 March 317, Constantine the Great and co-emperor Licinius elevated their sons Crispus, Constantine II (still an baby) and Licinius II to Caesars. After this arrangement Constantine ruled the dioceses Pannonia and Macedonia, and established his residence at Sirmium, from where he prepared a campaign against the Goths and Sarmatians.
RL76319. Billon reduced follis, RIC VII London 115 (R2), SRCV IV 16718, Cohen VII 136, Choice EF, excellent centering and strike, some die wear, weight 3.243 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Londinium (London, England) mint, 1st issue, 1 Mar - end 317 A.D.; obverse CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, S - P across fields, PLN in exergue; scarce; $175.00 (154.00)


Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.

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The star in the field, a symbol of the sun-god, stands for the mint of Rome.
RS68509. Silver denarius, RSC III 154, RIC IV 28, SRCV II 7533, gVF, toned, weight 2.681 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 220 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P III COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, star in left field; ex Antioch Associates (San Francisco); $165.00 (145.20)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to observe his "victory" the previous year over the Persians. He was forced to leave for the Rhine frontier, where the Alamanni had invaded Swabia. German tribes destroyed Roman forts and plundered the countryside at the Limes Germanicus.
RB71744. Bronze as, SRCV II 8091, RIC IV 543, BMCRE VI 966, Cohen IV 455, Choice aVF, excellent portrait and centering, Sol's head flatly struck, weight 10.435 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 235 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left, S - C across fields; $160.00 (140.80)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. It is commonly claimed that the date of 25 December for Christmas was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, or "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
RL77001. Billon follis, RIC VII Trier 105, SRCV IV 16063, Cohen VII 525, Choice EF, superb style, excellent centering and strike, nice green patina, weight 3.287 g, maximum diameter 20.25 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder and arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in extended left, T- F across fields, BTR in exergue; $150.00 (132.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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Coins of this issue normally weight 4 - 5 grams. This type with the same mintmark and controls was also struck 313 - 315 A.D. but on a lighter standard. This coin is a little light for the early issue but the style is correct for 310 - 313 A.D.
RL77134. Billon follis, RIC VI Treveri 872, SRCV IV 16060, Cohen VII 525, Choice EF, well centered, excellent portrait, some areas with porosity, weight 4.086 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 310 - 313 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing slightly left left, radiate, nude but for cloak over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, T - F divided across field, PTR in exergue; $150.00 (132.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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This coin was struck in 314 AD. Anno Domini (AD) year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome in 525. In Roman times, the dominant method of identifying Roman years was to name the two consuls who held office that year. The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years. The year 314 AD was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rufius and Annianus. Imagine how difficult it would be to use the Roman system. If someone was born in Kennedy year 2, could you determine how old they are now by adding up the number of years each president served since then? Most Romans did not know their own age.
RL71418. Billon follis, RIC VII Rome 19, SRCV IV 16096, Cohen VII 536, Choice gVF, attractive style, weight 2.679 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 315o, 1st officina, Rome mint, 314 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing slightly left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, R - F flanking at sides, R*P in exergue; $145.00 (127.60)




    



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Catalog current as of Saturday, February 13, 2016.
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