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Home>Catalog>GreekCoins>Geographic-AllPeriods>NorthAfrica>Carthage PAGE 1/212»»»

Carthage

Carthage, located in North Africa on the Gulf of Tunis, established a hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the Mediterranean, North Africa and what is now Spain. Carthage was in a constant state of struggle with the Roman Republic, which led to a series of conflicts known as the Punic Wars. The Third Punic War ended in the complete destruction of the city of Carthage, the annexation by Rome of all remaining Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire population of Carthage.Carthagian Empire Map


Carthage, Zeugitana, 2nd Punic War, 215 - 205 B.C.
Click for a larger photo Most of the Carthaginian quarter shekels were almost certainly struck at Carthage and directly exported to Hannibal via Bruttian ports. Some rare examples, such as this coin, are of a different style and believed to have been struck in southwest Italy, probably in Bruttium. Hoard evidence indicates that the variety circulated at Tarentum, and issues began before 209 B.C.
SH70871. Silver 1/4 Shekel, Robinson Second p. 53, 3; SNG Cop VIII 369; HN Italy 2020, EF, nice style, obverse a little off center, scratch on horse, weight 2.052 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 0o, Italian (Brettian?) mint, 2nd Punic War, 215 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit-Demeter left, wreathed with grain, wearing necklace and pendant earring; reverse free horse standing right on ground line, linear border; ex Ancient Imports; rare; $630.00 (€472.50)

Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Second Punic War, c. 215 - 205 B.C.
Click for a larger photo
The Second Punic War, 218 - 201 B.C., is most remembered for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, followed by his crushing victories over Rome in the battle of the Trebia, at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. After these defeats, many Roman allies joined Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. More capable in siegecraft, the Romans recaptured all the major cities that had defected. The Romans defeated an attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus and, in Iberia, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the Battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa where Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, resulting in the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.Battle of Lake Trasimene 217 BC
SH67737. Billon tridrachm, Coin Hoards IX, group 4 (flan cast in a double-sided mold), 97 - 239; cf. Alexandropoulos 44; SNG Cop 190, Müller Afrique 104, SRCV 6494, VF, corrosion on reverse right edge, weight 10.876 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, triple-pendant earing, and necklace with many pendants; reverse unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background; scarce; $250.00 (€187.50)

Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Second Punic War, c. 215 - 205 B.C.
Click for a larger photo
The Second Punic War, 218 - 201 B.C., is most remembered for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, followed by his crushing victories over Rome in the battle of the Trebia, at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. After these defeats, many Roman allies joined Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. More capable in siegecraft, the Romans recaptured all the major cities that had defected. The Romans defeated an attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the Battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa where Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, resulting in the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.The Battle of Cannae 215 B.C.
SH67739. Billon tridrachm, Coin Hoards IX, group 4 (flan cast in a double-sided mold), 97 - 239; cf. Alexandropoulos 44; SNG Cop 190, Müller Afrique 104, SRCV 6494, VF, weight 11.102 g, maximum diameter 28.1 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, triple-pendant earing, and necklace with many pendants; reverse unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background; scarce; $250.00 (€187.50)

Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Second Punic War, c. 215 - 205 B.C.
Click for a larger photo
The Second Punic War, 218 - 201 B.C., is most remembered for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, followed by his crushing victories over Rome in the battle of the Trebia, at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. After these defeats, many Roman allies joined Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. More capable in siegecraft, the Romans recaptured all the major cities that had defected. The Romans defeated an attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus and, in Iberia, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the Battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa where Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, resulting in the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.The Battle of Trebia
SH67740. Billon tridrachm, Coin Hoards IX, group 3, 51 - 76; Alexandropoulos 44a; Müller Afrique 104; SNG Cop 190 var (no pellet); SRCV II 6494 var (same), aVF, minor flan flaw on reverse (circle on horse), weight 10.884 g, maximum diameter 27.2 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, pellet on leaf, triple-pendant earing, and necklace with many pendants; reverse unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background, pellet below horse's belly forward of the palm trunk; scarce; $250.00 (€187.50)

Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Second Punic War, c. 215 - 205 B.C.
Click for a larger photo
The Second Punic War, 218 - 201 B.C., is most remembered for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, followed by his crushing victories over Rome in the battle of the Trebia, at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. After these defeats, many Roman allies joined Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. More capable in siegecraft, the Romans recaptured all the major cities that had defected. The Romans defeated an attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus and, in Iberia, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the Battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa where Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, resulting in the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.Hannibal's route of invasion
SH67741. Billon tridrachm, Coin Hoards IX, group 3 (single-pendant earring variety), 77 - 96; cf. Alexandropoulos 44; SNG Cop 190; Müller Afrique 103; SRCV II 6494, VF, struck with a worn obverse die, slightly porous, weight 9.135 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, hair wreathed with grain, wearing necklace and single-pendant earring; reverse unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background, no pellet; scarce; $250.00 (€187.50)

Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Click for a larger photo Overstruck on an earlier Siculo-Punic bronze, with head of Tanit / horse with palm behind. The male image lacks signs of a deity and may be one of the leaders of the Punic forces.
GB65846. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 121 (also overstruck on type SNG Cop 109 - 119), VF, overstruck, weight 2.576 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 315o, West Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; obverse youthful male head left between two stalks of grain; undertype: head of Tanit left; reverse horse galloping to right; undertype: horse standing right, palm tree behind in background; rare; $200.00 (€150.00)

Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Click for a larger photo The head on this type is often identified as the female goddess Tanit. It is apparently a male head (Carthaginian men wore earrings). The style of the type varies, perhaps indicating different mints, and some of the heads do look feminine.
GB68302. Bronze AE 16, Viola CNP 126, SNG Cop VIII 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), SNG München 1626 ff., SNG Morcom 897, Alexandropoulos 15, Choice gVF, nice green patina, weight 4.058 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 135.0o, Carthage or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; obverse male head left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; reverse free horse prancing right, short exergual line below rear hooves, linear border; $170.00 (€127.50)

Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Click for a larger photo The head on this type is often identified as the female goddess Tanit. It is apparently a male head (Carthaginian men wore earrings). The style of the type varies, perhaps indicating different mints, and some of the heads do look feminine.
GB69010. Bronze AE 16, Viola CNP 126, SNG Cop VIII 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), SNG München 1626 ff., SNG Morcom 897, Alexandropoulos 15, VF, weight 4.010 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 180o, Carthage or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; obverse male head left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; reverse free horse prancing right, short exergual line below rear hooves, linear border; $135.00 (€101.25)

Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, c. 400 - 350 B.C.
Click for a larger photo By 400 B.C., Carthage was obsessed with taking Sicily. Over the next sixty years, Carthaginian and Greek forces engaged in a constant series of skirmishes. In 398, Dionysius took the Carthaginian stronghold of Motya. Himilco responded by retaking Motya and capturing Messina. Himilco then laid siege to Syracuse itself. He was close to success in 397, but in 396 a plague ravaged the Carthaginian forces and they collapsed. The fighting swung in favor of Carthage in 387. After winning a naval battle off Catania, Himilco laid siege to Syracuse with 50,000 Carthaginians, but yet another epidemic struck down thousands of them. Dionysius' surprise counterattack destroyed all the Carthaginian ships while most of the men were ashore. At the same time, his ground forces stormed the besiegers' lines. Himilco and his chief officers abandoned their army and fled to Carthage in disgrace. He was very badly received and later committed suicide by starving himself. By 340 B.C., Carthage had been pushed entirely into the southwest corner of the island.
GB66998. Bronze AE 17, Alexandropoulos 18, SNG Cop 109 ff., Müller Afrique 163, SGCV II 6444, VF, earthen encrustation, weight 3.166 g, maximum diameter 14.6 mm, die axis 315o, Sicilian(?) mint, c. 400 - 350 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, triple-pendant earing, and necklace with many pendants; reverse unbridled horse right, date palm tree in center background, three pellets forming a triangle right; $105.00 (€78.75)

Siculo-Punic, Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
Click for a larger photo Before it was incoporated within the Persian Empire in the 370s B.C., Tyre was the economic and political hub of the Phoenician world. Supremacy passed to Sidon, and then to Carthage, before Tyre's destruction by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Each colony paid tribute to either Tyre or Sidon, but neither had actual control. The Carthaginians, however, appointed their own magistrates to rule the towns and took much direct control. This policy would result in a number of Iberian towns siding with the Romans during the Punic Wars.
GB65641. Bronze AE 16, Viola CNP 126, SNG Cop VIII 96 ff. (=SNG Cop I 1022 ff.), SNG München 1626 ff., SNG Morcom 897, Alexandropoulos 15, aVF, rough, nice green patina, weight 5.015 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 270o, Carthage or Sicilian mint, late 4th - early 3rd century B.C.; obverse male head left, wreathed in grain, wearing hoop earring; reverse free horse prancing right, short exergual line below rear hooves, linear border; $95.00 (€71.25)



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REFERENCES

Alexandropoulos, J. Les monnaies de l'Afrique antique: 400 av. J.-C. - 40 ap. J.-C. (Toulouse, 2000).
Burgos, A. La moneda hispanica desde sus origenes hasta el siglo V. (Madrid, 2008)
Calciati, R. Corpus Nummorum Siculorum. The Bronze Coinage, Vol. I - III. (Milan, 1983 - 1987).
Jenkins, G.K. Coins of Punic Sicily. (Zürich, 1997).
Jenkins, G.K. and R.B. Lewis. Carthaginian Gold and Electrum Coins. (London, 1963).
Meadows, A and U. Wartenburg. Coin Hoards Volume IX, Greek Hoards. (London, 2002).
Müller, L. et. al. Numismatique de l’ancienne Afrique. (Copenhagen, 1860-1862).
Sear, David. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume V, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. (London. 1962 - 1969).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum. (Copenhagen, 1942-1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume IX, British Museum, Part 2: Spain. (London, 2002).
Villaronga, Leandre. Corpus Nvmmvm Hispaniae Anti Avgvsti Aetatem. (Madrid, 1994).

Catalog current as of Tuesday, September 02, 2014.
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Carthage