Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB72290. Bronze AE 17, 650; 46; 613 var (divided ); p. 131, 12 var (same), VF, green , 3.570 g, maximum 17.1 mm, 225o, Arpi mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; ; $200.00 (€176.00)
of Tanit / horse types were likely struck at many different mints in the Punic realm. The of this particular , which was struck in Italy during the Second Punic War, is very atypical. Robinson suggested Locri as the possible mint, noting similarity between the of Tanit on this and on Locri bronzes.GB72269. Bronze AE 19, cf. 373; , p. 53, 5(c) and pl. VII, 5 (Locri), F, green , scratches, 6.491 g, maximum 19.6 mm, 315o, , Lokri Epizephrioi(?) mint, under Hannibal, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain; horse right, no letters or ; ; $180.00 (€158.40)
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20, 650; 46; 613; p. 131, 12, F, 3.792 g, maximum 20.0 mm, 270o, Arpi mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; of right, wearing Corinthian helmet; APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; ; $170.00 (€149.60)
, , , Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
on an earlier Siculo-Punic bronze, with of Tanit / horse with behind. The male image lacks signs of a deity and may be one of the leaders of the Punic forces.GB65846. Bronze AE 17, 121 (also on 109 - 119), VF, , 2.576 g, maximum 17.3 mm, 315o, Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; youthful male left between two stalks of grain; : of Tanit left; horse galloping to right; : horse standing right, tree behind in background; ; $160.00 (€140.80)
, , 221 - 210 B.C.
GB90106. Bronze AE 21, 106e; pl. 4, 90; 309 ff. var (different Punic letter); 6518 var (same), gF, 6.816 g, maximum 20.9 mm, 0o, mint, 221 - 210 B.C.; of Tanit left, wreathed in grain; horse standing right, turned back, right foreleg raised, Punic letter gimel below; During the period this coin was struck Rome fought two major wars simultaneously: the First Macedonian War against Philip V and the Second Punic War against Hannibal. Rome would later be victorious in both conflicts and emerge as the sole superpower in the Mediterranean.; $125.00 (€110.00)
Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to , and then to , before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or , but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.GB65641. Bronze AE 16, 126, 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), 1626 ff., 897, 15, aVF, rough, nice green , 5.015 g, maximum 15.9 mm, 270o, or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; male left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; free horse prancing right, short below rear hooves, linear ; $85.00 (€74.80)
, , 201 - 175 B.C.
In 195, a Spanish revolt against Roman consolidation of the ex-Carthaginian colonies was put down by Porcius Cato ("the Censor"). He avoided one defeat by paying the Celtiberians 200 talents (around 120,000 ), a much-criticised tactic. On Cato's return to Rome, Aemilius Paulus succeeded him as Roman governor in Spain.GB73373. Bronze trishekel, 409 ff. (various ), aF, porous, flaw, 17.254 g, maximum 27.9 mm, 0o, mint, 201 - 175 B.C.; of Tanit left, wreathed in grain; horse striding right, Punic letter(?) below; large 28mm bronze; $80.00 (€70.40)
Sardinia, Punic Rule, 241 - 238 B.C.
After the Roman fleet decisively defeated the Carthaginian fleet in 241 B.C., ending the First Punic War, was forced to agree to abandon all claims on , to refrain from sailing warships in Italian waters, and to pay an indemnity of 3,200 talents. In 238 B.C., Rome declared war on demanding control of Sardinia. To avoid war, abandoned Sardinia.GB65898. Bronze AE 19, I 1106; VII 252; 645 - 646, F, pitted, crude , 3.748 g, maximum 22.2 mm, 225o, Sardinian mint, c. 264 - 241 B.C.; of Tanit wreathed in barley left; three barley stalks, pellet in crescent with horns downward above; $70.00 (€61.60)
, , , c. 400 - 350 B.C.
By 400 B.C., was obsessed with taking . Over the next sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. In 398, Dionysius took the Carthaginian stronghold of Motya. Himilco responded by retaking Motya and capturing Messina. Himilco then laid siege to itself. He was close to success in 397, but in 396 a plague ravaged the Carthaginian forces and they collapsed. The fighting swung in favor of in 387. After winning a naval battle off Catania, Himilco laid siege to with 50,000 Carthaginians, but yet another epidemic struck down thousands of them. Dionysius' surprise counterattack destroyed all the Carthaginian ships while most of the men were ashore. At the same time, his ground forces stormed the besiegers' lines. Himilco and his chief officers abandoned their army and fled to in disgrace. He was very badly received and later committed suicide by starving himself. By 340 B.C., had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island.GB66999. Bronze AE 14, I 1022 ff., 95 ff., MAA 15, F, rough, nice green , 3.525 g, maximum 14.1 mm, 315o, Sicilian(?) mint, c. 400 - 350 B.C.; of Tanit left wearing wreath of grain and pendant necklace; unbridled horse galloping right; $70.00 (€61.60)
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